Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1367
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Harrison Joanne L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone principally produced by the stomach, but also by numerous peripheral tissues including the placenta. Ghrelin acts via growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSR-1a) to alter food intake, fat utilization, and cellular proliferation, and has been suggested to play a role in the developmental growth of ...
Milla Peter J - - 2007
Children are unique as their food intake must provide sufficient nutrients not only for the maintenance of body tissues but also for growth. Improvements in techniques for nutritional support has resulted in very long term parenteral nutrition being available for those with chronic intestinal failure in addition to those who ...
Griffin Ian J - - 2007
If the aim of nutritional assessment of preterm infants is to identify suboptimal (or excessive) provision of protein, energy and micronutrients, most currently available methods perform poorly. Assessment of body weight is limited by the confounding effect of fluid status especially in the first few days of life, and measurements ...
Sices Laura - - 2007
To describe the prevalence and correlates of postdis-charge growth failure among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants (weighing less than 1 kg) and its impact on growth and development. One hundred fifty-four ELBW infants were followed to 20 months corrected age. Growth failure was defined as a decrease in weight ...
Andersen Gidske L - - 2007
Acacia tortilis is a keystone species across arid ecosystems in Africa and the Middle East. Yet, its life-history, longevity and growth are poorly known, and consequently ongoing changes in tree populations cannot be managed in an appropriate manner. In other arid areas parenchymatic bands marking growth zones in the wood ...
Strand Eric - - 2007
The Icelandic horse is a pristine breed of horse which has a pure gene pool established more than a thousand years ago, and is approximately the same size as living and extinct wild breeds of horses. This study was performed to compare the length of the skeletal growth period of ...
Samms-Vaughan M - - 2006
The aim of this study was to provide standards for the assessment of birthweight, head circumference and crown-heel length for normal, singleton newborns of predominantly West African descent. Data were collected for 10 482 or 94% of all recorded births in Jamaica during the two-month period September 1 to October ...
Krebs Nancy F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are susceptible to postnatal zinc deficiency, but whether this susceptibility is due to intrauterine factors or to high postnatal growth requirements is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the size of the exchangeable zinc pool (EZP), which reflects metabolically available zinc, would be smaller in SGA than ...
Gemma Carolina - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content may be associated with clinical features, anthropometric variables, and laboratory findings in both extremes of abnormal fetal growth: small and large size for gestational age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Eighty-eight pregnant women and their infants were included in a cross-sectional study. According ...
Rijken Monique - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in infants <32 weeks GA. To assess the relationship between growth and perinatal factors (like intrauterine growth retardation and the postnatal use of dexamethasone) and neurodevelopmental outcome. DESIGN: Regional, prospective study in two health regions in the Netherlands. Part of the Leiden Follow-Up Project on Prematurity ...
Dawson Geraldine - - 2007
Longitudinal studies of head circumference growth in infants later diagnosed with autism are needed to understand the accelerated head growth in this disorder. We analyzed longitudinal head circumference data from birth to 3 years in 28 children later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder on the basis of individual growth curve ...
Phan Tai Anh - - 2006
Haemangiomas of infancy are the commonest benign tumour in childhood, with the majority being a localized subtype, only requiring therapy in specific locations. The segmental subtype, however, confers a higher complication rate, an association with the PHACE syndrome and poorer prognosis. This retrospective case series of 14 infants with segmental ...
Longcore Jerry R - - 2007
In 1997 and 1998 we weighed nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and measured selected body components at two colonies: Acadia National Park on Mt. Desert Island, and at Orono, ME. We used differences in mean growth variables among individual nestlings to evaluate differences between colonies, years, and amount of total ...
Wintermark Pia - - 2007
This study's aim was to assess neurodevelopmental and growth outcome until the age of 4 years of premature infants placed on early nCPAP, in the setting of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and follow-up program of the Division of Neonatology of the Department of Pediatrics of the University Hospital, ...
De Blasio Miles J - - 2007
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with accelerated growth after birth. Together, IUGR and accelerated growth after birth predict reduced lean tissue mass and increased obesity in later life. Although placental insufficiency is a major cause of IUGR, whether it alters growth and adiposity in early postnatal life is not ...
Weaver Lawrence T - - 2006
Low birth weight is associated with a number of immediate adverse consequences, and it has been assumed that "catch-up" growth is a "good thing" because "better" nutritional status is associated with greater childhood health and survival. The same thinking applies to infants who suffer malnutrition and growth faltering during weaning. ...
