Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 779
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Wang S M - - 1997
Bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm is a rare, life-threatening malformation. Infants with this defect rarely survive to have surgical intervention. We report a 32-week premature female infant who was born to a 36-year-old mother via vaginal delivery. The pregnancy course was complicated by hypertension and polyhydramnios. Cytogenetic study showed a ...
Dearborn D G - - 1997
Following a brief presentation of important clinical concepts regarding pulmonary hemorrhage in infants and children, recent reports on secondary and immune-related disorders causing acute pulmonary hemorrhage are reviewed. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is updated noting the compilation of Japanese cases and current treatments. The recent increase in idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage and ...
Bing D - - 1997
Recent advances in technology have made it possible for use to measure neonatal pulmonary function, even in very small infants. Applying PM measurement as a tool for ventilator-patient management improves outcome in the NICU. With PFT in the laboratory, we can diagnose and determine severity of pulmonary illness and evaluate ...
Thureen P J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to summarize eight cases of fatal meconium aspiration syndrome where pathologic review showed evidence of chronic prenatal disease and to compare these findings with those of a group of control infants and fetuses who died of other causes. STUDY DESIGN: A 15-year retrospective chart review identified ...
Christou H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathogenesis of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and to determine whether inhaled NO, currently under investigation as a new therapy for PPHN, affects plasma concentrations of these vasoactive mediators. METHODS: Circulating ET-1 and ...
Anand R - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Valvar pulmonary stenosis is a common congenital heart defect. Progression of stenosis over time, even when mild initially, has been shown by serial cardiac catheterization studies in children and adults. We studied the natural history of asymptomatic valvar pulmonary stenosis diagnosed in infancy with two-dimensional echocardiography and ...
Wang J Y - - 1997
Early postnatal use of dexamethasone has recently been shown to be effective in improving the pulmonary status in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). To study the effect of dexamethasone on pulmonary inflammatory responses, we studied ten infants treated with dexamethasone and ten infants without this treatment. Serial tracheal ...
Roberts J D JD - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn causes systemic arterial hypoxemia because of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right-to-left shunting of deoxygenated blood. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in newborns. We studied whether inhaled nitric oxide decreases severe hypoxemia in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: In a ...
Parker T A - - 1997
Severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) remains a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality with limited effective treatment options. We present the first case of a neonate with PPHN treated concurrently with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous prostacyclin (PGI2). He ultimately was diagnosed with alveolar-capillary dysplasia, ...
Osika E - - 1997
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly characterized disease in infants. In the present report, we reviewed our experience with 10 infants during a 10-year period. In 9 patients, onset of symptoms occurred before the age of 2 months and included tachypnea, cough, and inadequate weight gain. However, despite the presence ...
Montaña E - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Unexplained pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are rarely seen in infancy. A geographic cluster of 10 infants with this illness was identified in a large pediatric referral hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, during the period of January 1993 through December 1994. One infant died of severe respiratory failure. METHODS: A case-control ...
Schorn K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define risk factors for early degeneration of allografts in pulmonary circulation and to recommend some guidelines to minimize them. METHODS: Between January 1988 and March 1995, 202 patients with various types of congenital heart disease received cryopreserved allograft conduits for reconstruction of ...
Dukarm R C - - 1996
Although the normal pulmonary vascular transition at birth takes place quickly in the delivery room, it has its basis in the complex structural and biochemical development of the lung. We are only beginning to understand the stimuli that initiate and mediate the transition, as well as their interrelationships. Comprehension of ...
Randala M - - 1996
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during the first 4 days after birth was determined in 41 healthy term and 46 preterm infants by measuring ductal Doppler flow velocity and systemic arterial pressure (SAP). Among preterm infants, 21 had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 25 did not. Sequential indices within 96 ...
Boas S R - - 1996
Infants born with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH) characteristically have pulmonary hypoplasia. Airway hyperresponsiveness during the first 4 weeks of life can be demonstrated in most of these neonates. Early postnatal pulmonary development in infants with severe DH has not been well characterized. We examined lung growth in patients with ...
da Silva O P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The association of pulmonary sequestration and nonimmune fetal hydrops reportedly carries a very poor prognosis for survival. We describe three newborns with good outcomes despite the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration; two cases were associated with hydrops fetalis and one with isolated fetal ascites. CASES: Two neonates with severe hydrops ...
Merth I T - - 1996
It has been suggested that acute viral bronchiolitis in infants may result in functional changes that predispose toward chronic pulmonary disease later in life. We assessed pulmonary function (PF) during the acute phase of viral bronchiolitis in infants and up to 12 mo later from static respiratory system compliance (Crs), ...
Kumar P - - 1996
Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been reported to be elevated in children and adults with pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have elevated plasma concentrations of ET-1. Plasma concentrations of immunoreactive-endothelin-1 (ir-ET-1) were measured using a radioimmunoassay in 20 infants with ...
