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Seidl Amanda A Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, - - 2014
The lexicon of 6-month-olds is comprised of names and body part words. Unlike names, body part words do not often occur in isolation in the input. This presents a puzzle: How have infants been able to pull out these words from the continuous stream of speech at such a young ...
Greene M M MM 1] Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA [2] Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, - - 2014
Objective:To examine the association between cardiorespiratory events (CRE) and neurodevelopmental (ND) outcome at 8 and 20 months corrected age (CA) in a contemporary extremely low birth weight (ELBW )cohort.Study Design:Retrospective chart review of 98 ELBW infants born in 2009 to 2010 who completed ND assessments at 8 and 20 months ...
Luche Claire Delle CD School of Psychology, Plymouth University, - - 2014
A substantial body of evidence demonstrates that infants understand the meaning of spoken words from as early as 6 months. Yet little is known about their ability to do so in the absence of any visual referent, which would offer diagnostic evidence for an adult-like, symbolic interpretation of words and their ...
Cuevas Kimberly K University of - - 2014
The EEG mu rhythm, recorded from scalp regions overlying the sensorimotor cortex, appears to exhibit mirroring properties: It is reactive when performing an action and when observing another perform the same action. Recently, there has been an exponential increase in developmental mu rhythm research, partially due to the mu rhythm's ...
Kim Hojin I HI Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, - - 2014
Five- and 3-month-old infants' perception of infant-directed (ID) faces and the role of speech in perceiving faces were examined. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of two side-by-side talking faces, one infant-directed and one adult-directed (AD), while listening to ID speech, AD speech, or in silence. ...
Pons Ferran F Departament de Psicologia Bàsica, Universitat de Barcelona, Pg. Vall d'Hebron 171, 08035, Barcelona, Spain; Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior (IR3C), Barcelona, - - 2014
We investigated the effects of linguistic experience and language familiarity on the perception of audio-visual (A-V) synchrony in fluent speech. In Experiment 1, we tested a group of monolingual Spanish- and Catalan-learning 8-month-old infants to a video clip of a person speaking Spanish. Following habituation to the audiovisually synchronous video, ...
Longobardi Emiddia E Department of Dynamic and Clinical Psychology, University Sapienza of Rome, - - 2014
ABSTRACT Because of its structural characteristics, specifically the prevalence of verb types in infant-directed speech and frequent pronoun-dropping, the Italian language offers an attractive opportunity to investigate the predictive effects of input frequency and positional salience on children's acquisition of nouns and verbs. We examined this issue in a sample ...
Skiöld Béatrice B Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neonatology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: - - 2014
To investigate sex differences in neurologic and developmental outcomes in extremely preterm (EPT) children and explore associations with neonatal brain morphology. A population-based cohort of infants born at <27 weeks gestation underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at term equivalent age (n = 107). Voxel-based morphometry (n = 27) and tract-based ...
Parra-Saavedra Miguel M Department of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Institute Clínic of Gynecology, Obstetrics and Neonatology (ICGON), Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona and Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBER-ER), Barcelona, Spain; Maternal - Fetal Unit, CEDIFETAL, Centro de Diagnóstico de Ultrasonido e Imágenes, CEDIUL, Clínica General del Norte, Barranquilla, - - 2014
To evaluate 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of near-term, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns segregated by presence or absence of histopathology reflecting placental underperfusion (PUP). A cohort of consecutive near-term (≥34.0 weeks) SGA newborns with normal prenatal umbilical artery Doppler studies was selected. All placentas were inspected for evidence of underperfusion and classified in ...
Laake Lauren M LM Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
Eighty-three mother-infant dyads participated in this study. Positive affect (PA) broadly, along with fine-grained aspects of PA, was measured at 10 months of age. Language was measured at 14 months. Infant PA predicted expressive, but not receptive, language. The implications of these findings are discussed.
McLellan Kirsty E KE aDepartment of Child Life and Health, University of Edinburgh bRoyal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, - - 2014
Anecdotally it has been noted that the traditional chest signs associated with bronchiolitis appear inconsistently in infants clinically diagnosed with bronchiolitis. We wished to explore this more formally. The aim of this study was to assess whether the auscultatory chest signs at presentation in infants with bronchiolitis were influenced by ...
Mulder Kelly A KA Nutrition and Metabolism Program, Child and Family Research Institute, Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, - - 2014
DHA is accumulated in the central nervous system (CNS) before birth and is involved in early developmental processes, such as neurite outgrowth and gene expression. To determine whether fetal DHA insufficiency occurs and constrains CNS development in term gestation infants. A risk reduction model using a randomized prospective study of ...
