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Results 451 - 500 of 938
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Agha S - - 2000
This study examines factors associated with infant survival in Pakistan. It uses data from the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1991, a nationally representative sample survey of the Government of Pakistan, funded by the World Bank. The infant mortality rate was still very high in Pakistan until the early 1990s, at ...
Nath D C - - 2000
Reproductive strategies are related to ecological constraints. This paper examines data on early birth spacing in a scheduled caste, Bengali-speaking, non-contracepting population of the Karimganj district of southern Assam, India, taking an evolutionary ecological perspective. It is found that on average birth intervals closed by boy-boy are longer than those ...
Yassin K M - - 2000
There is a general agreement that childhood mortality in Egypt has substantially declined during the last two decades. The decline has been traditionally attributed to the impact of the National Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Program (NCDDP). However, a controversy still exists over the magnitude of that decline and the claimed ...
Ali M M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: In 1999 UNICEF, in cooperation with the government of Iraq and the local authorities in the "autonomous" (northern Kurdish) region, conducted two similar surveys to provide regionally representative and reliable estimates of child mortality (the subject of this paper) and maternal mortality. METHODS: In a cross-sectional household survey in ...
Maharatna A - - 2000
The present paper critically reviews the existing literature on fertility, mortality and its gender bias among India's tribal population in the post-Independence period. Despite difficulties and limitations of available literature on tribal demography--most of which has been produced by anthropologists--our review extracts several interesting and important points. First, although fertility ...
Turrell G - - 2000
This study uses small-area data for the period 1985-89 to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status and infant mortality in each of the mainland State capital cities of Australia. An unweighted OLS regression analysis based on 195 Statistical Local Areas (SLAs) that recorded five or more deaths over the reference ...
Anand K - - 2000
BACKGROUND: India aims to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR) to below 60 per 1000 live births by 2000. IMR is higher in northern India as compared with south Indian states like Kerala. Any further reduction in IMR needs identification of new strategies. The Ballabgarh project with an IMR of ...
Alam N - - 2000
Nuptiality norms in rural Bangladesh favour birth during the teenage years. An appreciable proportion of teenage births are, in fact, second births. This study examines the relationship between teenage fertility and high infant mortality. It is hypothesized that if physiological immaturity is responsible, then the younger the mother, the higher ...
Ikamari L - - 2000
This paper examines whether infant and child mortality risks among successive siblings are closely correlated, and if so, whether the survival status of the preceding child is an important factor affecting infant and child mortality in Kenya. The data were drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic ...
Ventura S J - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1998 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); ...
Nolte E - - 2000
BACKGROUND: After unification, the gap in infant mortality rates between the two parts of Germany widened until 1996 before converging. The reasons for these changes have not, so far, been apparent. OBJECTIVES: To investigate trends in neonatal and postneonatal mortality in the eastern (the new Länder) and western (the old ...
Miller Jr R D - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is a measurable health return associated with high pharmaceutical consumption in a sample of developed countries. DESIGN AND SETTING: The study focused on the production of health, disaggregating healthcare into pharmaceuticals and other healthcare. We controlled for wealth and ...
Dolk H - - 2000
With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher ...
Victora C G - - 2000
In 1980, diarrhoea was the leading cause of child mortality, accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually. Efforts to control diarrhoea over the past decade have been based on multiple, potentially powerful interventions implemented more or less simultaneously. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced in 1979 and rapidly became the cornerstone ...
McCusker D - - 2000
An infant mortality rate is an important public health measure because it may indicate unmet health needs or unfavorable environmental factors. The infant mortality rate for Native Americans in Wisconsin has decreased over the past several years, although there remains a discrepancy between Native Americans, all races combined and the ...
Wagstaff A - - 2000
This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal ...
Rutstein S O - - 2000
The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health ...
