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Results 501 - 550 of 928
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Northrop-Clewes C A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the Health Service Research Project of the Pakistan Medical Research Council (PMRC) on mothers and infants in Budhni village, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. METHODS: Information from the PMRC records on the socioeconomic and demographic situation over ...
Thayaparan B - - 1998
Until recently, tetanus was estimated to be killing well over half a million children each year in the developing world, most commonly through neonatal tetanus, the incidence of which was around six per 1000 live births. Neonatal tetanus most commonly occurs through cord contamination of the umbilical stump. Vaccination of ...
Paine R R - - 1998
Paleodemographers must work to understand how representative any archaeologically recovered skeletal series is and the potential effects of series bias on their demographic reconstructions. We examine two forms of bias: 1) infant underenumeration caused by differential preservation or incomplete archaeological recovery and 2) the underenumeration of individuals over age 45 ...
Desai S - - 1998
Using data from the first round of Demographic and Health Surveys for 22 developing countries, we examine the effect of maternal education on three markers of child health: infant mortality, children's height-for-age, and immunization status. In contrast to other studies, we argue that although there is a strong correlation between ...
Ikamari L - - 1998
This paper examines the effect of birth intervals on child survival in Kenya, using the data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression is used as the major method of data analysis. The results show that the birth intervals have strong negative effects on infant and ...
Botting B - - 1998
Teenage mothers continue to present challenges to social policy and remain of topical interest to the media. This article discusses trends in teenage conception rates, their outcomes and long term consequences. In 1996, 7 per cent of all births were to girls aged under 20. On average children born to ...
Sharma R K - - 1998
Using a conceptual model that integrates social and biomedical models of causation, this paper delineates the pathways through which social factors ultimately influence infant mortality in the African-American community. Two social factors, maternal education and marital status, are shown to influence the risk of infant death through the following intermediate ...
Blackburn K - - 1998
This paper presents a model that illustrates the joint determination of population and development. "Economic and demographic outcomes are determined jointly in a choice-theoretic model of fertility, mortality and capital accumulation.... In addition to choosing savings and births, parents may reduce (infant) deaths by incurring expenditures on health-care which is ...
Schuman J - - 1998
This article comments on statistics recently published by ONS relating to infant and childhood mortality in 1996. Several factors--birthweight, mother's age, marital status of parents, father's social class, mother's country of birth, multiple birth status, and sex--are known to be associated with the risk of mortality in infants under one ...
Perutz M F - - 1997
In 1952, the Queen congratulated 255 people on their hundredth birthdays and 1135 couples on their sixtieth wedding anniversaries. By 1996, these numbers had risen to 5218 and 11,688, respectively. Semilogarithmic plots, normalized to constant numbers of births and marriages, show steady exponential rises in the number of centenarians with ...
Kuddo A - - 1997
The author discusses the transformation of Estonia to a market economy, with a focus on trends in demographic development. "The transition of society in Estonia has been accompanied by significant changes in the demographic behaviour of the population, including nuptiality, fertility, mortality and population migration.... However, this period has been ...
Obladen M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: In order to assess training, accreditation, and scientific status of neonatology in the European countries, a structured questionnaire on availability, duration, and accreditation of neonatology training programs was mailed to the pediatric and neonatal societies. A medline search was performed on the item 'infant, newborn' and the ...
Breart G - - 1997
Since around 1980, in countries belonging to European union the mean maternal age at birth increased by 1.5 y (from 27.1 to 28.6). This demographic change has important consequences on the health of the mother and of the neonate. Maternal mortality rates, stillbirth rates and frequency of congenital anomalies are ...
Sheth T - - 1997
The study of ethnic differences in disease is a methodological challenge as ethnicity is often not identified in existing datasets and surrogate measures need to be used. We have developed a novel methodology combining last name and country of birth to study mortality patterns of Canadians of South Asian (SA) ...
Mace R - - 1997
Birth interval is a major determinant of rates of fertility, and is also a measure of parental investment in a child. In this paper the length of the birth interval in a traditional African population is analysed by sex of children. Birth intervals after the birth of a boy were ...
Sandiford P - - 1997
The strong and consistent correlation between maternal education and child health is now well known, and numerous studies have shown that wealth and income cannot explain the link. Policy-makers have therefore assumed that the relationship is causal and explicitly advocate schooling as a child health intervention. However, there are other ...
