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Ponciroli K M - - 2006
We describe a 2-month-old female infant with a univentricular heart and overly tightened pulmonary artery band (PAB) resulting in hypercyanotic episodes. Despite adequate doses of morphine and a beta-blocker, she continued to have multiple hypercyanotic events per day. Treatment with fludrocortisone resulted in resolution of these episodes and allowed performance ...
Myers Catherine - - 2006
Legionella infections are uncommon in childhood. We report the case of an infant who developed multiple pulmonary abscesses caused by Legionella pneumophila after receiving prolonged corticosteroid treatment of severe croup. Diagnosis was not suspected because immunosuppression was not initially considered. Caution should be used when prolonging high-dose corticosteroids in children ...
Brakenhoff Jeffrey E - - 2006
(1) To determine the effect of age, height, weight, breed, sex, and specific use on the prevalence of idiopathic left laryngeal hemiplegia (ILH) in a population of draft performance horses; (2) to determine the association between tracheal mucus and laryngeal dysfunction, and the prevalence of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) in ...
Tzifa Aphrodite - - 2007
The impact of prenatal diagnosis on morbidity and mortality for certain types of congenital heart disease (obstructive left heart lesions and transposition of the great arteries) is well established. No data are available for lesions with duct dependent pulmonary flow. We aimed to assess the impact of prenatal diagnosis of ...
Puckett Barbara - - 2006
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) affects 1 in every 2,000 to 4,000 live births. Many infants with this condition are diagnosed antenatally through routine ultrasound screening. Nearly 90 percent present at delivery with severe respiratory distress requiring intubation. Many of these infants develop persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn due to ...
Hiramatsu Yuji - - 2006
Cyanotic neonates with Ebstein's anomaly associated with pulmonary atresia are a subgroup with the high mortality rate in pediatric cardiac surgery. We report a case of a severely symptomatic low birth weight neonate with Ebstein's anomaly and pulmonary atresia. A biventricular repair with Danielson-type tricuspid valve repair was performed. The ...
Simiyu D E - - 2006
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) was described in 1969 by Gersomy and co-workers as persistent foetal circulation. Supra - systemic pulmonary artery pressures result in right to left shunting of blood through the ductus arteriosus and/or foramen ovale. This results from failure of the normal adaptation to extra ...
Antao B - - 2006
Congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia is a rare cause of irreversible pulmonary hypertension with 100% mortality. We present three cases of congenital alveolar capillary dysplasia with associated gastrointestinal abnormalities. Three full-term neonates presented with pulmonary hypertension needing ventilatory support by oscillation. Of the three, two neonates subsequently needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. ...
Conforti Andrea F - - 2006
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) retains high mortality due to lung hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension. Efforts to improve survival and outcome have included fetal intervention, delivery at specialist centres, elective operation after stabilisation of labile physiology and minimising barotrauma. Permissive hypercapnea ('gentle ventilation') represents a significant advance in therapy gaining wider ...
Cetin Hasan - - 2006
Pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare but well-known complication in preterm infants. We present a case of massive pulmonary hemorrhage in a 9-day-old male infant, successfully treated with intravenous recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk). The infant was diagnosed with sepsis-related disseminated intravascular coagulation and required ventilator support for ...
Verma R P - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We studied the ante- and postnatal risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, <1000 g at birth) in the present era of tocolytics, antenatal steroid and postnatal surfactant administration. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case-controlled study of ...
Chambers Christina D - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is associated with substantial infant mortality and morbidity. A previous cohort study suggested a possible association between maternal use of the selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine late in the third trimester of pregnancy and the risk of PPHN in the infant. We ...
Crankson Stanley J - - 2006
In spite of the innovations in the management of newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) presenting with respiratory distress at birth, mortality and ongoing morbidity still remain high. This is a retrospective analysis of newborns with CDH to determine the immediate and long-term outcomes among survivors. Medical records of newborns ...
Fumino S - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) still has a high mortality because of accompanying lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. Although prognostic parameters based on perinatal measurements have been proposed, our ability to accurately predict the surgical results remains insufficient. METHODS: We treated 55 infants with CDH from 1981 to 2004. ...
Chang Ya-Ying - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful in evaluating the repair of lesions in patients with congenital heart disease. But the use of TEE in infants with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) remains unclear. We reviewed the safety and efficacy of intraoperative TEE during TAPVC repair. METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive ...
De Paepe Monique E - - 2005
Assessment of lung development is a crucial component of the perinatal autopsy, especially in preterm infants. In current pathology practice, the diagnosis of lung hypoplasia in very premature infants (<28 weeks of gestation) is based on a lung weight/body weight ratio (LW/BW) of 1.5% or less. While useful to confirm ...
