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Victora C G - - 2000
In 1980, diarrhoea was the leading cause of child mortality, accounting for 4.6 million deaths annually. Efforts to control diarrhoea over the past decade have been based on multiple, potentially powerful interventions implemented more or less simultaneously. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was introduced in 1979 and rapidly became the cornerstone ...
McCusker D - - 2000
An infant mortality rate is an important public health measure because it may indicate unmet health needs or unfavorable environmental factors. The infant mortality rate for Native Americans in Wisconsin has decreased over the past several years, although there remains a discrepancy between Native Americans, all races combined and the ...
Wagstaff A - - 2000
This paper generates and analyses survey data on inequalities in mortality among infants and children aged under five years by consumption in Brazil, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, the Philippines, South Africa, and Viet Nam. The data were obtained from the Living Standards Measurement Study and the Cebu Longitudinal ...
Rutstein S O - - 2000
The 1990s have seen a remarkable decrease in mortality among infants and children in most developing countries. In some countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, these declines in mortality among children have slowed and are now increasing again. Internationally comparable data derived from survey programmes, such as the Demographic and Health ...
Williams L - - 2000
A number of checks can be done to assess reliability of attitudinal data pertaining to fertility. We ascertain how births that would be considered unintended, based on Time 1 reports of fertility intentions, are classified by respondents at a second interview after the birth occurred. The 1988 National Survey of ...
Guyer B - - 1999
Most vital statistics indicators of the health of Americans were stable or showed modest improvements between 1997 and 1998. The preliminary birth rate in 1998 was 14.6 births per 1000 population, up slightly from the record low reported for 1997 (14.5). The fertility rate, births per 1000 women aged 15 ...
Panopoulou G - - 1999
The paper presents a theoretical background for the analysis of the relationship between fertility and a number of socioeconomic factors associated with the process of economic development and analyses empirically this relationship within a cross-country framework. Fertility is found to be negatively related with female education, urbanization, and family planning ...
- - 1999
At the beginning of the 20th century, for every 1000 live births, six to nine women in the United States died of pregnancy-related complications, and approximately 100 infants died before age 1 year. From 1915 through 1997, the infant mortality rate declined >90% to 7.2 per 1000 live births, and ...
Sadetzki S - - 1999
The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for the excessive infant mortality rates (IMR) of infants with Down's syndrome (DS). The study population included all 847 Jewish DS births in Israel during 1979-83 and 1987-91. Cases were identified through the National DS Registry. Data were abstracted from ...
Smits L - - 1999
In a historical follow-up study, we evaluated the association of the fertility of daughters with five perinatal factors: short (< 15 months) or long (> or = 45 months) preceding birth interval, low (< or = 20 years) or advanced (> or = 40 years) maternal age and season of ...
Goodkind D - - 1999
Son preference in South Korea is stronger than anywhere else in the world, yet little is known about such preference in North Korea. Simple indicators of son preference in North Korea are constructed from its 1993 population census and a 1998 survey of child nutrition (conducted in the wake of ...
Delcò F - - 1999
It has been suggested that the mortality trends of ulcerative colitis in England and Wales are shaped by an underlying birth-cohort phenomenon. This pattern implies that exposure to an environmental risk factor early in life plays a crucial role in the development of the disease. The authors tested whether the ...
Robinson W C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. METHODS: ...
Shen C - - 1999
While much has been written about the medical, economic, and social causes of cross-national differences in some mortality related phenomena such as in life expectancy and infant mortality, much less attention has been given to maternal mortality, the focus of the present study. In the studies of maternal mortality that ...
Bourn D - - 1999
At the end of the 19th century, after prolonged and extensive harvesting, indigenous giant tortoises had been eliminated from all islands in the Indian Ocean, except Aldabra atoll, where only a few survived. With greatly reduced levels of exploitation during the 20th century, the population recovered to a revised estimated ...
Moffat T - - 1999
Infant mortality is investigated for a period of thirty years at the beginning of the 20th century in the Aboriginal Nations community of Fisher River, Manitoba. Infant mortality rates were generated from parish records of infant burials from the Methodist mission at Fisher River and later archived at the United ...
Olsen O - - 1999
This study examined inequalities in infant mortality in Denmark in relation to maternal educational level, and compared the inequalities to those observed in a similar study 10 years earlier. It was a register-based study of all singleton births in Denmark 1991-92, a study population of 113,814 births. When adjusted for ...
