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Hochmann Jean-Rémy - - 2013
The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean "a rabbit" or ...
Droucker Danielle - - 2013
In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six ...
Yeung H Henny - - 2013
Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces ...
DiFrancesco Mark W MW Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Pediatric Neuroimaging Research Consortium, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2013
To elucidate differences in the disruption of language network function, as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional MRI (fMRI), attributable to two common sedative agents administered to infants under clinical imaging protocols. The sedatives pentobarbital (Nembutal) and Propofol, administered clinically to infants at 1 year of age, were ...
van Heugten Marieke - - 2013
Although adults rapidly adjust to accented speakers' pronunciation of words, young children appear to struggle when confronted with unfamiliar variants of their native language (e.g., American English-learning 15-month-olds cannot recognize familiar words spoken in Jamaican English; Best et al., 2009). It is currently unclear, however, why this is the case, ...
Scott Jessica C - - 2013
Object labels are valuable communicative tools because their meanings are shared among the members of a particular linguistic community. The current research was conducted to investigate whether 13-month-old infants appreciate that object labels should not be generalized across individuals who have been shown to speak different languages. Using a visual ...
Lewkowicz David J DJ Department of Psychology & Center for Complex Systems & Brain Science Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431, - - 2013
Audiovisual speech consists of overlapping and invariant patterns of dynamic acoustic and optic articulatory information. Research has shown that infants can perceive a variety of basic audio-visual (A-V) relations but no studies have investigated whether and when infants begin to perceive higher order A-V relations inherent in speech. Here, we ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2013
The time frame for infants' acquisition of language constancy was probed, using the phonetic variation in a rarely heard accent (South African English) or a frequently heard accent (American English). A total of 156 Australian infants were tested. Six-month-olds looked longer to Australian English than less commonly heard South African ...
Reynolds Greg D - - 2013
Two experiments assessing event-related potentials in 5-month-old infants were conducted to examine neural correlates of attentional salience and efficiency of processing of a visual event (woman speaking) paired with redundant (synchronous) speech, nonredundant (asynchronous) speech, or no speech. In Experiment 1, the Nc component associated with attentional salience was greater ...
Gervain Judit - - 2013
A central problem in language acquisition is how children effortlessly acquire the grammar of their native language even though speech provides no direct information about underlying structure. This learning problem is even more challenging for dual language learners, yet bilingual infants master their mother tongues as efficiently as monolinguals do. ...
Carlberg Valerie M - - 2013
Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He ...
Elsabbagh Mayada - - 2013
Infants' visual scanning of social scenes is influenced by both exogenously and endogenously driven shifts of attention. We manipulate these factors by contrasting individual infants' distribution of visual attention to the eyes relative to the mouth when viewing complex dynamic scenes with multiple communicative signals (e.g., peek-a-boo), relative to the ...
Abraham Linzy M - - 2013
The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the ...
Moon Christine C Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447, USA. - - 2013
To test the hypothesis that exposure to ambient language in the womb alters phonetic perception shortly after birth. This two-country study aimed to see whether neonates demonstrated prenatal learning by how they responded to vowels in a category from their native language and another non-native language, regardless of how much ...
Lewis Fiona M - - 2013
Background: Neonatal screening for galactosaemia (GAL) identifies the condition early, but subsequent biomedical and genetic testing fails to identify which subgroup of infants with GAL are at most risk of the language disorders associated with the condition. This study aims to present preliminary data on an infant with GAL based ...
Kerkhoff Annemarie - - 2013
ABSTRACT This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical relations ...
Trehub Sandra E SE Music Development Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga Mississauga, ON, - - 2013
We explored the possibility of a unique cross-modal signature in maternal speech and singing that enables adults and infants to link unfamiliar speaking or singing voices with subsequently viewed silent videos of the talkers or singers. In Experiment 1, adults listened to 30-s excerpts of speech followed by successively presented ...
Yamashita Yuko - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to explore developmental changes, in terms of spectral fluctuations and temporal periodicity with Japanese- and English-learning infants. Three age groups (15, 20, and 24 months) were selected, because infants diversify phonetic inventories with age. Natural speech of the infants was recorded. We utilized a critical-band-filter ...
Saint-Georges Catherine - - 2013
Various aspects of motherese also known as infant-directed speech (IDS) have been studied for many years. As it is a widespread phenomenon, it is suspected to play some important roles in infant development. Therefore, our purpose was to provide an update of the evidence accumulated by reviewing all of the ...
Kushnerenko Elena - - 2013
The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual (AV) speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven ...
Corbeil Marieve - - 2013
Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech ...
Ngon Céline - - 2013
Previous research with artificial language learning paradigms has shown that infants are sensitive to statistical cues to word boundaries (Saffran, Aslin & Newport, 1996) and that they can use these cues to extract word-like units (Saffran, 2001). However, it is unknown whether infants use statistical information to construct a receptive ...
Pancsofar Nadya - - 2013
Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month old infants who ...