Wu En-Ting - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Balloon valvuloplasty in infants with symptomatic tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) may increase the pulmonary flow and prompt the growth of pulmonary arteries. METHOD: From 1994 to 2002, percutaneous transluminal balloon valvuloplasty (PTPV) was performed in 22 consecutive newborns and young infants (<3 months of age) with TOF. The indication ...
Shehata Bahig M - - 2005
We present a case of an infant with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) who was affected by alveolar capillary dysplasia and other complications including endocardial cushion defect, hypothyroidism, and intrauterine growth restriction. The patient was the product of a third pregnancy to a 33-year-old woman with no significant risk factors. The ...
Shaukat Aasma - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding reduces the risk of asthma and respiratory infections in infants. Since respiratory infections are associated with reduced pulmonary function in adolescents, pulmonary function impairment may be carried into adulthood. Our aim was to determine whether a history of having been breastfed as an infant is a determinant of ...
Bassler Dirk - - 2006
Current standard therapy for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) consists of optimal lung inflation, hemodynamic support and selective vasodilation with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). However, not all infants will respond. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase (PDE) III inhibitor, is routinely used in pediatric cardiac intensive care units to improve inotropy ...
Slesnick T C - - 2005
We report a case of an infant with complex congenital heart disease who was placed on captopril for afterload reduction following cardiac surgery and subsequently developed pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia. The patient was readmitted with symptoms of rhinorrhea, poor feeding, and decreased activity level. She was found to have diffuse ...
Derby Christopher D - - 2005
Uncertainty surrounds both the timing and ideal form of early management of tetralogy of Fallot. Some centers perform early complete repair in all patients regardless of age, symptoms and morphology. Others recommend a two-stage approach involving initial palliation in symptomatic neonates and young infants and those with unfavorable anatomy (anomalous ...
Dempsey E M - - 2005
Pulmonary lymphangiectasia is a rare cause of respiratory distress in the newborn associated with a very poor outcome. We describe three premature newborns presenting at birth with nonimmune hydrops, bilateral chylothorax, and severe respiratory distress in the immediate newborn period secondary to pulmonary lymphangiectasia. We review the similarities of these ...
Bellini C - - 2005
Congenital pulmonary lymphangiectasia (PL) is a rare developmental disorder involving the lung and is characterized by pulmonary subpleural, interlobar, perivascular, and peribronchial lymphatic dilatation. Both frequency and etiology are unknown. PL presents at birth with severe respiratory distress, tachypnea, and cyanosis, with a very high mortality rate at or within ...
Berk David R - - 2005
Localized persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema has rarely been reported in preterm infants in the absence of utilization of mechanical ventilation or continuous positive airway pressure. The relative rarity of this condition might preclude rendering of the correct diagnosis, making patients susceptible to unnecessary surgery and increased morbidity and mortality associated ...
Arda I S - - 2005
The main features of Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B) are enlargement of the liver and spleen, and mild pulmonary involvement. Recurrent respiratory tract infection and progressive decline in pulmonary function are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in this patient group. Massive pulmonary involvement in early life is extremely rare. ...
Gosche John R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension are the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). At present, the origin of CDH and the causes of pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension are unknown. DATA SOURCES: This article reviews the available published data regarding the origin of CDH ...
Schmidt Christoph - - 2005
The increasing frequency of video-assisted thoracoscopic interventions as well as open thoracic surgical procedures in children demands appropriate anesthetic techniques to provide single-lung ventilation. A fiberoptically directed, wire-guided 5F endobronchial blocker for use in small infants has recently been devised. We report on the very special aspects of airway management ...
Michalsky Marc P - - 2005
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to review the authors' experience with alveolar capillary dysplasia (ACD), a cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN) caused by decreased alveolar units, dilated anomalous pulmonary veins, thick-walled arterioles, and thickened interalveolar septa. METHODS: The records of all neonates with ACD ...
Shrivastava Savitri - - 2005
Cyanotic congenital heart disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates, infants and children. Presently facilities for treatment for most of these cases are available in many centres in India also. The most important factor is awareness, complete correct diagnosis and timely intervention either palliative or corrective. ...
Danhaive Olivier - - 2005
This case series reports an acute episode of hypoxemia and systemic hypotension in seven infants under 1 kg, taking place several hours or days after birth, after a period of stability and in the absence of significant lung disease. These patients were growth-restricted at birth and had a history of ...
El-Segaier Milad - - 2005
Three newborn infants with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and intact ventricular septum (IVS) developed postnatal persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and were successfully treated with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Intervention with balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) was performed in two of the infants before the iNO treatment, ...
Frigiola Alessandro - - 2005
We describe the cases of 2 infants aged 6 and 2 1/2 months, respectively, affected by mitral valve dysplasia that caused severe valvular insufficiency and heart failure in which a surgical correction was indicated because of critical general conditions. In both patients the anatomic characteristics of the valves were not ...