Ventura S J - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); ...
Whitehead M - - 1999
To examine trends in mortality among babies registered solely by their mother (lone mothers) and to compare these with trends in infant mortality for couple registrations overall and couple registrations subdivided by social class of father. Analysis of trends in infant death rates from 1975 to 1996 for the three ...
Bloland P B - - 1999
A large-scale longitudinal cohort project was initiated in western Kenya in June 1992. The primary purpose of the project was to study Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a highly endemic area using a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which included epidemiology, entomology, and immunology. Between June 1992 and July 1994, pregnant women ...
Lee K s - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: We examined the trend in mortality caused by respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and its impact on changes in infant and neonatal mortality rates (IMR, NMR) in the United States. Study design: Data on infant deaths in the United States for the period 1970 through 1995 were used to compare ...
Terra de Souza A C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities in the State of Ceará, from 14 to 193 per 1000 live births. Identification of the determinants of these differences can be of particular importance to infant health policy and programmes in Brazil where local governments play a pivotal role in providing ...
McCloskey L - - 1999
The authors present the results of a community-wide infant mortality review, describe implications for the delivery of maternal and child health services, and discuss the value of such reviews in addressing local public health concerns. The review included an analysis of birth and death certificates and medical record data; maternal ...
Grech V - - 1999
Birth prevalence, and diagnostic and interventional trends for coarctation of the aorta were analysed in an Island population for patients born between 1925 and 1994. This lesion was diagnosed in 64 live births. A declining trend for age at diagnosis and age at surgery was present for the entire period ...
Palloni A - - 1999
In this paper, we examine empirical evidence for a relation between infant and child mortality and fertility in Latin American countries from 1920 to 1990. We investigate the relation at several levels of aggregation and evaluate the extent to which evidence at one level is consistent with evidence at other ...
Morgan S P - - 1999
Using data from the 1980, 1985, and 1990 Current Population Surveys, we show that the link between early fertility and nonmarital births has become stronger. Women who give birth earlier are increasingly likely to be unmarried. In contrast, we find a weaker association between first births at young (versus older) ...
Olausson P O - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of low maternal age on late fetal death and infant mortality and to estimate the extent of any increase in infant mortality attributable to higher rates of preterm birth among teenagers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Births recorded in the nationwide Swedish Medical Birth Registry. ...
Manda S O - - 1999
Childhood mortality in Malawi is analyzed by employing proportional hazards models. The analysis uses highly reliable data collected from the 1992 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) of Malawi. The results show that the substantial birth interval and maternal age effects are largely limited to the infant period. The influence of ...
al-Nahedh N N - - 1999
Adequate child-spacing is considered a positive factor in the health of mothers and their children. A house-to-house survey of 332 women in Al-Oyaynah village, Saudi Arabia was carried out in April and May of 1995 to determine the existing practice of child-spacing and factors influencing it. The variables examined included ...
Guyer B - - 1998
Many positive trends in the health of Americans continued into 1997. In 1997, the preliminary birth rate declined slightly to 14.6 births per 1000 population, and the fertility rate, births per 1000 women 15 to 44 years of age, was unchanged from the previous year (65.3). These indicators suggest that ...
Wong T W - - 1998
Although Hong Kong's infant mortality is among the lowest in the world, there may still be subgroups in the population with unusually high and possibly avoidable mortality rates. We conducted an ecological study on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and infant mortality in Hong Kong by using government data from ...
Nannan N N Centre for Epidemiological Research, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, W - - 1998
To review recent infant mortality and birth registration data in South Africa and to investigate geographical differences. Estimates of infant mortality rates, proportion of births not registered, and proportion of births recorded in health services. 1. Published infant mortality data for South Africa were collated. Demographic data from national household ...
Yaqoob M - - 1998
Risk factors such as maternal age, parity, previous siblings' death, inbreeding of parents, birth weight, birth length were examined in a population-based prospective study in four population groups at different levels of urbanization in and round Lahore, Pakistan. From September 1984 to March 1995, 2967 full-term, single born infants were ...
Crognier E - - 1998
Birth interval lengths are analysed from reproductive life histories of 517 Berber peasant women of the region of Marrakesh (Southern Morocco), whose fertility developed in a full traditional context. The high mortality rates associated with short birth intervals indicate that a rapid succession of births is detrimental to the progeny. ...
