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Ahmad Nadia Y - - 2013
The objectives were to examine emotion-related language in mothers' narratives about newborn screening, and test the correlations between language and self-reported emotion and behavior. Transcripts of interviews with mothers of infant sickle cell carriers were analyzed with word count software for the prevalence of emotion-related words in narratives about newborn ...
Rice Mabel L - - 2013
Combination antiretroviral (cARV) regimens are recommended for pregnant women with HIV to prevent perinatal HIV transmission. Safety is a concern for infants who were HIV-exposed but uninfected, particularly for neurodevelopmental problems, such as language delays. We studied late language emergence (LLE) in HIV-exposed but uninfected children enrolled in a US-based ...
Byers-Heinlein Krista - - 2013
Human infants become native-language listeners through a process of perceptual narrowing. Monolingual infants are initially sensitive to a wide range of language-relevant contrasts. However, as they mature and gain native-language experience, their sensitivity to nonnative contrasts declines. Here, we consider the case of infants growing up bilingual as a window ...
Männel Claudia - - 2013
Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. ...
Marchetto Erika - - 2013
In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual ...
Martin Andrew J - - 2013
The Parent Report of Children's Abilities-Revised (PARCA-R) assesses cognitive and language development at 24 months. It was validated against the Mental Development Index of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), but this has now been superseded by BSID III. To compare the PARCA-R against the BSID III. ...
Hakan Nilay - - 2013
We read with great interest the paper by Austin et al (1) that evaluated the impact of in utero exposure to antidepressant drugs on infants' neurodevelopment. Using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) to assess neurodevelopmental at 18-months-of-age, they reported that in utero exposure to antidepressants - mostly serotonin reuptake ...
Weisleder Adriana - - 2013
Infants differ substantially in their rates of language growth, and slow growth predicts later academic difficulties. In this study, we explored how the amount of speech directed to infants in Spanish-speaking families low in socioeconomic status influenced the development of children's skill in real-time language processing and vocabulary learning. All-day ...
Ferry Alissa L AL Cognitive Neuroscience Sector, Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, 34136 Trieste, - - 2013
Language is a signature of our species and our primary conduit for conveying the contents of our minds. The power of language derives not only from the exquisite detail of the signal itself but also from its intricate link to human cognition. To acquire a language, infants must identify which ...
Waxman Sandra - - 2013
For decades, a spirited debate has existed over whether infants' remarkable capacity to learn words is shaped primarily by universal features of human language or by specific featuers of the particulare native language they are acquiring. A strong focus for this debate has been a well-documented difference in early word ...
Estes Katharine Graf - - 2013
Adults typically use an exaggerated, distinctive speaking style when addressing infants. However, the effects of infant-directed (ID) speech on infants' learning is not yet well understood. This research investigates how ID speech affects how infants perform a key function in language acquisition, associating the sounds of words with their meanings. ...
Harris Malinda N MN Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2013
Previous studies suggest that former late preterm infants are at increased risk for learning and behavioral problems compared with term infants. These studies have primarily used referred clinical samples of children followed only until early school age. Our objective was to determine the cumulative incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ...
Shic Frederick - - 2013
From birth, infants show a preference for the faces, gaze, and voices of others. In individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) these biases seem to be disturbed. The source of these disturbances is not well-understood, but recent efforts have shown that the spontaneous deployment of attention to social targets might ...
Igarashi Yosuke - - 2013
To date, the intonation of infant-directed speech (IDS) has been analyzed without reference to its phonological structure. Intonational phonology should, however, inform IDS research, discovering important properties that have previously been overlooked. The present study investigated "intonational exaggeration" in Japanese IDS using the intonational phonological framework. Although intonational exaggeration, which ...
Depaolis Rory A - - 2013
This study compared the preference of 27 British English- and 26 Welsh-learning infants for nonwords featuring consonants that occur with equal frequency in the input but that are produced either with equal frequency (Welsh) or with differing frequency (British English) in infant vocalizations. For the English infants a significant difference ...
Dimitrova Nevena - - 2013
Caregivers modify their communication when interacting with infants, and these modifications have been related to children's language development. However, the factors influencing caregivers' modification of gestures are understudied. This study examined whether infants' object knowledge, considered as common ground shared with the caregiver, relates to caregivers' gesturese. Six caregiver-infant dyads ...
Spittle Alicia J - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Although ∼50% of very preterm (VP) children have neurodevelopmental impairments, early prediction of infants who will experience problems later in life remains a challenge. This study evaluated the predictive value of general movements (GM; spontaneous and endogenous movements) at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for neurodevelopment at 2 and ...
