Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 938
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Ronsmans C - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Studies examining the associations between short birth spacing and child mortality have often concentrated on the strength of the associations whilst the public health importance of short spacing in specific communities has received less attention. This study re-examines the association between short birth intervals and child mortality in rural ...
Van den Broeck J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine maternal factors related to child survival in the rural area of Bwamanda, Northern Zaire. METHODS: A prospective study of 30-months mortality was carried out in a cohort of 776 children aged 0-3 months, obtained by random cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria were exclusive breastfeeding, no ...
Seaman J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Although endemic in parts of southern Sudan, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) had not been reported in Western Upper Nile (WUN) until an epidemic was confirmed in 1989. A combination of circumstances created conditions for transmission among a population of mainly Nuer and Dinka people who had no immunity. The civil ...
Amankwaa A A - - 1996
This study examines the role of marriage form in infant mortality and tests the relative effects and mechanisms through which polygyny affects infant survival. A sample of infants born in the 5 years preceding the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. A causal model was constructed and polygyny ...
Wahab A - - 1996
Consanguineous marriages in two population samples, one rural and one urban, from Swat (Pakistan) were studied. The frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 37.13% and 31.11%, and mean inbreeding coefficients were calculated as 0.0168 and 0.0162, for the rural and urban populations respectively. The most frequent type of ...
Pandey H - - 1996
"Many authors [have] pointed out that analysis of open birth interval (the period elapsed from the last live birth till the date of the survey) could be of great interest to study the process of human reproduction, because it directly exhibits changes in fertility due to recent use of contraception ...
McBean G - - 1996
The English-speaking Caribbean consists of some fifteen countries, with a population of just over 6 million. The countries including Suriname are united under CARICOM, (the Caribbean Economic Community) and share a common education system. The area is characterised by low infant mortality rates (averaging less than 20/1000 live births) and ...
Amin R - - 1996
The study, which is based on data from a household level health survey conducted in early 1993 in the rural areas of the districts of Western Area and Port Loko of Sierra Leone, examines the coverage of an Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), infant and child mortality, and disease symptoms ...
Arntzen A - - 1996
BACKGROUND: This study examines whether the association between maternal educational level and postneonatal death has changed over time. METHODS: All single survivors of the neonatal period in Norway in three periods, 1968-1971, 1978-1981 and 1989-1991 were studied. There were 582 046 births and 1717 postneonatal deaths. Logistic regression analyses were ...
Sterc S - - 1996
The authors examine historical and current population dynamics in Croatia. "The demographic structure of Croatia indicates a series of specificities which were primarily conditioned by the historical development of Croatia and which is particularly expressed in constant emigration since the end of the nineteenth century, the relatively large direct and ...
Rahman M M - - 1996
This paper examines the association between infant mortality of the first born and subsequent children using data from rural Bangladesh collected during the period 1971-82. It shows that birth spacing and age of mother at the time of the second birth are important predictors of the survival status of the ...
Liu G G - - 1996
This paper is the first to present a Chinese general fertility model that simultaneously controls for the endogeneity of infant mortality and per capita income determination at county level. Using the 1982 Chinese population census data, comprising 2305 observational units, this analysis improves on existing studies in several ways. First, ...
Garner P - - 1996
This cross-sectional study of women was conducted in a deprived area of Papua New Guinea with an estimated infant mortality rate of 133/1000 live births. Mortality patterns derived from birth histories showed that neonatal deaths contribute proportionally more to infant mortality than postneonatal deaths, emphasizing the need for better care ...
Ren X S - - 1996
From retrospective survey reports 1985-87, the study examined the determinants of neonatal and post-neonatal survival in three provinces in China. Conditional logistic regression models were employed to estimate the effects of macro- and micro-level factors (such as socioeconomic conditions, familial relationships, as well as biosocial determinants) on the survivorship of ...
Pennington R L - - 1996
The archaeological record indicates large increases in human population coincident with the emergence of food production about 10,000 years ago. The cause of the growth is unclear. Extreme views attribute the change to increases in the birth rate or to decreases in the death rate. Many argue that sedentism led ...
Zahid G M - - 1996
"The paper examines the mother's health-seeking behaviour and childhood mortality in Pakistan. This is based on the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (PDHS).... It was found that neonatal, infant, and child mortality rate is the highest among children of mothers aged less than 20 years. Infant and child mortality ...
Ibrahim M M - - 1996
A cohort study of mortality among under-5-year-olds was carried out in two Somali villages in 1987-89, a period of economic and political collapse in the rural parts of the country. Analysed was the relative importance of the social characteristics for under-5-year-old mortality against a background of deteriorating political and economic ...