Alam N - - 1998
This study examines whether mortality of two adjacent siblings in families is age-specific and is modified by the MCH-FP programme and fertility and mortality declines in Matlab, Bangladesh, using data for singleton births during 1977-78, 1985-86 and 1989-90 in the treatment (MCH-FP) and comparison areas. Logistic regression was used to ...
Alexander F - - 1998
The EUROCLUS Project is a collaborative endeavour in which incidence data for 13 35 1 cases of childhood leukaemia (CL) diagnosed between 1980 and 1989 in 17 countries were referenced to 26 425 small geographic areas and tested for evidence of spatial clustering. A second objective of EUROCLUS was to ...
Hart N - - 1998
Though it has been the largest component of reproductive mortality since its statutory registration in 1928, stillbirth has received little attention from historical demographers, who have relied on the more orthodox indicator of early human survival changes - "infant mortality". The exclusion of stillbirth hampers demographic analysis, underestimates progress in ...
Ventura S J - - 1998
OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1996 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, tobacco and alcohol use); medical ...
Van Hoorn W D - - 1998
"Three scenarios of future mortality trends are presented for all countries of the European Economic Area. The high scenario assumes a considerable decline in mortality rates. Consequently life expectancy at birth will continue to increase at about the same rate as during the last decades.... In the low scenario only ...
Rosero-Bixby L - - 1998
A procedure for assessing birth spacing goals, an important component of fertility preferences, is proposed and applied to 1993 Costa Rican data. Based on a reverse or backward survival analysis, preferred birth intervals are estimated to range between 3.5 and 4.5 years (1.5 years for the interval union to first ...
Ackers M L - - 1998
BACKGROUND: From 1991 through 1995, all Latin American countries maintained cholera surveillance systems to track the epidemic that entered the region through Peru in January 1991. These data were used to assess correlations between socioeconomic and demographic indices that might serve as national risk predictors for epidemic cholera in Latin ...
James W H - - 1998
There has been a decline in sex ratio at birth in recent decades in many countries. The question arises whether polluting environmental endocrine disrupters may have been responsible. It is suggested here that we are not (and will not soon become) in a position to know this because: (i) we ...
Wang D - - 1998
To elucidate the nature of the relationship between infant mortality in China and a variety of covariates using data from the 2/1000 Chinese Fertility Survey, we use a logistic regression model where the covariates are transformed with the help of Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm. This approach is used to ...
Lamont D W - - 1998
The relative contribution of socioeconomic, behavioural and biological factors operating in fetal and infant life, childhood and adulthood to risk for cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in middle age has become an important research issue. All 1142 babies born in Newcastle upon Tyne in May and June 1947 ...
Northrop-Clewes C A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of the Health Service Research Project of the Pakistan Medical Research Council (PMRC) on mothers and infants in Budhni village, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan. METHODS: Information from the PMRC records on the socioeconomic and demographic situation over ...
Thayaparan B - - 1998
Until recently, tetanus was estimated to be killing well over half a million children each year in the developing world, most commonly through neonatal tetanus, the incidence of which was around six per 1000 live births. Neonatal tetanus most commonly occurs through cord contamination of the umbilical stump. Vaccination of ...
Paine R R - - 1998
Paleodemographers must work to understand how representative any archaeologically recovered skeletal series is and the potential effects of series bias on their demographic reconstructions. We examine two forms of bias: 1) infant underenumeration caused by differential preservation or incomplete archaeological recovery and 2) the underenumeration of individuals over age 45 ...
Desai S - - 1998
Using data from the first round of Demographic and Health Surveys for 22 developing countries, we examine the effect of maternal education on three markers of child health: infant mortality, children's height-for-age, and immunization status. In contrast to other studies, we argue that although there is a strong correlation between ...
Ikamari L - - 1998
This paper examines the effect of birth intervals on child survival in Kenya, using the data drawn from the 1988/89 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression is used as the major method of data analysis. The results show that the birth intervals have strong negative effects on infant and ...
Botting B - - 1998
Teenage mothers continue to present challenges to social policy and remain of topical interest to the media. This article discusses trends in teenage conception rates, their outcomes and long term consequences. In 1996, 7 per cent of all births were to girls aged under 20. On average children born to ...
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