Maitre Nathalie L - - 2013
Neurodevelopmental delays in intensive care neonates are common but difficult to predict. In children, hemisphere differences in cortical processing of speech are predictive of cognitive performance. We hypothesized that hemisphere differences in auditory event-related potentials in intensive care neonates are predictive of neurodevelopment in infancy, even in those born preterm. ...
Nelson Eliza L - - 2013
Researchers have long been interested in the relationship between handedness and language in development. However, traditional handedness studies using single age groups, small samples, or too few measurement time points have not capitalized on individual variability and may have masked 2 recently identified patterns in infants: those with a consistent ...
Filippa Manuela - - 2013
To study the effects of live maternal speaking and singing on physiological parameters of preterm infants in the NICU and test the hypothesis that vocal stimulation can have differential effects on preterm infants at a behavioural level. Eighteen mothers spoke and sang to their medically stable preterm infants in their ...
Meunier Hélène - - 2013
We review four studies investigating hand preferences for grasping versus pointing to objects at several spatial positions in human infants and three species of nonhuman primates using the same experimental setup. We expected that human infants and nonhuman primates present a comparable difference in their pattern of laterality according to ...
Maitre Nathalie L NL Division of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232-9544, USA. - - 2013
Neurodevelopmental delay in childhood is common in infants born preterm, but is difficult to predict before infants leave the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). We hypothesized that event-related potential (ERP) methodology characterizing the cortical differentiation of speech sounds in hospitalized infants would predict cognitive and language outcomes during early childhood. ...
Wild Katherine T - - 2013
Independently, both prematurity and low socioeconomic status (SES) compromise language outcome but less is known regarding the effects of low SES on outcome of prior preterm infants at toddler age. To assess SES effects on the language outcome of prior preterm infants at toddler age. Retrospective chart review of infants ...
Byers-Heinlein Krista - - 2013
In ambiguous word learning situations, infants can use systematic strategies to determine the referent of a novel word. One such heuristic is disambiguation. By age 16-18months, monolinguals infer that a novel noun refers to a novel object rather than a familiar one (Halberda, 2003), while at the same age bilinguals ...
Walle Eric A - - 2013
The present investigation explored the question of whether walking onset is related to infant language development. Study 1 used a longitudinal design (N = 44) to assess infant locomotor and language development every 2 weeks from 10 to 13.5 months of age. The acquisition of walking was associated with a ...
Hudry Kristelle - - 2013
Many preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present relative lack of receptive advantage over concurrent expressive language. Such profile emergence was investigated longitudinally in 54 infants at high-risk (HR) for ASD and 50 low-risk controls, with three language measures taken across four visits (around 7, 14, 24, 38 months). HR infants ...
Cone Barbara B University of Arizona, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, PO Box 210071, Tucson, AZ 85721, United States. - - 2013
Cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) to tones and speech sounds were obtained in infants to: (1) further knowledge of auditory development above the level of the brainstem during the first year of life; (2) establish CAEP input-output functions for tonal and speech stimuli as a function of stimulus level and ...
van Batenburg-Eddes Tamara - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:: Numerous studies in high-risk populations established that variations in infant neuromotor development predict poor cognitive function. It is unclear whether this association is found in the general population. Moreover, previous population-based studies mostly focused on motor milestone achievement. METHODS:: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a ...
Nazzi Thierry - - 2013
ABSTRACT Six experiments explored Parisian French-learning infants' ability to segment bisyllabic words from fluent speech. The first goal was to assess whether bisyllabic word segmentation emerges later in infants acquiring European French compared to other languages. The second goal was to determine whether infants learning different dialects of the same ...
Newman Rochelle S - - 2013
Previous work by Polka, Rvachew, and Molnar [Infancy 13(5), 421-439 (2008)] has reported that infants are poor at focusing their attention on a particular frequency range, and, as a result, are distracted by maskers that are outside of the target frequency range. The current study explores this effect of irrelevant ...
Payne Allison H AH Departments of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Case Western ReserveUniversity, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA. - - 2013
Low-grade periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is a common neurologic morbidity among extremely low-gestational-age neonates, yet the outcomes associated with this morbidity are not fully understood. In a contemporary multicenter cohort, we evaluated the impact of such hemorrhages on early (18-22 month) neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely premature infants. To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes at ...
Talbott Meagan R - - 2013
Impairments in language and communication are an early-appearing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), with delays in language and gesture evident as early as the first year of life. Research with typically developing populations highlights the importance of both infant and maternal gesture use in infants' early language development. The ...
Adams-Chapman Ira I Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA. - - 2013
To evaluate the relationship between abnormal feeding patterns and language performance on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition at 18-22 months adjusted age among a cohort of extremely premature infants. This is a descriptive analysis of 1477 preterm infants born ≤ 26 weeks gestation or enrolled in a clinical ...