Bloland P - - 1996
Developing nations in sub-Saharan Africa experience childhood mortality rates that are much higher than any other region of the world. In a rural Malawian community we investigated risk factors for deaths occurring during the neonatal (birth-28 days), postneonatal (29-365 days), infant (birth-365 days), and second-year (366-730 days) periods among a ...
Kieffer Edith C. - - 1996
PURPOSE OF THE PAPER: This study provides baseline information on the characteristics of Native Hawaiian mothers and the health status of their infants, comparing residents of Hawaii with those of the continental U.S. The impact of Hawaii residence on low birth weight and infant mortality among Native Hawaiians is assessed. ...
Hoque A - - 1996
This study describes the patterns of birth related practices amongst women from an urban slum population in Dhaka city during December 1988 to May 1989. A household census identified all resident women of childbearing age in Rajabazar ward of Dhaka city. Of the 1017 women so identified, 289 women who ...
Brandstrom A - - 1996
"This essay presents tentative findings for the Sundsvall area of Sweden, which is being studied in a recent project on the decline of infant and childhood mortality in the Nordic countries. The focus is on the complete reproductive histories of single mothers and the life expectancies among infants born to ...
Khawaja K Z - - 1996
"This study aims at producing acceptable estimates of a number of indicators of infant and child mortality in Palestinian camps in Lebanon by using the Brass technique. The study utilized data provided by two comprehensive surveys...carried out in 1979 and 1989." Results are provided on the decline in infant mortality ...
Chacon-Puignau G C - - 1996
This study evaluates the impact of the Trivers-Willard (T-W) effect on human populations, using demographic data collected from vital registration data in Venezuela. The evaluation of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) and of fetal and infant deaths supports the existence of T-W effect in the Venezuelan population in extreme ...
Mturi A J - - 1995
This paper investigates the determinants of infant and child mortality in Tanzania using the 1991/92 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey. A hazards model is used to assess the relative effect of the variables hypothesized to influence under-five mortality. Short birth intervals, teenage pregnancies and previous child deaths are associated with ...
Kelley A C - - 1995
The results of recent correlations showing a negative impact of population growth on economic development in cross-country data for the 1980s, versus "nonsignificant" correlations widely found for the 1960s and 1970s, are examined with contemporaneous and lagged components of demographic change, convergence-type economic modeling, and several statistical frameworks. The separate ...
Gupta M D - - 1995
Two interesting features emerge from this study of fertility behaviour in Punjab. First, it brings out the common features of peasant life and demographic behaviour found in this developing-country setting and in historical Europe. As in much of Europe, marriage was regulated to adjust to the availability of land and ...
Abade A - - 1995
In populations in which the frequency of illegitimacy is high, illegitimates and legitimates may be subjected to different demographic and social pressures, with social and genetic consequences. A rural population from north-east Portugal is studied and variables from birth, marriage and death records are compared according to the legitimacy of ...
Alam N - - 1995
To examine the effects of birth spacing on early childhood mortality, 3729 singleton births in 1983-84 were followed for 3 years in rural Bangladesh. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether the survival of older siblings modifies the effect of preceding birth intervals and to see if the effects ...
Carroll J E - - 1995
A model is developed for the dynamics of a territorial population for which mortality and the search for suitable territories are treated as continuous processes and birth occurs as a discrete pulse once each year. It is shown that the trajectories converge either to a fixed annual cycle or to ...
Fuster V - - 1995
Record linking provided information on the complete reproductive schedules of a sample of 1102 couples with at least two children born alive from a rural Spanish community characterised by very high extramarital reproduction. Birth spacing was analysed considering final family size as well as the legitimate-illegitimate status and sex of ...
Frankenberg E - - 1995
This paper examines the impact of access to health facilities and personnel on infant and child mortality in Indonesia. Demographic and Health Survey data are combined with village-level censuses of infrastructure collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Because the village-level data are available from two points in time, it ...
Mackellar F L - - 1995
Economic theory associates the increase in population concentration, i.e., the proportion of national population residing in the core economic region, with scale and agglomeration economies. Wheaton and Shishido (1981) estimated that these persist until real per capita national income reaches 5000 1985 US dollars (USD). After this point in a ...
Swenson I E - - 1995
The effects on early childhood mortality of birth order, age of the mother at the time of the child's birth, mother's education, as well as infant mortality risk in the province, urban/rural residence, the presence of schools and other facilities and health care services, were examined using data from the ...