Pappas M D - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of infants with severe acute pulmonary hemorrhage and the effects of mechanical ventilation on gas exchange. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric ICU in a university hospital. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Case records of patients with severe acute pulmonary hemorrhage from January 1992 to July 1995 ...
Niwa H - - 1996
Three infants with congenital tracheal stenosis and three adults with various diseases of the central airway underwent esophageal tracheobronchoplasty to repair long-segment stenoses and defects. The primary operative goal was enlargement of the stenosis (n = 4), repair of the defect (n = 1), or both (n = 1). Cardiopulmonary ...
Greenspan J S - - 1996
Respiratory insufficiency is a common complication of thoracic surgery in infants. To better define this dysfunction, pulmonary compliance (CL) and resistance (R) were measured for 17 infants who underwent common thoracic procedures: Blalock-Taussing shunting (n = 7) repair of congenital coarctation of the aorta (n = 10). Measurements were obtained ...
Evans M G - - 1996
The development of fetal hydrops in conjunction with intrathoracic pathology has been described, but rarely in association with pulmonary sequestration. The current report presents three cases of antenatally identified nonimmune hydrops fetalis, seen in association with pulmonary sequestrations. In one case, a left-sided chest mass also was defined. One infant ...
Lee Y M - - 1996
Hyperplasia of the thymus is the most common anterior mediastinal mass in infants. It is however exceedingly difficult to evaluate by the weight of the gland as it continues to grow after birth until puberty and thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy. It normally maintains most of the radiographic characteristics of the ...
Mariani G - - 1996
Nitric oxide production appears to be decreased in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). Inhaled nitric oxide may improve oxygenation by two mechanisms: increased pulmonary blood flow and improved ventilation-perfusion matching. Nitric oxide inhalation has been tested in newborns with PPHN, congenital heart diseases, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We present a ...
Ahluwalia J S - - 1996
Extubation of ventilated infants with severe unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema is difficult because the function of normal lung tissue is impaired. Continued positive pressure ventilation worsens hyperinflation on the side with interstitial emphysema, leading to cardiorespiratory compromise. Resection of affected single lobes is well described, but there are no reported ...
Shen X M - - 1996
The effect of positioning on pulmonary function has been previously evaluated, and the prone position has been reported to be preferable for neonates with various respiratory diseases. Studies in healthy neonates have yielded conflicting results. Using a crying pulmonary function test, we examined the effect of positioning on pulmonary function ...
Beardsmore C S - - 1995
The aim was to investigate pulmonary mechanics in patients with cystic fibrosis during infancy and again in early childhood to see whether infant tests predicted status at school age. Plethysmographic measurements of thoracic gas volume and airways resistance were made in 29 patients at 6 months and again at 5 ...
Goyal M - - 1995
This study was designed to assess whether progressive changes related to the transition to extrauterine life explain in part the interassay variability of pulmonary mechanics in the immediate postnatal period. We performed sequential pulmonary function tests in 21 normal term infants with the use of a pneumotachometer and an esophageal ...
Ng P C - - 1995
Three consecutive term infants diagnosed as suffering from idiopathic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) were tried on high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) after failure of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). All experienced a significant improvement in oxygenation. All three infants survived. HFOV was utilised in a fourth term infant ...
Becmeur F - - 1995
The authors illustrate a case of right neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) of Bochdalek with major pulmonary hypoplasia and postoperative massive mediastinal displacement to the right, leading to tracheal compression and recurrent respiratory distress at every attempt to wean the infant from the ventilator. Mediastinal stabilization was obtained by placing ...
Colpaert C - - 1995
We attempted to identify a structural correlate of the pulmonary hypertension observed in newborn infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) by performing a morphometric analysis of pulmonary arteries at the transition of terminal to respiratory bronchiolus (TRB) in postmortem lungs of 20 IDM and 14 control infants. Although there was no ...
Groner J I - - 1995
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) continues to be one of the most challenging problems in pediatric surgery. The overall mortality rate remains at 40%, and death is caused by pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. It has been suggested that in utero repair of the defect should be performed to allow ...
Mosca F - - 1995
A preterm infant (26 weeks' gestation) mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome developed severe interstitial emphysema of the right lung with a bronchopleural fistula, pneumothorax and mediastinal shift. Selective occlusion of the right main bronchus with a Fogarty's catheter produced rapid improvement in the clinical condition and radiological features. Occlusion ...
Kumar K J - - 1995
Mycobacterium smegmetis is a rapidly growing mycobacteria which is usually regarded as an environmental saorophyte. Recently it has been isolated from human beings mainly from skin and soft tissue lesions. Pulmonary lesions are extremely rare. A case of pulmonary consolidation caused by M. smegmetis in an infant is reported. The ...