Majumder A K - - 1997
From the data of the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey, aggregate deaths reported at ages 0-12 and 13-60 months are used to estimate infant and child mortality. Multivariate analysis shows that preceding birth interval length, followed by survival status of the immediately preceding child, are the most important factors associated with ...
Huang W - - 1997
This paper describes infant mortality, leading causes of death, and some associated factors among the Han, the Miao, the Bouyei and other minority nationalities in three counties of the middle part of Guizhou Province, China. The results showed that the overall infant mortality rate (IMR) in these areas was 125.7 ...
Lee K S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite index of life expectancy, literacy, and per capita gross domestic product that measures the socioeconomic development of a country. We estimated infant and maternal mortality rates in the world and assessed how well the HDI and its individual components ...
Roberts C L - - 1997
Assessing infant mortality rates (IMRs) is important in public health planning. However, single year fluctuations in IMRs often receive attention without consideration of long-term trends. Trends in IMR over 12 years in Connecticut were examined using linked birth and death files. Overall, there was an exponential decline in IMR from ...
Pandey R N - - 1997
"Various aspects of mortality in Mongolia are considered in this article, which analyses data from a large-scale demographic survey conducted in late 1994. Because of health improvements introduced into the country following the Second World War, Mongolia experienced a three-fold increase in its population between 1950 and 1990. However, the ...
Dutt D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of Maternal and Child Health (MCH) services on child survival in a socio-economically backward rural community. SETTING: Twelve villages in Pondicherry with a population of 16,803. DESIGN: Prospective study. SUBJECTS: A birth cohort of 356 live births (LB) born between January 1st and December 31st ...
Leonard W R - - 1997
We examine mortality and fertility patterns of aboriginal (primarily Evenki and Keto) and Russian (i.e., nonaboriginal) populations from the Baykit District of Central Siberia for the period 1982-1994. Mortality rates in the aboriginal population of Baykit are substantially greater than those observed in the Russians and are comparable to levels ...
Nielsen B B - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To study reproductive pattern and perinatal mortality in rural Tamil Nadu, South India. DESIGN: Community based, cross sectional questionnaire study of 30 randomly selected areas served by health subcentres. SETTING: Rural parts of Salem District, Tamil Nadu, South India. SUBJECTS: 1321 women and their offspring delivered in the 6 ...
Yasim - - 1997
Data on patterns of marriage, differential fertility and mortality were collected from 211 Kotia women residing in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh, India. Consanguineous marriages made up just over a quarter of the total, and of these, father's sister's daughter (FSD) were more common than mother's brother's daughter (MBD). The ...
King S - - 1997
The literature on the demographic impact of rural industrialization in England has lagged somewhat behind continental inspired historiography. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the sphere of infant mortality, where commentators have failed to balance the effects of rural industry on health and welfare--such as higher earnings and the ...
Garenne M - - 1997
A retrospective study of maternal mortality was conducted in Nouna, a rural area of Burkina Faso in 1992. Strong evidence was found of a major mortality decline among children and young adults over the 50 years preceding the study: The estimated life expectancy of 36 years in around 1945 rose ...
Grant J C - - 1997
As part of the 1990/1991 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey, data were collected on the outcome of 26,408 births to 6,611 women, with mortality rates investigated at specific age intervals during the first 5 years of life. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the comparative roles ...
Berg K - - 1997
Prenatal diagnosis (PND) of genetic disorders is provided without costs to the woman or family, in Norway. However, the volume of examinations is significantly smaller than in most other Western European countries. Prenatal diagnosis because of relatively high maternal age is accepted only if the woman will be 38 years ...
Allan B B - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the trends in the proportion of annual live births that were male in Canada and to compare the trends with those in the United States. DESIGN: Analysis of census data. SETTING: Canada as a whole and 4 main regions (West, Ontario, Quebec and Atlantic). SUBJECTS: All live ...
Gewirtz J L - - 1997
This paper introduces a special section on the contingency. Bower and Watson were invited to present their views of contingency learning in human infants from outside the context of behavior analysis, and Cigales, Marr, and Lattal and Shahan provided commentaries that point out some of the more interesting and controversial ...
Mahan C K - - 1997
Infant mortality has been a major problem in the United States for many years. Despite recent improvements, it continues to be a major social and economic problem. This is particularly true in non-white populations, where the infant mortality rate is significantly higher. This article discusses some of the reasons for ...
Amin R - - 1997
A growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are adopting the collateral-free credit programs by anchoring them with their social development programs aimed at improved program effectiveness and sustainability. Drawing upon a sample of 3,564 targeted poor households covered by five small NGOs in rural Bangladesh, this study finds that the ...
