Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 797
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Al-Hathal M - - 1998
Despite many advances in the management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), the condition carries a mortality rate of 40-50% usually consequent to pulmonary hypoplasia and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension. Several centers have reported improved survival with preoperative stabilization and delayed surgery, which is now an accepted method of management. This is ...
Etzel R A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A geographic cluster of 10 cases of pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis in infants occurred in Cleveland, Ohio, between January 1993 and December 1994. STUDY DESIGN: This community-based case-control study tested the hypothesis that the 10 infants with pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis were more likely to live in homes where ...
Takahashi Y - - 1998
A low-birth-weight female baby was admitted with respiratory distress after birth. Her mother had been diagnosed with mumps 4 weeks and 5 days prior to delivery. Mumps IgM antibody was elevated in the neonate and mumps virus ribonucleic acid was detected in the umbilical cord blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...
Langer J C - - 1998
CDH is a developmental abnormality resulting in a diaphragmatic defect which permits abdominal viscera to enter the chest. Most cases occur through the posterolateral foramen of Bochdalek. The mortality rate associated with CDH remains high due to the presence of associated anomalies, pulmonary hypoplasia, and pulmonary hypertension in those with ...
Hallman M - - 1998
We prospectively analyzed airway specimens from 24 newborn infants. Inhaled nitric oxide (< or = 20 ppm for 1 to 4 days to 12 infants) did not affect the concentrations of the lipid peroxidation product, the surface activity, or the cytokines (interleukin-1, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist). Nitrotyrosine was ...
Sinkin R A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Exogenous surfactant replacement has improved survival and reduced pulmonary complications of prematurity. Improved early outcomes for infants of <30 weeks' gestation treated with a strategy of prophylactic versus rescue surfactant, if needed, were demonstrated in a multicenter, randomized trial conducted between 1985 and 1988. We reevaluated a subset of ...
Mizuno K - - 1998
We evaluated pulmonary function status in healthy, nonventilated very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants at 40 weeks postconception because little is known about the pulmonary function status of these infants at the time of discharge. Seven normal VLBW infants were evaluated at 40 weeks postconception, and five normal term infants were examined as ...
Williams M C - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the possible associations between persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate, need for extra-corporeal membranous oxygenation, small for gestational age (SGA), and low ponderal index for gestational age in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate and in matched controls. METHODS: Eighty-six infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension ...
Doyle G - - 1998
A 42-year-old multiparous pregnant woman presented with swelling and pain of the left arm at 34 weeks gestation. She had no discoloration of her arm nor a loss of radial pulse. Duplex scanning demonstrated a thrombosis in the axillary vein. She was found to have a positive circulating lupus anticoagulant. ...
Goil S - - 1998
A prostaglandin F2-like compound, 8-epi-PGF2alpha, formed from oxidation of arachidonate, has been proposed as an indicator of lipid peroxidation. We determined whether tracheal aspirate or urinary 8-epi-PGF2alpha levels would differ over time or between infants in a control group and infants with severe respiratory failure. We correlated tracheal aspirate 8-epi-PGF2alpha ...
Davidson L A - - 1998
AIMS: To describe a third case of congenital pulmonary acinar dysplasia, comparing its clinicopathological features with those of the two previous cases and with cystic adenomatoid malformations. METHODS AND RESULTS: An externally normal female infant was born to a 25-year-old after a normal pregnancy. Ventilation was not established. At autopsy ...
Kinsella J P - - 1997
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is an effective adjuvant therapy for term newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension. However, its role in treating hypoxemic respiratory failure in premature newborns has not been established. Laboratory experiments have shown the importance of endogenously produced NO in fetal and neonatal pulmonary vasoregulation in the premature ...
Ozkan H - - 1997
Nuchal vascular hamartoma was found in a newborn premature infant who presented with nonimmune hydrops fetalis, pulmonary hypoplasia due to bilateral pleural effusion and polyhydramnios in utero. The baby died 26 hours after birth despite maximal respiratory and circulatory support. Postmortem examination revealed a vascular hamartoma localized to the left ...
Thébaud B - - 1997
Despite regular progress in neonatal intensive care, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) diagnosed antenatally is still associated with up to 80% mortality. It is impossible to predict which fetus with CDH will survive or not. OBJECTIVE: To identify reliable antenatal predictors of outcome and of pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in fetuses with ...
Thibeault D W - - 1997
Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), secondary to premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), is a frequent cause of pulmonary insufficiency in preterm infants. Pulmonary hypoplasia of diverse causes is usually associated with pulmonary hypertension. The objective of this study was to quantitate the acinar arterial wall thickness and muscularization in preterm infants ...
Gross E - - 1997
Three infants were found to have infradiaphragmatic masses by prenatal ultrasound. Postnatal imaging studies confirmed the presence of these masses, which were suspected of being intra-abdominal malignancies (neuroblastoma). The other principal differential diagnosis was extralobar pulmonary sequestration (EPS). Intraoperative findings were consistent with EPS, which was confirmed by histologic examination. ...