Benirschke K - - 1995
The considerable neonatal mortality of a captive population of Chacoan peccaries, the taguá (Catagonus wagneri), in Paraguay was investigated with the examination of six newborn animals and one adult. Most deaths occur primarily because of restriction of space resulting in competition for space and nutrition. The adult had nonlethal inhalation ...
Tomita H - - 1995
The purpose of this study is to clarify the natural history of the valvular pulmonary stenosis (PS) from the standpoint of the indication for percutaneous transvenous pulmonary valvuloplasty (PTPV). We retrospectively analyzed age-dependent changes of the peak velocity in the pulmonary artery (peak V) using Doppler echocardiography (Doppler), and some ...
Steinhorn R H - - 1995
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) results in significant morbidity and mortality in otherwise normal term infants. Safe, effective therapies for PPHN will only be possible when they can be directed toward the specific defects producing this condition. In this review, the authors discuss three different categories of mediators ...
McEvoy C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Amnioinfusion has been reported to improve the perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by decreased amniotic fluid volume, but detailed information on its possible adverse effects on neonatal pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation is not available. STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated 42 infants with birth weights of 2600 to 4320 g and ...
Dillon P W - - 1995
Nitric oxide (NO) represents a new therapeutic modality for treating neonatal pulmonary hypertension and may obviate the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a number of cases of neonatal respiratory failure. Recently, the authors treated an infant with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia and pulmonary hypertension with NO on two ...
Hamdan A H - - 1995
The pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) changes were studied using Doppler echocardiography in preterm infants treated with an artificial surfactant (Exosurf) during the acute phase of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). The ratio of pulmonary artery acceleration time to the right ventricular ejection time (AT:RVET), measured from the Doppler wave form, was ...
Santak B - - 1995
Prostacyclin aerosol (100 ng/kg.min) caused selective pulmonary vasodilation without causing systemic hypotension in an infant with idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Cardiac index increased suggesting improved right ventricular function. CONCLUSION Aerosolized prostacyclin causes selective pulmonary vasodilation and may thereby improve systemic haemodynamics in infants with primary pulmonary hypertension. Because of the lack ...
Ng P C - - 1995
We report a case of misalignment of pulmonary vessels and review the clinical features of all 13 cases reported to date. All were term infants dying from severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We have identified a triad of features that will alert neonatal clinicians to the possibility of ...
- - 1995
A cluster of cases of acute pulmonary hemorrhage of unknown etiology occurred among eight infants in Cleveland during January 1993-November 1994 (1). During the investigation of these cases, a similar cluster was identified in the Chicago area. From April 1992 through November 1994, seven infants with acute pulmonary hemorrhage of ...
Gill A B - - 1995
This study aimed to investigate the changes in pulmonary artery pressure in infants with chronic lung disease who then developed prolonged oxygen dependency. The time to peak velocity: right ventricular ejection time (TPV:RVET) ratio calculated from the Doppler waveform, which correlates negatively with pulmonary artery pressure, was used. Thirty four ...
Johnsrude C L - - 1995
Anomalous left main coronary artery (ALMCA) originating from the pulmonary artery is an important cause of morbidity from heart failure and mortality in infants. Discriminating ALMCA from myocarditis or other forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DC) in infants is critical for proper early management of this treatable disease. This study was ...
McCaffrey M J - - 1995
Nitric oxide (NO) is thought to be a primary mediator of the reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance which occurs in the newborn period. L-arginine is the precursor for the formation of nitric oxide in the pulmonary endothelium. Low serum arginine levels have been reported in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension ...
- - 1994
Hemosiderosis is an uncommon childhood disease characterized by spontaneous pulmonary hemorrhage often associated with iron deficiency anemia. During January 1993-November 1994, eight cases of acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis were diagnosed among infants at a children's referral hospital in Cleveland. In comparison, during 1983-1993, a total of three cases of pulmonary hemosiderosis ...
Thornton C M - - 1994
New histological lesions have been reported in the lungs of preterm neonates treated with surfactant for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Globular deposits of hyaline maternal in parenchymal air spaces, absence of hyaline membranes, and increased interstitial cellularity and edema without associated fibrosis have been described. Fifteen histological findings were assessed ...
McIntosh N - - 1994
AIM: To review the outcome of infants born following prolonged and preterm rupture of the membranes. DESIGN: retrospective and partially prospective observational study. SETTING: babies born in and referred to a tertiary neonatal centre. PATIENTS: 117 preterm infants, median gestation (range) = 29.5 (25-36) weeks, seen over a 7 year ...
McCullagh M - - 1994
A series of 13 consecutive patients with a prenatal diagnosis of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) were reviewed with respect to prenatal ultrasound findings, clinical features at birth, and postnatal outcome. In two cases (15%) the abnormality regressed in utero. Only three infants (23%) showed any respiratory distress at birth. ...
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