Parazzini F - - 1997
Trends in the mortality rates for the periods 0-6, 7-27, 28-365 and 0-365 days after birth have been analysed in 48 European, American, African, Asian and Australian countries included in the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database. From the late 1960s to the early 1990s infant mortality rates declined steadily ...
Schrover M - - 1997
"In the nineteenth century, the demographic development of the Meierij, a region in the south-east of the Netherlands, was different from that of the rest of modernizing northern Europe. Infant mortality remained high, while it dropped elsewhere. The article shows why the current explanation for high infant mortality, which links ...
Vandale S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: This article analyzes the time-trends and causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality in Mexico during the 1980's. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on infant deaths came from yearly tabulations (1980 to 1990) published by the Mexican government. Time-trends of mortality rates were determined by simple linear regression models. The ...
Dimitrov I - - 1997
Periodical observation and comparison of newborn infants' physical development indices gives an idea of the dynamics of accelerative changes and the efficacy of implemented health and social programs for maternity protection in a given country. The author performs a longitudinal study of the basic anthropometric--birth height and weight of newborn ...
Demirel S - - 1997
This study was conducted in the town of Konya, Turkey, on 1120 randomly selected women to find out the overall rate of consanguineous marriages among couples. The frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 23.2%. It was found that 14.6% of this figure was first cousin marriages and the ...
Wegman M E - - 1996
Comparison of infant mortality rates (IMRs) among the world's countries requires assessment of completeness and accuracy of data. The United Nations Statistical Office classifies as "C", complete, meaning at least 90% of events are actually recorded, 1994 data supplied by 80 governments, comprising one fourth of the world's population, ie, ...
Antonisamy B - - 1996
Trends in intra-uterine growth (IUG) of newborns from 1969-1973 to 1989-1993 were studied among rural and urban communities. Yerushalmy's five group classification of IUG was used. The percent preterm low birthweight (LBW) declined from 7 to 3 in rural and from 5 to 2 in urban areas. The percent of ...
Rao R S - - 1996
The influence of parental literacy and socio-economic status (SES) on infant mortality rate (IMR) was studied. This report is only a part of much larger community-based prospective study conducted to determine the factors influencing infant mortality in Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka, by the Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical ...
Joseph K S - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain whether the increase in the crude infant mortality rate in Canada in 1993 was due to a recent increase in the registration of newborns weighing less than 500 g as live births. DESIGN: Ecological study, with Poisson regression analysis. SETTING: Canada. SUBJECTS: All live births and infant ...
Ronsmans C - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Studies examining the associations between short birth spacing and child mortality have often concentrated on the strength of the associations whilst the public health importance of short spacing in specific communities has received less attention. This study re-examines the association between short birth intervals and child mortality in rural ...
Van den Broeck J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine maternal factors related to child survival in the rural area of Bwamanda, Northern Zaire. METHODS: A prospective study of 30-months mortality was carried out in a cohort of 776 children aged 0-3 months, obtained by random cluster sampling. Inclusion criteria were exclusive breastfeeding, no ...
Seaman J - - 1996
BACKGROUND: Although endemic in parts of southern Sudan, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) had not been reported in Western Upper Nile (WUN) until an epidemic was confirmed in 1989. A combination of circumstances created conditions for transmission among a population of mainly Nuer and Dinka people who had no immunity. The civil ...
Amankwaa A A - - 1996
This study examines the role of marriage form in infant mortality and tests the relative effects and mechanisms through which polygyny affects infant survival. A sample of infants born in the 5 years preceding the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey was used. A causal model was constructed and polygyny ...
Wahab A - - 1996
Consanguineous marriages in two population samples, one rural and one urban, from Swat (Pakistan) were studied. The frequency of consanguineous marriages was found to be 37.13% and 31.11%, and mean inbreeding coefficients were calculated as 0.0168 and 0.0162, for the rural and urban populations respectively. The most frequent type of ...
Pandey H - - 1996
"Many authors [have] pointed out that analysis of open birth interval (the period elapsed from the last live birth till the date of the survey) could be of great interest to study the process of human reproduction, because it directly exhibits changes in fertility due to recent use of contraception ...
McBean G - - 1996
The English-speaking Caribbean consists of some fifteen countries, with a population of just over 6 million. The countries including Suriname are united under CARICOM, (the Caribbean Economic Community) and share a common education system. The area is characterised by low infant mortality rates (averaging less than 20/1000 live births) and ...
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