Givens S R - - 1995
The health of pregnant women and children has improved substantially since the 1960s. In the past decade, however, progress in preventing infant deaths, reducing the incidence of low-birth-weight infants, and ensuring first trimester prenatal care has slowed. African-American infants suffer a significantly higher risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Immunization rates ...
Sachs B P - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To identify the potential impact that different definitions of live births and practice patterns have on infant mortality rates in England and Wales, France, Japan, and the United States. METHODS: United States data were obtained from the 1986 linked national birth-infant death cohort, and those for the other countries ...
Carpenter M B - - 1995
In response to the slowing improvement in the nation's infant mortality rate in the mid-1980s, Congress passed a series of bills aimed at increasing women's access to prenatal care and enhancing available services through the Medicaid program. Other programs also received increased appropriations targeted at infant mortality reduction. Since then, ...
Reddy P H - - 1995
We have studied the marriage pattern and reproductive behaviour in a single Central Indian primitive tribe, the Baiga. Parents were consanguineous in 34% of marriages (19.2% mother's brother's daughter (MBD), 13.1% father's sister's daughter (FSD) and 1.7% were double first cross-cousins (DFCC). Fertility levels were significantly higher (p < 0.05) ...
Ren X S - - 1995
Despite the Communist government's campaign to narrow the sexual inequality in China since the 1949 Revolution, male dominance and son preference are still evident in many parts of the country. Using retrospective reports on infant and child mortality from the 1985 and 1987 In-Depth Fertility Surveys in Shaanxi, Liaoning and ...
Kabir M - - 1995
Infant and child mortality levels and trends in Bangladesh are examined using data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey. Both infant and child mortality declined from the mid 1970s but infant mortality declined more quickly. The level of infant mortality in 1989 was around 100 per 1000 live births while ...
Satyanarayana L - - 1995
The aim of this study was to develop a single comprehensive index of child mortality for longitudinal assessment of health status of children. The need for such a comprehensive index arose from conflicting trends in different child mortality indicators. The data for the study was taken from the Sample Registration ...
Forste R - - 1995
Based on the 1989 Demographic and Health Survey of Bolivia, analysis of the joint effects of breastfeeding and contraceptive use on birth-spacing showed the IUD to be the most effective contraceptive method used to delay conception. Breastfeeding significantly lengthened the birth interval, but only following second and higher parity births. ...
Riverón Corteguera R L - - 1995
This article describes the basic strategies employed by Cuba's Diarrheal Disease Control Program (DDCP) to reduce acute diarrheal disease (ADD) mortality among infants and young children from 1962 through 1993, together with the diarrheal disease trends recorded in these years. An initial control effort, the Program to Combat Gastroenteritis, began ...
Burkhalter B R - - 1995
All available estimates of rates of infant mortality, vaccination coverage (for BCG, DPT 3, polio 3, measles, and tetanus toxoid), and ORS use in Guatemala in the 1980s were identified and investigated. A large number of sources and estimates were found. Large discrepancies were also found between the estimates for ...
Kuate Defo B - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Against increasing malaria problems in most tropical countries, very little is known about the socio-epidemiological determinants of this condition. METHODS: Using extensive information on a representative sample of 9774 newborns followed for 2 years and multi-state hazards models, this study investigates jointly the determinants of paediatric mortality from malaria ...
Mutlu S - - 1995
"The principal objective of this paper...is to estimate the number of Kurds in Turkey and their spatial distribution.... The ethnically Kurdish component of the population has increased from 3.132 million in 1965 to 7.046 million in 1990. This very substantial increase has been due to high fertility, which is a ...
Schmidt I M - - 1995
The height of conscripts has increased steadily during recent decades in Europe. We have collected data on conscript height from 11 European countries to examine if this trend is continuing. In the Scandinavian countries and The Netherlands the increase in height reached a plateau during the 1980s, while the trend ...
Gourbin G - - 1995
International comparisons of the perinatal mortality data derived from vital registration statistics can be made in different ways. In this article we examine the legal and administrative definitions of vital events (live births and stillbirths) in the 27 European countries that participated in an in-depth survey conducted in 1991 by ...
Richter L M - - 1995
The population under study in the South African longitudinal study of urban children and their families, 'Birth to Ten' (BTT), comprised all births during a 7-week period from April to June 1990 in Soweto-Johannesburg. Specification of the population base for the cohort was hampered by a number of flaws in ...
Madise N J - - 1995
The 1988 Malawi Traditional and Modern Methods of Child Spacing Survey data are used to identify determinants of infant mortality in Malawi. The logistic binomial analysis shows that socioeconomic factors are significant even during the neonatal period while the length of the preceding birth interval is significant in the post-neonatal ...
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