He Lili L Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States of - - 2013
The developmental significance of the frequently encountered white matter signal abnormality (WMSA) findings on MRI around term-equivalent age (TEA) in very preterm infants, remains in question. The use of conventional qualitative analysis methods is subjective, lacks sufficient reliability for producing accurate and reproducible WMSA diagnosis, and possibly contributes to suboptimal ...
Bortfeld Heather - - 2013
The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment ...
Goyet Louise - - 2013
WORD FORM SEGMENTATION ABILITIES EMERGE DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE, AND IT HAS BEEN PROPOSED THAT INFANTS INITIALLY RELY ON TWO TYPES OF CUES TO EXTRACT WORDS FROM FLUENT SPEECH: Transitional Probabilities (TPs) and rhythmic units. The main goal of the present study was to use the behavioral method ...
Bosch Laura - - 2013
The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also ...
Ozturk Ozge O Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Language Acquisition Department, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. ...
Dargan D - - 2013
We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. A male infant was born at 30(+5) weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent ...
Naoi Nozomi - - 2013
Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) ...
Bosseler Alexis N AN Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA ; Cognitive Brain Research Unit, University of Helsinki Helsinki, - - 2013
The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants' initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the world's languages narrows-native discrimination increases while non-native discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether brain oscillations in ...
Gonzalez-Gomez Nayeli - - 2012
PURPOSE: In the present study, we explore whether French-learning infants use non-adjacent phonotactic regularities in their native language, which they learn between 7 and 10 months of age, to segment words from fluent speech. METHOD: Two groups of 20 French-learning infants were tested using the head-turn preference procedure at 10 ...
Deniz Can Dilara D Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, USA. - - 2013
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration ...
Ko Gary - - 2012
Objective To explore the association between maternal education levels and cognitive and language composite scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition at 18 to 24 months' corrected age in extremely preterm infants born at < 29 weeks of gestation.Design/methods For infants born between 2005 and 2008, maternal education levels and the ...
Huotilainen Minna - - 2012
In this issue of Acta Paediatrica, Christine Moon, Hugo Lagercrantz, and Patricia K. Kuhl report their findings in phoneme learning before birth (1). They demonstrate that the exposure to the voice of the mother (and possibly other people) in the native language of the mother has altered the processing of ...
Depaolis Rory A - - 2012
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The ...
Chonchaiya Weerasak W Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2013
Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem ...
Fernald Anne A Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2013
This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental ...
Seery Anne M AM Boston University, Department of Psychology, 64 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2013
Language impairment is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and is often accompanied by atypical neural lateralization. However, it is unclear when in development language impairment or atypical lateralization first emerges. To address these questions, we recorded event-related-potentials (ERPs) to native and non-native speech contrasts longitudinally in infants at risk ...
Noori Soudabeh - - 2012
The aim of this study is assessment of effects of different assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on prelinguistic behavior of infants conceived by these techniques. In this descriptive, cross sectional study, prelinguistic behavior of 151 full term ART infants of ...
Koterba Erin - - 2012
During the first year of life, infants spend substantial amounts of time exploring objects they encounter in their daily environments. Perceptuo-motor information gained through these experiences provides a foundation for later developmental advances in cognition and language. This study aims to examine developmental trajectories of visual, oral, and manual object ...
Marwick H H National Centre for Autism Studies, University of Strathclyde, Scotland, United Kingdom. - - 2013
To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder ...
Hay Jessica F - - 2012
Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to initial prominence (trochaic-based ...
Weikum Whitney M - - 2012
Language acquisition reflects a complex interplay between biology and early experience. Psychotropic medication exposure has been shown to alter neural plasticity and shift sensitive periods in perceptual development. Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during ...
Otte R A - - 2012
Correctly processing rapid sequences of sounds is essential for developmental milestones, such as language acquisition. We investigated the sensitivity of two-month-old infants to violations of a temporal regularity, by recording event-related brain potentials (ERP) in an auditory oddball paradigm from 36 waking and 40 sleeping infants. Standard tones were presented ...
Kirk Elizabeth - - 2012
Findings are presented from the first randomized control trial of the effects of encouraging symbolic gesture (or "baby sign") on infant language, following 40 infants from age 8 months to 20 months. Half of the mothers were trained to model a target set of gestures to their infants. Frequent measures were taken ...
Ting Jonathan Y JY Babytalk Research Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. - - 2012
To examine the hypothesis that infants receiving a degraded auditory signal have more difficulty segmenting words from fluent speech if familiarized with the words presented in both speech and sign compared to familiarization with the words presented in speech only. Experiment utilizing an infant-controlled visual preference procedure. Twenty 8.5-month-old normal-hearing ...
Shultz Cameron - - 2012
The authors examine African American African American and White socioeconomic and infant mortality outcomes in Genesee County, Michigan, assess the stated effects of the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW) on its participants and the greater-Genesee County community, and introduce the ecological approach to the cycle of socialization as a tool to ...
Martin Andrew - - 2012
Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely ...
Ganea Patricia A - - 2012
The present research investigated the role of familiarity and proximity in infants' comprehension of displaced speech. When 13- and 16-month-old infants heard a researcher talk about a familiar person immediately after she left the room, they showed comprehension of the name by looking, pointing, or searching for the person in ...
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