Williams L - - 2000
A number of checks can be done to assess reliability of attitudinal data pertaining to fertility. We ascertain how births that would be considered unintended, based on Time 1 reports of fertility intentions, are classified by respondents at a second interview after the birth occurred. The 1988 National Survey of ...
Guyer B - - 1999
Most vital statistics indicators of the health of Americans were stable or showed modest improvements between 1997 and 1998. The preliminary birth rate in 1998 was 14.6 births per 1000 population, up slightly from the record low reported for 1997 (14.5). The fertility rate, births per 1000 women aged 15 ...
Panopoulou G - - 1999
The paper presents a theoretical background for the analysis of the relationship between fertility and a number of socioeconomic factors associated with the process of economic development and analyses empirically this relationship within a cross-country framework. Fertility is found to be negatively related with female education, urbanization, and family planning ...
- - 1999
At the beginning of the 20th century, for every 1000 live births, six to nine women in the United States died of pregnancy-related complications, and approximately 100 infants died before age 1 year. From 1915 through 1997, the infant mortality rate declined >90% to 7.2 per 1000 live births, and ...
Sadetzki S - - 1999
The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for the excessive infant mortality rates (IMR) of infants with Down's syndrome (DS). The study population included all 847 Jewish DS births in Israel during 1979-83 and 1987-91. Cases were identified through the National DS Registry. Data were abstracted from ...
Smits L - - 1999
In a historical follow-up study, we evaluated the association of the fertility of daughters with five perinatal factors: short (< 15 months) or long (> or = 45 months) preceding birth interval, low (< or = 20 years) or advanced (> or = 40 years) maternal age and season of ...
Goodkind D - - 1999
Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of ...
Delcò F - - 1999
It has been suggested that the mortality trends of ulcerative colitis in England and Wales are shaped by an underlying birth-cohort phenomenon. This pattern implies that exposure to an environmental risk factor early in life plays a crucial role in the development of the disease. The authors tested whether the ...
Robinson W C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. METHODS: ...
Shen C - - 1999
While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that ...
Bourn D - - 1999
At the end of the 19th century, after prolonged and extensive harvesting, indigenous giant tortoises had been eliminated from all islands in the Indian Ocean, except Aldabra atoll, where only a few survived. With greatly reduced levels of exploitation during the 20th century, the population recovered to a revised estimated ...
Moffat T - - 1999
Infant mortality is investigated for a period of thirty years at the beginning of the 20th century in the Aboriginal Nations community of Fisher River, Manitoba. Infant mortality rates were generated from parish records of infant burials from the Methodist mission at Fisher River and later archived at the United ...
Olsen O - - 1999
This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113,814 births. When adjusted for ...
Ventura S J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); ...
Whitehead M M Policy and Development Division, King's Fund, London W1M 0AN. - - 1999
To examine trends in mortality among babies registered solely by their mother (lone mothers) and to compare these with trends in infant mortality for couple registrations overall and couple registrations subdivided by social class of father. Analysis of trends in infant death rates from 1975 to 1996 for the three ...
Bloland P B - - 1999
A large-scale longitudinal cohort project was initiated in western Kenya in June 1992. The primary purpose of the project was to study Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a highly endemic area using a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which included epidemiology, entomology, and immunology. Between June 1992 and July 1994, pregnant women ...
Terra de Souza A C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities in the State of Ceará, from 14 to 193 per 1000 live births. Identification of the determinants of these differences can be of particular importance to infant health policy and programmes in Brazil where local governments play a pivotal role in providing ...
Lee K s Ks Center for Perinatal Epidemiology, Chicago Children's Hospital, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, - - 1999
We examined the trend in mortality caused by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and its impact on changes in infant and neonatal mortality rates (IMR, NMR) in the United States. Data on infant deaths in the United States for the period 1970 through 1995 were used to compare RDS-specific IMR to ...
McCloskey L - - 1999
The authors present the results of a community-wide infant mortality review, describe implications for the delivery of maternal and child health services, and discuss the value of such reviews in addressing local public health concerns. The review included an analysis of birth and death certificates and medical record data; maternal ...