Wanrooij Karin K Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication, University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, - - 2014
An important mechanism for learning speech sounds in the first year of life is "distributional learning," i.e., learning by simply listening to the frequency distributions of the speech sounds in the environment. In the lab, fast distributional learning has been reported for infants in the second half of the first ...
Houston Derek M DM Department of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of - - 2014
The advent of cochlear implantation has provided thousands of deaf infants and children access to speech and the opportunity to learn spoken language. Whether or not deaf infants successfully learn spoken language after implantation may depend in part on the extent to which they listen to speech rather than just ...
Cristia Alejandrina - - 2013
There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. If such findings are held up under scrutiny, they could both illuminate theoretical models of language development and contribute to the prediction of ...
Ortiz-Mantilla Silvia - - 2013
Young infants discriminate phonetically relevant speech contrasts in a universal manner, that is, similarly across languages. This ability fades by 12 months of age as the brain builds language-specific phonemic maps and increasingly responds preferentially to the infant's native language. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the development of infant ...
Tsuji Sho - - 2013
Although the majority of evidence on perceptual narrowing in speech sounds is based on consonants, most models of infant speech perception generalize these findings to vowels, assuming that vowel perception improves for vowel sounds that are present in the infant's native language within the first year of life, and deteriorates ...
Vohr Betty - - 2013
Speech and language impairments of both simple and complex language functions are common among former preterm infants. Risk factors include lower gestational age and increasing illness severity including severe brain injury. Even in the absence of brain injury, however, altered brain maturation and vulnerability imposed by premature entrance to the ...
Bhagwat Jui - - 2013
Two experiments examined when monolingual, English-learning 19-month-old infants learn a second object label. Two experimenters sat together. One labeled a novel object with one novel label, whereas the other labeled the same object with a different label in either the same or a different language. Infants were tested on their ...
Tsuji Sho - - 2013
ABSTRACT Japanese infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared on their segmental distributions and consonant-vowel association patterns. Consistent with findings in other languages, a higher ratio of segments that are generally produced early was found in IDS compared to ADS: more labial consonants and low-central vowels, but fewer ...
Benders Titia - - 2013
Exaggeration of the vowel space in infant-directed speech (IDS) is well documented for English, but not consistently replicated in other languages or for other speech-sound contrasts. A second attested, but less discussed, pattern of change in IDS is an overall rise of the formant frequencies, which may reflect an affective ...
Sherman Michael P - - 2013
The aim of this article is to educate neonatal caregivers about metagenomics. This scientific field uses novel and ever changing molecular methods to identify how infants become colonized with microbes after birth. Publications using metagenomics appear infrequently in the neonatal literature because clinicians are unaccustomed to the analytical techniques, data ...
Altvater-Mackensen Nicole - - 2013
At about 7 months of age, infants listen longer to sentences containing familiar words - but not deviant pronunciations of familiar words (Jusczyk & Aslin, 1995). This finding suggests that infants are able to segment familiar words from fluent speech and that they store words in sufficient phonological detail to recognize ...
Ellis Harold - - 2013
This year marks the 100th anniversary of the death of Edwin Klebs, a distinguished bacteriologist and pathologist, who died in 1913. Despite having many achievements in a remarkably wide range of pathologies, he is best remembered today as the discoverer of the causative organism of diphtheria, perpetuated by its eponymous ...
Faridi M M A MM Department of Paediatrics, University College of Medical Sciences and Guru Tegh Bahadur Hospital, Delhi 110095 - - 2013
Presence of blood in the breastmilk renders a rusty or brownish colour to it; this entity is known as "rusty pipe syndrome". Although this is a self-limiting condition, it can be particularly intimidating for mothers and may act as a psychological barrier to successful breastfeeding. We describe this entity in ...
Rand Katherine - - 2013
It is unclear whether the atypical language development commonly seen in preterm infants is a consequence of language deficiency experienced during their prolonged NICU stay. This review provides a novel viewpoint, which highlights the potential impact of the NICU design on the developmental origin of language disabilities in preterm infants. ...
Baart Martijn - - 2013
Infants and adults are well able to match auditory and visual speech, but the cues on which they rely (viz. temporal, phonetic and energetic correspondence in the auditory and visual speech streams) may differ. Here we assessed the relative contribution of the different cues using sine-wave speech (SWS). Adults (N=52) ...
Ahmad Nadia Y - - 2013
The objectives were to examine emotion-related language in mothers' narratives about newborn screening, and test the correlations between language and self-reported emotion and behavior. Transcripts of interviews with mothers of infant sickle cell carriers were analyzed with word count software for the prevalence of emotion-related words in narratives about newborn ...
Rice Mabel L - - 2013
Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected, particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HIV-exposed but uninfected children enrolled in a US-based ...