Oller D Kimbrough DK School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38105, USA. - - 2013
We report on the emergence of functional flexibility in vocalizations of human infants. This vastly underappreciated capability becomes apparent when prelinguistic vocalizations express a full range of emotional content--positive, neutral, and negative. The data show that at least three types of infant vocalizations (squeals, vowel-like sounds, and growls) occur with ...
Highman Chantelle - - 2013
This study examined early features of the heritable phenotype associated with childhood apraxia-of-speech (CAS). We compared speech and language development from 9 to 24 months of age in eight children at familial risk of CAS to that of eight infants with no such family history. At-risk infants scored lower on ...
Hochmann Jean-Rémy - - 2013
The classic gavagai problem exemplifies the difficulty to identify the referent of a novel word uttered in a foreign language. Here, we consider the reverse problem: identifying the referential part of a label. Assuming "gavagai" indicates a rabbit in a foreign language, it may very well mean "a rabbit" or ...
Droucker Danielle - - 2013
In this study, the authors aimed to examine whether biases for infant-directed (ID) speech and faces differ between infant siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (SIBS-A) and infant siblings of typically developing children (SIBS-TD), and whether speech and face biases predict language outcomes and risk group membership. Thirty-six ...
Yeung H Henny - - 2013
Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces ...
Di Francesco Mark W - - 2013
PURPOSE: To elucidate differences in the disruption of language network function, as measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast functional MRI (fMRI), attributable to two common sedative agents administered to infants under clinical imaging protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sedatives pentobarbital (Nembutal) and Propofol, administered clinically to infants at 1 ...
van Heugten Marieke - - 2013
Although adults rapidly adjust to accented speakers' pronunciation of words, young children appear to struggle when confronted with unfamiliar variants of their native language (e.g., American English-learning 15-month-olds cannot recognize familiar words spoken in Jamaican English; Best et al., 2009). It is currently unclear, however, why this is the case, ...
Scott Jessica C - - 2013
Object labels are valuable communicative tools because their meanings are shared among the members of a particular linguistic community. The current research was conducted to investigate whether 13-month-old infants appreciate that object labels should not be generalized across individuals who have been shown to speak different languages. Using a visual ...
Lewkowicz David J DJ Department of Psychology & Center for Complex Systems & Brain Science Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431, - - 2013
Audiovisual speech consists of overlapping and invariant patterns of dynamic acoustic and optic articulatory information. Research has shown that infants can perceive a variety of basic audio-visual (A-V) relations but no studies have investigated whether and when infants begin to perceive higher order A-V relations inherent in speech. Here, we ...
Kitamura Christine - - 2013
The time frame for infants' acquisition of language constancy was probed, using the phonetic variation in a rarely heard accent (South African English) or a frequently heard accent (American English). A total of 156 Australian infants were tested. Six-month-olds looked longer to Australian English than less commonly heard South African ...
Reynolds Greg D - - 2013
Two experiments assessing event-related potentials in 5-month-old infants were conducted to examine neural correlates of attentional salience and efficiency of processing of a visual event (woman speaking) paired with redundant (synchronous) speech, nonredundant (asynchronous) speech, or no speech. In Experiment 1, the Nc component associated with attentional salience was greater ...
Carlberg Valerie M - - 2013
Osteopetrosis, lymphedema, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, and immunodeficiency (OL-HED-ID) is a rare X-linked disorder with only three reported prior cases in the English-language literature. We describe a case of OL-HED-ID in a male infant who initially presented with congenital lymphedema, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia of unknown etiology at 7 days of age. He ...
Gervain Judit - - 2013
A central problem in language acquisition is how children effortlessly acquire the grammar of their native language even though speech provides no direct information about underlying structure. This learning problem is even more challenging for dual language learners, yet bilingual infants master their mother tongues as efficiently as monolinguals do. ...
Elsabbagh Mayada - - 2013
Infants' visual scanning of social scenes is influenced by both exogenously and endogenously driven shifts of attention. We manipulate these factors by contrasting individual infants' distribution of visual attention to the eyes relative to the mouth when viewing complex dynamic scenes with multiple communicative signals (e.g., peek-a-boo), relative to the ...
Abraham Linzy M - - 2013
The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the ...
Curtin Suzanne - - 2013
We examined whether infants' preference for speech at 12 months is associated with autistic-like behaviors at 18 months in infants who are at increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because they have an older sibling diagnosed with ASD and in low-risk infants. Only low-risk infants listened significantly longer to speech than ...
Moon Christine C Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447, USA. - - 2013
To test the hypothesis that exposure to ambient language in the womb alters phonetic perception shortly after birth. This two-country study aimed to see whether neonates demonstrated prenatal learning by how they responded to vowels in a category from their native language and another non-native language, regardless of how much ...
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