Grech V - - 1999
Birth prevalence, and diagnostic and interventional trends for coarctation of the aorta were analysed in an Island population for patients born between 1925 and 1994. This lesion was diagnosed in 64 live births. A declining trend for age at diagnosis and age at surgery was present for the entire period ...
Palloni A - - 1999
In this paper, we examine empirical evidence for a relation between infant and child mortality and fertility in Latin American countries from 1920 to 1990. We investigate the relation at several levels of aggregation and evaluate the extent to which evidence at one level is consistent with evidence at other ...
Morgan S P - - 1999
Using data from the 1980, 1985, and 1990 Current Population Surveys, we show that the link between early fertility and nonmarital births has become stronger. Women who give birth earlier are increasingly likely to be unmarried. In contrast, we find a weaker association between first births at young (versus older) ...
Olausson P O - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of low maternal age on late fetal death and infant mortality and to estimate the extent of any increase in infant mortality attributable to higher rates of preterm birth among teenagers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Births recorded in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry. ...
Manda S O - - 1999
Childhood mortality in Malawi is analyzed by employing proportional hazards models. The analysis uses highly reliable data collected from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Malawi. The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The influence of ...
al-Nahedh N N - - 1999
Adequate child-spacing is considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. A house-to-house survey of 332 women in Al-Oyaynah village, Saudi Arabia was carried out in April and May of 1995 to determine the existing practice of child-spacing and factors influencing it. The variables examined included ...
Guyer B - - 1998
Many positive trends in the health of Americans continued into 1997. In 1997, the preliminary birth rate declined slightly to 14.6 births per 1000 population, and the fertility rate, births per 1000 women 15 to 44 years of age, was unchanged from the previous year (65.3). These indicators suggest that ...
Wong T W - - 1998
Although Hong Kong's infant mortality is among the lowest in the world, there may still be subgroups in the population with unusually high and possibly avoidable mortality rates. We conducted an ecological study on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and infant mortality in Hong Kong by using government data from ...
Nannan N N Centre for Epidemiological Research, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, W - - 1998
To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical differences. Estimates of infant mortality rates, proportion of births not registered, and proportion of births recorded in health services. 1. Published infant mortality data for South Africa were collated. Demographic data from national household ...
Yaqoob M - - 1998
Risk factors such as maternal age, parity, previous siblings' death, inbreeding of parents, birth weight, birth length were examined in a population-based prospective study in four population groups at different levels of urbanization in and round Lahore, Pakistan. From September 1984 to March 1995, 2967 full-term, single born infants were ...
Crognier E - - 1998
Birth interval lengths are analysed from reproductive life histories of 517 Berber peasant women of the region of Marrakesh (Southern Morocco), whose fertility developed in a full traditional context. The high mortality rates associated with short birth intervals indicate that a rapid succession of births is detrimental to the progeny. ...
Alam N - - 1998
This study examines whether mortality of two adjacent siblings in families is age-specific and is modified by the MCH-FP programme and fertility and mortality declines in Matlab, Bangladesh, using data for singleton births during 1977-78, 1985-86 and 1989-90 in the treatment (MCH-FP) and comparison areas. Logistic regression was used to ...
Alexander F - - 1998
The EUROCLUS Project is a collaborative endeavour in which incidence data for 13 35 1 cases of childhood leukaemia (CL) diagnosed between 1980 and 1989 in 17 countries were referenced to 26 425 small geographic areas and tested for evidence of spatial clustering. A second objective of EUROCLUS was to ...
Hart N - - 1998
Though it has been the largest component of reproductive mortality since its statutory registration in 1928, stillbirth has received little attention from historical demographers, who have relied on the more orthodox indicator of early human survival changes - "infant mortality". The exclusion of stillbirth hampers demographic analysis, underestimates progress in ...
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