Betit P - - 1997
The administration of NO has become an important and effective therapy in the clinical management of pulmonary hypertension associated with cardiopulmonary disorders in infants and children. It is likely to become a routine therapy in the treatment of PPHN, although dosing and timing strategies, early indicators of treatment failure, and ...
Rosenberg A A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of a group of term newborn infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a prospective longitudinal medical and neurodevelopmental follow-up of 51 infants treated as neonates for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn with inhaled nitric oxide. ...
Wang S M - - 1997
Bilateral agenesis of the diaphragm is a rare, life-threatening malformation. Infants with this defect rarely survive to have surgical intervention. We report a 32-week premature female infant who was born to a 36-year-old mother via vaginal delivery. The pregnancy course was complicated by hypertension and polyhydramnios. Cytogenetic study showed a ...
Dearborn D G - - 1997
Following a brief presentation of important clinical concepts regarding pulmonary hemorrhage in infants and children, recent reports on secondary and immune-related disorders causing acute pulmonary hemorrhage are reviewed. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is updated noting the compilation of Japanese cases and current treatments. The recent increase in idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage and ...
Bing D - - 1997
Recent advances in technology have made it possible for use to measure neonatal pulmonary function, even in very small infants. Applying PM measurement as a tool for ventilator-patient management improves outcome in the NICU. With PFT in the laboratory, we can diagnose and determine severity of pulmonary illness and evaluate ...
Thureen P J - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to summarize eight cases of fatal meconium aspiration syndrome where pathologic review showed evidence of chronic prenatal disease and to compare these findings with those of a group of control infants and fetuses who died of other causes. STUDY DESIGN: A 15-year retrospective chart review identified ...
Christou H - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathogenesis of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and to determine whether inhaled NO, currently under investigation as a new therapy for PPHN, affects plasma concentrations of these vasoactive mediators. METHODS: Circulating ET-1 and ...
Anand R - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND HYPOTHESIS: Valvar pulmonary stenosis is a common congenital heart defect. Progression of stenosis over time, even when mild initially, has been shown by serial cardiac catheterization studies in children and adults. We studied the natural history of asymptomatic valvar pulmonary stenosis diagnosed in infancy with two-dimensional echocardiography and ...
Wang J Y - - 1997
Early postnatal use of dexamethasone has recently been shown to be effective in improving the pulmonary status in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). To study the effect of dexamethasone on pulmonary inflammatory responses, we studied ten infants treated with dexamethasone and ten infants without this treatment. Serial tracheal ...
Roberts J D JD - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn causes systemic arterial hypoxemia because of increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right-to-left shunting of deoxygenated blood. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary vascular resistance in newborns. We studied whether inhaled nitric oxide decreases severe hypoxemia in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: In a ...
Parker T A - - 1997
Severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) remains a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality with limited effective treatment options. We present the first case of a neonate with PPHN treated concurrently with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous prostacyclin (PGI2). He ultimately was diagnosed with alveolar-capillary dysplasia, ...
Osika E - - 1997
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a poorly characterized disease in infants. In the present report, we reviewed our experience with 10 infants during a 10-year period. In 9 patients, onset of symptoms occurred before the age of 2 months and included tachypnea, cough, and inadequate weight gain. However, despite the presence ...
Montaña E - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Unexplained pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are rarely seen in infancy. A geographic cluster of 10 infants with this illness was identified in a large pediatric referral hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, during the period of January 1993 through December 1994. One infant died of severe respiratory failure. METHODS: A case-control ...
Schorn K - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to define risk factors for early degeneration of allografts in pulmonary circulation and to recommend some guidelines to minimize them. METHODS: Between January 1988 and March 1995, 202 patients with various types of congenital heart disease received cryopreserved allograft conduits for reconstruction of ...
Dukarm R C - - 1996
Although the normal pulmonary vascular transition at birth takes place quickly in the delivery room, it has its basis in the complex structural and biochemical development of the lung. We are only beginning to understand the stimuli that initiate and mediate the transition, as well as their interrelationships. Comprehension of ...
Randala M - - 1996
Systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during the first 4 days after birth was determined in 41 healthy term and 46 preterm infants by measuring ductal Doppler flow velocity and systemic arterial pressure (SAP). Among preterm infants, 21 had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and 25 did not. Sequential indices within 96 ...
Boas S R - - 1996
Infants born with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH) characteristically have pulmonary hypoplasia. Airway hyperresponsiveness during the first 4 weeks of life can be demonstrated in most of these neonates. Early postnatal pulmonary development in infants with severe DH has not been well characterized. We examined lung growth in patients with ...
da Silva O P - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The association of pulmonary sequestration and nonimmune fetal hydrops reportedly carries a very poor prognosis for survival. We describe three newborns with good outcomes despite the diagnosis of pulmonary sequestration; two cases were associated with hydrops fetalis and one with isolated fetal ascites. CASES: Two neonates with severe hydrops ...
