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Gervain Judit - - 2013
A central problem in language acquisition is how children effortlessly acquire the grammar of their native language even though speech provides no direct information about underlying structure. This learning problem is even more challenging for dual language learners, yet bilingual infants master their mother tongues as efficiently as monolinguals do. ...
Elsabbagh Mayada - - 2013
Infants' visual scanning of social scenes is influenced by both exogenously and endogenously driven shifts of attention. We manipulate these factors by contrasting individual infants' distribution of visual attention to the eyes relative to the mouth when viewing complex dynamic scenes with multiple communicative signals (e.g., peek-a-boo), relative to the ...
Abraham Linzy M - - 2013
The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the ...
Moon Christine C Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447, USA. - - 2013
To test the hypothesis that exposure to ambient language in the womb alters phonetic perception shortly after birth. This two-country study aimed to see whether neonates demonstrated prenatal learning by how they responded to vowels in a category from their native language and another non-native language, regardless of how much ...
Lewis Fiona M - - 2013
Background: Neonatal screening for galactosaemia (GAL) identifies the condition early, but subsequent biomedical and genetic testing fails to identify which subgroup of infants with GAL are at most risk of the language disorders associated with the condition. This study aims to present preliminary data on an infant with GAL based ...
Ngon Céline - - 2013
Previous research with artificial language learning paradigms has shown that infants are sensitive to statistical cues to word boundaries (Saffran, Aslin & Newport, 1996) and that they can use these cues to extract word-like units (Saffran, 2001). However, it is unknown whether infants use statistical information to construct a receptive ...
Pancsofar Nadya - - 2013
Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month old infants who ...
Kerkhoff Annemarie - - 2013
ABSTRACT This study tests the hypothesis that developmental dyslexia is (partly) caused by a deficit in implicit sequential learning, by investigating whether infants at familial risk of dyslexia can track non-adjacent dependencies in an artificial language. An implicit learning deficit would hinder detection of such dependencies, which mark grammatical relations ...
Dargan D - - 2013
We report an extremely rare and challenging combination of congenital anomalies. Only five similar cases have been described in the English language medical literature to date. A male infant was born at 30(+5) weeks gestation by emergency caesarian section. Cervical spine rachischisis, shortened oesophagus, intrathoracic stomach, atretic duodenum and absent ...
Corbeil Marieve - - 2013
Infants prefer speech to non-vocal sounds and to non-human vocalizations, and they prefer happy-sounding speech to neutral speech. They also exhibit an interest in singing, but there is little knowledge of their relative interest in speech and singing. The present study explored infants' attention to unfamiliar audio samples of speech ...
Bortfeld Heather - - 2013
The initial stages of language learning involve a critical interaction between infants' environmental experience and their developing brains. The past several decades of research have produced important behavioral evidence of the many factors influencing this process, both on the part of the child and on the part of the environment ...
Yamashita Yuko - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to explore developmental changes, in terms of spectral fluctuations and temporal periodicity with Japanese- and English-learning infants. Three age groups (15, 20, and 24 months) were selected, because infants diversify phonetic inventories with age. Natural speech of the infants was recorded. We utilized a critical-band-filter ...
Bosch Laura - - 2013
The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also ...
Naoi Nozomi - - 2013
Preterm infants are at increased risk of language-related problems later in life; however, few studies have examined the effects of preterm birth on cerebral responses to speech at very early developmental stages. This study examined cerebral activation and functional connectivity in response to infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) ...
Kushnerenko Elena - - 2013
The use of visual cues during the processing of audiovisual (AV) speech is known to be less efficient in children and adults with language difficulties and difficulties are known to be more prevalent in children from low-income populations. In the present study, we followed an economically diverse group of thirty-seven ...
Saint-Georges Catherine - - 2013
Various aspects of motherese also known as infant-directed speech (IDS) have been studied for many years. As it is a widespread phenomenon, it is suspected to play some important roles in infant development. Therefore, our purpose was to provide an update of the evidence accumulated by reviewing all of the ...
Goyet Louise - - 2013
WORD FORM SEGMENTATION ABILITIES EMERGE DURING THE FIRST YEAR OF LIFE, AND IT HAS BEEN PROPOSED THAT INFANTS INITIALLY RELY ON TWO TYPES OF CUES TO EXTRACT WORDS FROM FLUENT SPEECH: Transitional Probabilities (TPs) and rhythmic units. The main goal of the present study was to use the behavioral method ...