Greenough Anne - - 2005
Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn occurs in 1.9 per 1000 live births and affected infants are hypoxaemic because of right-to-left shunts through the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale. Pulmonary hypertension of the newborn may be primary, or secondary to a variety of conditions including intrapartum asphyxia, infection, pulmonary hypoplasia, congenital ...
Cook Larry N - - 2005
Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) and subsequent hypoxic respiratory failure is seen in association with numerous diseases and conditions in the neonate. This includes infections such as group B streptococcus, meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal asphyxia, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart disease, and as an idiopathic phenomenon. Conventional therapy of persistent pulmonary ...
Madan Ashima - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available to describe the spectrum of severity of neonatal chronic lung disease. In the multicenter Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity trial, all infants had some degree of pulmonary dysfunction, because eligibility required a median oxygen saturation of < or =94% with room air. ...
Ambalavanan Namasivayam - - 2005
Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling (HPVR) may lead to persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn or cor pulmonale. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), via endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor activation, mediates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Our objectives were to develop a newborn mouse model of HPVR and to test the hypothesis that ET(A) blockade would prevent and ...
Cheah Fook-Choe - - 2005
Unresolved pulmonary inflammation in hyaline membrane disease (HMD) may be a precursor to the development of chronic lung disease of early infancy. We investigated whether nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), a transcription factor that regulates the inflammatory process, is activated in pulmonary leukocytes in tracheal aspirates from premature infants with HMD. ...
Kreindler James - - 2005
Systemic lupus erythematosus in infants born to healthy mothers is a rare entity. We describe a male infant who presented at 1 month of age with pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus, confirmed serologically and histologically. He was managed with a combination of prednisone and intermittent cyclophosphamide, ...
Silva Cicero J T A - - 2005
Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder characterized by widespread capillary proliferation in the lung, infiltrating the interstitium and the alveolar walls. We present the HRCT features of PCH in a surviving ex-premature infant. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of the radiological features of PCH in ...
Ginz Hans F - - 2005
In infants with a Norwood stage I reconstruction, the respiratory management to direct pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio is of critical importance. Disturbance of this delicate blood-flow balance can occur causing rapid deterioration of the infant's condition requiring urgent interventions. However, the emergency staff personnel that are generally the ...
Farrow Kathryn N - - 2005
Neonatal extracorporeal support is most often required for neonatal hypoxemic respiratory failure, usually accompanied by persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). PPHN is a clinical syndrome that results from the failure of pulmonary vascular transition to extrauterine life. Infants typically present shortly after birth with respiratory distress and cyanosis, ...
Chao Michael C - - 2005
Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) is an uncommon but potentially life threatening pulmonary abnormality affecting infants. Patients often present within the first 6 months of life with recurrent respiratory distress as a result of hyperinflation of the affected pulmonary lobe, and resultant near total collapse of normal lung parenchyma. We present ...
Bhutani Vinod K - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Postnatal alterations in pulmonary mechanics, energetics and functional residual capacity (FRC) describe the structural maturation of the preterm respiratory system. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal changes in pulmonary function in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) treated with oxygen, positive pressure ventilation and synthetic surfactant (Exosurf). METHODS: Serial pulmonary function ...
Almeida Celize C B - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although chest physiotherapy techniques are commonly used in the treatment of respiratory diseases, there are, however, few studies in the literature on the effectiveness of these techniques in paediatric patients. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the expiratory flow increase technique ...
Boucek Mark M - - 2005
Catheter-based interventional palliation of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) has been successfully used to stabilize infants awaiting orthotopic heart transplantation. The three critical palliative requirements for HLHS are ductal patentcy, left heart decompression, and the regulation of pulmonary flow. We reviewed our experience in 40 infants with ductal ...
Fenton Kathleen N - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Recent work has focused attention on interim mortality (death after hospital discharge and before second-stage surgery) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This study investigates interim mortality in infants undergoing systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunts for pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum. METHODS: At two centers in 11 years (January 1991 through ...
Usui Noriaki - - 2004
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The authors experienced 3 cases of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate (PPHN) associated with duodenal atresia with paradoxical dilatation of the distal blind end of the duodenum. The aim of this study was to clarify the characteristics of this novel association. METHODS: The medical charts of the patients ...
Picone Olivier - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate perinatal outcome after thoracoamniotic shunting for fetal pleural effusions with hydrops. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective study. RESULTS: Shunting was performed immediately after diagnosis and was successful in all 54 of the cases that were attempted. There were 7 pregnancy ...
Loukanov Tsvetomir - - 2004
An infant with pulmonary sling syndrome associated with an abnormal branching of the trachea, bronchus suis, complicated by long segment intrathoracic tracheal stenosis (ie, "funnel trachea") and concomitant tracheomalacia underwent reoperation at 5 months of age. We review the anatomy of this rare entity and describe the surgical technique to ...
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