Badyaev Alexander V - - 2006
Duration of developmental stages in animals evolves under contrasting selection pressures of age-specific mortality and growth requirements. When relative importance of these effects varies across environments, evolution of developmental periods is expected to be slow. In birds, maternal effects on egg-laying order and offspring growth, two proximate determinants of nestling ...
Helama Samuli - - 2007
Annual growth increments were examined from shells of the ocean quahog (Arctica islandica L.) from northwest Norway and from tree-ring samples of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from nearby coastal areas. The reconstructed annual growth increments were used to compare growth variability in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Spatiotemporal comparison ...
Casey Patrick H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the 8-year growth, cognitive, behavioral status, health status, and academic achievement in low birth weight preterm infants who had failure to thrive only, were small for gestational age only, had failure to thrive plus were small for gestational age, or had ...
Anderson Nigel G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need for a bedside method to assess the effectiveness of neonatal therapies designed to improve cerebral development in very low birth-weight infants. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of preterm birth on the serial growth of the corpus callosum and how ...
Oldham Michael J - - 2006
Most current deterministic computer dosimetry models use idealized dichotomous symmetrical infant, child, and adolescent tracheobronchial geometries for dosimetry predictions. These tracheobronchial geometries were derived from either the morphometric measurements of J. D. Mortensen and colleagues or those of R. F. Phalen and colleagues. The airway growth curves used to create ...
Rener-Primec Zvonka - - 2006
Epileptic activity, as a component of epileptic encephalopathies, can interfere with brain growth and development. Infantile spasms as a syndrome represent such epileptic activity during the period of spasms and hypsarrhythmia. The rate of head growth in infants with infantile spasms during the period of spasms has not been studied ...
Mericq Veronica - - 2006
Small size at birth has long been recognized as a factor increasing neonatal morbidity and mortality. During the last decade, reduced growth in early life has also been strongly linked with a number of endocrine dysfunctions. Included among the most important alterations are insulin insensitivity, gonadal and somatotropic axis abnormalities ...
Heinig M Jane - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It has been documented that growth patterns differ between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Some investigators have suggested that these differences may be related to differences in zinc nutriture. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of zinc supplementation on growth, morbidity, and motor development in ...
Giapros Vasileios - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Very few data are available on longitudinal renal growth in small for gestational age (SGA) infants born at term. The aim of this prospective study was to estimate comparatively the renal growth in SGA infants and in infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) during the first 2 years ...
Itabashi Kazuo - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This aims to conduct a comparative study of the height catch-up rate in preterm small for gestational age (SGA) infants during early childhood by gestational age and identify the factors affecting short stature in comparison to full-term SGA infants. METHODS: 449 SGA infants (214 full-term infants, 73 infants with ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth retardation is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. To date, there are no reliable methods to detect brain damage in these patients. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in tertiary NICUs from December 2001 to December 2003 with 42 intrauterine growth retardation infants ...
Iñiguez Germán G Institute of Maternal and Child Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, 1027 Santiago, - - 2006
Insulin resistance (IR) develops as early as age 1 to 3 yr in small for gestational age (SGA) infants who show rapid catch-up postnatal weight gain. In contrast, greater insulin secretion is related to infancy height gains. We hypothesized that IGF-I levels could be differentially related to gains in length ...
Lucas P P School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2007
To understand lay views on infant size and growth and their implications for a British population. A systematic review of parental and other lay views about the meanings and importance of infant size and growth using Medline, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Sociological Abstracts, IBSS, ASSIA, British Nursing Index ChildData, Caredata, SIGLE, Dissertation ...
Emond A A Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, Department of Community-Based Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2007
To assess the contribution of postnatal factors to failure to thrive in infancy. 11 900 infants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), born at 37-41 weeks' gestation, without major malformations and with a complete set of weight measurements in infancy (83% of the original ALSPAC birth ...
Riddle W R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To describe growth of prematurely born infants and create a growth chart adequate to assess growth of infants with less than 29 completed weeks of gestation. STUDY DESIGN: Birth weight, head circumference and length measurements of 7,425 liveborn preterm infants from 1985 to 1997 were retrieved from a longitudinal ...