Bosseler Alexis N AN Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle WA, USA ; Cognitive Brain Research Unit, University of Helsinki Helsinki, - - 2013
The development of speech perception shows a dramatic transition between infancy and adulthood. Between 6 and 12 months, infants' initial ability to discriminate all phonetic units across the world's languages narrows-native discrimination increases while non-native discrimination shows a steep decline. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine whether brain oscillations in ...
Trehub Sandra E SE Music Development Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Mississauga Mississauga, ON, - - 2013
We explored the possibility of a unique cross-modal signature in maternal speech and singing that enables adults and infants to link unfamiliar speaking or singing voices with subsequently viewed silent videos of the talkers or singers. In Experiment 1, adults listened to 30-s excerpts of speech followed by successively presented ...
He Lili L Center for Perinatal Research, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, United States of - - 2013
The developmental significance of the frequently encountered white matter signal abnormality (WMSA) findings on MRI around term-equivalent age (TEA) in very preterm infants, remains in question. The use of conventional qualitative analysis methods is subjective, lacks sufficient reliability for producing accurate and reproducible WMSA diagnosis, and possibly contributes to suboptimal ...
Ozturk Ozge O Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Language Acquisition Department, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. - - 2013
The origin of color categories is under debate. Some researchers argue that color categories are linguistically constructed, while others claim they have a pre-linguistic, and possibly even innate, basis. Although there is some evidence that 4-6-month-old infants respond categorically to color, these empirical results have been challenged in recent years. ...
Gonzalez-Gomez Nayeli - - 2012
PURPOSE: In the present study, we explore whether French-learning infants use non-adjacent phonotactic regularities in their native language, which they learn between 7 and 10 months of age, to segment words from fluent speech. METHOD: Two groups of 20 French-learning infants were tested using the head-turn preference procedure at 10 ...
Ko Gary - - 2012
Objective To explore the association between maternal education levels and cognitive and language composite scores of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition at 18 to 24 months' corrected age in extremely preterm infants born at < 29 weeks of gestation.Design/methods For infants born between 2005 and 2008, maternal education levels and the ...
Deniz Can Dilara D Institute for Learning & Brain Sciences, University of Washington, USA. - - 2013
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months. Early gray-matter concentration ...
Huotilainen Minna - - 2012
In this issue of Acta Paediatrica, Christine Moon, Hugo Lagercrantz, and Patricia K. Kuhl report their findings in phoneme learning before birth (1). They demonstrate that the exposure to the voice of the mother (and possibly other people) in the native language of the mother has altered the processing of ...
Depaolis Rory A - - 2012
ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that by 11 but not by 10 months infants recognize words that have become familiar from everyday life independently of the experimental setting. This study explored the ability of 10-, 11-, and 12-month-old infants to recognize familiar words in sentential context, without experimental training. The ...
Chonchaiya Weerasak W Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, - - 2013
Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem ...
Fernald Anne A Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. - - 2013
This research revealed both similarities and striking differences in early language proficiency among infants from a broad range of advantaged and disadvantaged families. English-learning infants (n = 48) were followed longitudinally from 18 to 24 months, using real-time measures of spoken language processing. The first goal was to track developmental ...
Seery Anne M AM Boston University, Department of Psychology, 64 Cummington Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA. - - 2013
Language impairment is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and is often accompanied by atypical neural lateralization. However, it is unclear when in development language impairment or atypical lateralization first emerges. To address these questions, we recorded event-related-potentials (ERPs) to native and non-native speech contrasts longitudinally in infants at risk ...
Noori Soudabeh - - 2012
The aim of this study is assessment of effects of different assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) on prelinguistic behavior of infants conceived by these techniques. In this descriptive, cross sectional study, prelinguistic behavior of 151 full term ART infants of ...
Koterba Erin - - 2012
During the first year of life, infants spend substantial amounts of time exploring objects they encounter in their daily environments. Perceptuo-motor information gained through these experiences provides a foundation for later developmental advances in cognition and language. This study aims to examine developmental trajectories of visual, oral, and manual object ...
Hay Jessica F - - 2012
Linguistic stress and sequential statistical cues to word boundaries interact during speech segmentation in infancy. However, little is known about how the different acoustic components of stress constrain statistical learning. The current studies were designed to investigate whether intensity and duration each function independently as cues to initial prominence (trochaic-based ...
Marwick H H National Centre for Autism Studies, University of Strathclyde, Scotland, United Kingdom. - - 2013
To establish which social interactive behaviours predict later psychiatric diagnosis, we examined 180 videos of a parent-infant interaction when children were aged one year, from within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. Sixty of the videos involved infants who were later diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder ...