Byers-Heinlein Krista - - 2013
Human infants become native-language listeners through a process of perceptual narrowing. Monolingual infants are initially sensitive to a wide range of language-relevant contrasts. However, as they mature and gain native-language experience, their sensitivity to nonnative contrasts declines. Here, we consider the case of infants growing up bilingual as a window ...
Männel Claudia - - 2013
Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. ...
Marchetto Erika - - 2013
In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual ...
Martin Andrew J - - 2013
The Parent Report of Children's Abilities-Revised (PARCA-R) assesses cognitive and language development at 24 months. It was validated against the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), but this has now been superseded by BSID III. To compare the PARCA-R against the BSID III. ...
Hakan Nilay - - 2013
We read with great interest the paper by Austin et al (1) that evaluated the impact of in utero exposure to antidepressant drugs on infants' neurodevelopment. Using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) to assess neurodevelopmental at 18-months-of-age, they reported that in utero exposure to antidepressants - mostly serotonin reuptake ...
Weisleder Adriana - - 2013
Infants differ substantially in their rates of language growth, and slow growth predicts later academic difficulties. In this study, we explored how the amount of speech directed to infants in Spanish-speaking families low in socioeconomic status influenced the development of children's skill in real-time language processing and vocabulary learning. All-day ...
Ferry Alissa L AL Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, 34136 Trieste, - - 2013
Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which ...
Waxman Sandra - - 2013
For decades, a spirited debate has existed over whether infants' remarkable capacity to learn words is shaped primarily by universal features of human language or by specific featuers of the particulare native language they are acquiring. A strong focus for this debate has been a well-documented difference in early word ...
Estes Katharine Graf - - 2013
Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants' learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. ...
Harris Malinda N MN Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2013
Previous studies suggest that former late preterm infants are at increased risk for learning and behavioral problems compared with term infants. These studies have primarily used referred clinical samples of children followed only until early school age. Our objective was to determine the cumulative incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ...
Shic Frederick - - 2013
From birth, infants show a preference for the faces, gaze, and voices of others. In individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) these biases seem to be disturbed. The source of these disturbances is not well-understood, but recent efforts have shown that the spontaneous deployment of attention to social targets might ...
Igarashi Yosuke - - 2013
To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which ...
Depaolis Rory A - - 2013
This study compared the preference of 27 British English- and 26 Welsh-learning infants for nonwords featuring consonants that occur with equal frequency in the input but that are produced either with equal frequency (Welsh) or with differing frequency (British English) in infant vocalizations. For the English infants a significant difference ...
Dimitrova Nevena - - 2013
Caregivers modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been related to children's language development. However, the factors influencing caregivers' modification of gestures are understudied. This study examined whether infants' object knowledge, considered as common ground shared with the caregiver, relates to caregivers' gesturese. Six caregiver-infant dyads ...
Spittle Alicia J - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Although ∼50% of very preterm (VP) children have neurodevelopmental impairments, early prediction of infants who will experience problems later in life remains a challenge. This study evaluated the predictive value of general movements (GM; spontaneous and endogenous movements) at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for neurodevelopment at 2 and ...
Maitre Nathalie L - - 2013
Neurodevelopmental delays in intensive care neonates are common but difficult to predict. In children, hemisphere differences in cortical processing of speech are predictive of cognitive performance. We hypothesized that hemisphere differences in auditory event-related potentials in intensive care neonates are predictive of neurodevelopment in infancy, even in those born preterm. ...
Nelson Eliza L - - 2013
Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between handedness and language in development. However, traditional handedness studies using single age groups, small samples, or too few measurement time points have not capitalized on individual variability and may have masked 2 recently identified patterns in infants: those with a consistent ...
Filippa Manuela - - 2013
To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their ...
Meunier Hélène - - 2013
We review four studies investigating hand preferences for grasping versus pointing to objects at several spatial positions in human infants and three species of nonhuman primates using the same experimental setup. We expected that human infants and nonhuman primates present a comparable difference in their pattern of laterality according to ...
Maitre Nathalie L NL Division of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-9544, USA. - - 2013
Neurodevelopmental delay in childhood is common in infants born preterm, but is difficult to predict before infants leave the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We hypothesized that event-related potential (ERP) methodology characterizing the cortical differentiation of speech sounds in hospitalized infants would predict cognitive and language outcomes during early childhood. ...
Wild Katherine T - - 2013
Independently, both prematurity and low socioeconomic status (SES) compromise language outcome but less is known regarding the effects of low SES on outcome of prior preterm infants at toddler age. To assess SES effects on the language outcome of prior preterm infants at toddler age. Retrospective chart review of infants ...
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