Merth I T - - 1996
It has been suggested that acute viral bronchiolitis in infants may result in functional changes that predispose toward chronic pulmonary disease later in life. We assessed pulmonary function (PF) during the acute phase of viral bronchiolitis in infants and up to 12 mo later from static respiratory system compliance (Crs), ...
Kumar P - - 1996
Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been reported to be elevated in children and adults with pulmonary hypertension. We hypothesized that infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) have elevated plasma concentrations of ET-1. Plasma concentrations of immunoreactive-endothelin-1 (ir-ET-1) were measured using a radioimmunoassay in 20 infants with ...
Pappas M D - - 1996
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of infants with severe acute pulmonary hemorrhage and the effects of mechanical ventilation on gas exchange. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric ICU in a university hospital. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Case records of patients with severe acute pulmonary hemorrhage from January 1992 to July 1995 ...
Niwa H - - 1996
Three infants with congenital tracheal stenosis and three adults with various diseases of the central airway underwent esophageal tracheobronchoplasty to repair long-segment stenoses and defects. The primary operative goal was enlargement of the stenosis (n = 4), repair of the defect (n = 1), or both (n = 1). Cardiopulmonary ...
Greenspan J S - - 1996
Respiratory insufficiency is a common complication of thoracic surgery in infants. To better define this dysfunction, pulmonary compliance (CL) and resistance (R) were measured for 17 infants who underwent common thoracic procedures: Blalock-Taussing shunting (n = 7) repair of congenital coarctation of the aorta (n = 10). Measurements were obtained ...
Evans M G - - 1996
The development of fetal hydrops in conjunction with intrathoracic pathology has been described, but rarely in association with pulmonary sequestration. The current report presents three cases of antenatally identified nonimmune hydrops fetalis, seen in association with pulmonary sequestrations. In one case, a left-sided chest mass also was defined. One infant ...
Lee Y M - - 1996
Hyperplasia of the thymus is the most common anterior mediastinal mass in infants. It is however exceedingly difficult to evaluate by the weight of the gland as it continues to grow after birth until puberty and thereafter undergoes progressive atrophy. It normally maintains most of the radiographic characteristics of the ...
Mariani G - - 1996
Nitric oxide production appears to be decreased in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). Inhaled nitric oxide may improve oxygenation by two mechanisms: increased pulmonary blood flow and improved ventilation-perfusion matching. Nitric oxide inhalation has been tested in newborns with PPHN, congenital heart diseases, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We present a ...
Ahluwalia J S - - 1996
Extubation of ventilated infants with severe unilateral pulmonary interstitial emphysema is difficult because the function of normal lung tissue is impaired. Continued positive pressure ventilation worsens hyperinflation on the side with interstitial emphysema, leading to cardiorespiratory compromise. Resection of affected single lobes is well described, but there are no reported ...
Shen X M - - 1996
The effect of positioning on pulmonary function has been previously evaluated, and the prone position has been reported to be preferable for neonates with various respiratory diseases. Studies in healthy neonates have yielded conflicting results. Using a crying pulmonary function test, we examined the effect of positioning on pulmonary function ...
Beardsmore C S - - 1995
The aim was to investigate pulmonary mechanics in patients with cystic fibrosis during infancy and again in early childhood to see whether infant tests predicted status at school age. Plethysmographic measurements of thoracic gas volume and airways resistance were made in 29 patients at 6 months and again at 5 ...
Goyal M - - 1995
This study was designed to assess whether progressive changes related to the transition to extrauterine life explain in part the interassay variability of pulmonary mechanics in the immediate postnatal period. We performed sequential pulmonary function tests in 21 normal term infants with the use of a pneumotachometer and an esophageal ...
Ng P C - - 1995
Three consecutive term infants diagnosed as suffering from idiopathic persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) were tried on high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) after failure of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV). All experienced a significant improvement in oxygenation. All three infants survived. HFOV was utilised in a fourth term infant ...
Becmeur F - - 1995
The authors illustrate a case of right neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) of Bochdalek with major pulmonary hypoplasia and postoperative massive mediastinal displacement to the right, leading to tracheal compression and recurrent respiratory distress at every attempt to wean the infant from the ventilator. Mediastinal stabilization was obtained by placing ...
Colpaert C - - 1995
We attempted to identify a structural correlate of the pulmonary hypertension observed in newborn infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) by performing a morphometric analysis of pulmonary arteries at the transition of terminal to respiratory bronchiolus (TRB) in postmortem lungs of 20 IDM and 14 control infants. Although there was no ...
Groner J I - - 1995
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) continues to be one of the most challenging problems in pediatric surgery. The overall mortality rate remains at 40%, and death is caused by pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension. It has been suggested that in utero repair of the defect should be performed to allow ...
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