Weikum Whitney M - - 2012
Language acquisition reflects a complex interplay between biology and early experience. Psychotropic medication exposure has been shown to alter neural plasticity and shift sensitive periods in perceptual development. Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during ...
Otte R A - - 2012
Correctly processing rapid sequences of sounds is essential for developmental milestones, such as language acquisition. We investigated the sensitivity of two-month-old infants to violations of a temporal regularity, by recording event-related brain potentials (ERP) in an auditory oddball paradigm from 36 waking and 40 sleeping infants. Standard tones were presented ...
Kirk Elizabeth - - 2012
Findings are presented from the first randomized control trial of the effects of encouraging symbolic gesture (or "baby sign") on infant language, following 40 infants from age 8 months to 20 months. Half of the mothers were trained to model a target set of gestures to their infants. Frequent measures were taken ...
Shultz Cameron - - 2012
The authors examine African American African American and White socioeconomic and infant mortality outcomes in Genesee County, Michigan, assess the stated effects of the Undoing Racism Workshop (URW) on its participants and the greater-Genesee County community, and introduce the ecological approach to the cycle of socialization as a tool to ...
Ting Jonathan Y JY Babytalk Research Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. - - 2012
To examine the hypothesis that infants receiving a degraded auditory signal have more difficulty segmenting words from fluent speech if familiarized with the words presented in both speech and sign compared to familiarization with the words presented in speech only. Experiment utilizing an infant-controlled visual preference procedure. Twenty 8.5-month-old normal-hearing ...
Ganea Patricia A - - 2012
The present research investigated the role of familiarity and proximity in infants' comprehension of displaced speech. When 13- and 16-month-old infants heard a researcher talk about a familiar person immediately after she left the room, they showed comprehension of the name by looking, pointing, or searching for the person in ...
Martin Andrew - - 2012
Before the end of the first year of life, infants begin to lose the ability to perceive distinctions between sounds that are not phonemic in their native language. It is typically assumed that this developmental change reflects the construction of language-specific phoneme categories, but how these categories are learned largely ...
Fabiyi Camille - - 2012
Anxiety is heightened for mothers of premature infants, potentially interfering with early mothering. This study describes relationships among race/ethnicity, language, and anxiety for women at social-environmental risk who deliver a premature infant. Postnatal baseline interview data from a randomized trial testing a behavioral intervention for mothers and infants (29-34 weeks ...
Mathisen Bernice A - - 2012
Working in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is considered to be advanced practice for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) requiring post-graduate specialised education and ongoing clinical mentoring, not easily accessible within some countries such as Australia. This review investigated whether there was evidence to support SLPs as core NICU team members, rather ...
Cates Carolyn Brockmeyer - - 2012
To explore the relationship between early cognitive stimulation in the home, 6-month infant communication, and 24-month toddler language in a low-socioeconomic status sample. Longitudinal analyses of mother-child dyads participating in larger study of early child development were performed. Dyads enrolled postpartum in an urban public hospital. Cognitive stimulation in the ...
Pruden Shannon M SM Florida International University. - - 2013
Fundamental to amassing a lexicon of relational terms (i.e., verbs, prepositions) is the ability to abstract and categorize spatial relations such as a figure (e.g., boy) moving along a path (e.g., around the barn). Three studies examine how infants learn to categorize path over changes in manner, or how an ...
Henderson Annette M E - - 2012
As with all culturally relevant human behaviours, words are meaningful because they are shared by the members of a community. This research investigates whether 9-month-old infants understand this fundamental fact about language. Experiment 1 examined whether infants who are trained on, and subsequently habituated to, a new word-referent link expect ...
Chen Yi - - 2012
A revised U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method for the isolation and detection of Cronobacter from powdered infant formula was recently developed, which combines real-time PCR, chromogenic agars, and RAPID ID 32E biochemical tests. This method provides an expedient analysis within 24 to 48 h. A collaborative validation study ...
Kinzler Katherine D - - 2012
Infants learn from adults readily and cooperate with them spontaneously, but how do they select culturally appropriate teachers and collaborators? Building on evidence that children demonstrate social preferences for speakers of their native language, Experiment 1 presented 10-month-old infants with videotaped events in which a native and a foreign speaker ...
Bernard Carline - - 2012
Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial, and realized as increased ...
Thiessen Erik D - - 2012
To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles ...
Murphy Susan K - - 2012
Epigenetic alterations may mechanistically explain the developmental origins of adult disease, namely the hypothesis that many complex adult chronic diseases originate as a result of conditions encountered in utero. If true, epigenetically regulated imprinted genes, critical to normal growth and development, may partially mediate these outcomes. We determined the influence ...
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