Kamoji Vishwanath M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: It is known that extremely premature infants do less well than more mature infants, and this fact has led some countries to adopt a "cutoff for viability" using birth weight or gestation. Infants affected by intrauterine growth retardation are at additional risk of poor outcome. There are few data ...
Modi Neena N Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Chelsea & Westminster Hospital, London SW10 9NH, UK. - - 2006
The distribution and quantity of adipose tissue are markers of morbidity risk in children and adults. Poor intrauterine growth and accelerated postnatal growth are believed to add to these risks. The aim of this study was to assess adipose tissue content and distribution at birth and 6 wk in relation ...
Fisher David D MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, - - 2006
Slower rates of infant growth are associated with increased rates of death from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in later life. We carried out a systematic review to assess the association between infant size or growth and leading causes of adult burden of disease to contribute to the debate on the ...
Mamelle Nicole - - 2006
This study was carried out to build statistical models for defining FGR (Fetal Growth Restriction) in weight and/or length after taking growth potential of an infant into account. From a cohort of pregnant women having given birth to 47,733 infants in 141 French maternity units, two statistical models gave individualized ...
Hay W W - - 2006
Normal fetal nutrition is a useful guide for understanding postnatal nutrition of infants born very preterm. Fetal lipid uptake gradually increases towards term and is primarily used to produce fat in adipose tissue, with essential fatty acid uptake providing necessary structural and functional elements in membranes of cells in the ...
Frost Paul C - - 2006
Inadequate supply of one or more mineral elements can slow the growth of animal consumers and alter their physiology, life history and behaviour. A key concept for understanding nutrient deficiency in animals is the threshold elemental ratio (TER), at which growth limitation switches from one element to another. We used ...
Gupta Alankar A Section of Neonatology, Columbus Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, - - 2006
Measurement of aerodigestive tract length is an important determinant for accurate placement of esophageal probes and gavage tubes at the desired location. The relationship of esophageal body, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) lengths with somatic growth in neonates is not well understood. Our objectives were to ...
Burke Christopher - - 2006
Uteroplacental vascular insufficiency in humans is a common cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and is associated with an increased incidence of perinatal asphyxia and neurodevelopmental disorders compared to normal weight newborns. Experimental models that provide an opportunity to analyze the pathogenesis of these relationships are limited. Here, we used ...
Boulet Sheree L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: We developed a fetal growth risk curve that delineates the birth weight values for gestational age that reflect a 2-, 2.5-, and 3-fold neonatal death risk relative to infants with normal fetal growth. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed 18,085,052 single gestation infants (25-42 weeks) who were born to US resident ...
Riddle W R - - 2006
Growth charts are used in pediatric medicine to plot anthropomorphic measurements over time, serving as a screen for diseases related to a patient's nutritional and general health status. Whereas reference data for term infants are available from the Center for Disease Control, reference data for premature infants in a neonatal ...
Pallotto Eugenia K - - 2006
This chapter reviews outcomes for children who have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or small-for-gestation-age (SGA) status at birth. Such infants are at risk for increased perinatal mortality, birth adaptation complications, including perinatal acidosis, hypoglycemia, hypothermia, coagulation abnormalities, and selected immunologic deficiencies. IUGR infants also appear to be at great risk ...
Berle J Ø - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The aims were to examine the long-term functional outcome and risk of mood disorders in adulthood in individuals with foetal growth retardation. METHOD: In a prospective cohort study of 7806 individuals aged 20-30 years, using linked data from the Health Survey of Nord-Trøndelag (HUNT-2) and the Medical Birth Registry ...
Löfqvist Chatarina - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that in premature infants, retinal vascular growth retardation between birth and postmenstrual age of approximately 30 to 32 weeks that initiates retinopathy of prematurity is paralleled by brain growth retardation. METHODS: In a prospective longitudinal study, we measured postnatal head growth, retinopathy of prematurity stage, protein and ...
Ameh E A - - 2006
Lingual tumours are uncommon in infants and harmatomas are rarely reported. A 5-month-old boy presented with a growth on the dorsum of the tongue which had been present from birth. The growth produced no respiratory or feeding difficulties. It was confirmed to be a harmatoma after complete excision. There has ...
Adamkin D H - - 2006
Nutrient-enriched diets for preterm infants after hospital discharge (preterm formula or postdischarge formula (PDF)) results in improved growth and these differences appear to persist beyond the period of nutrient intervention. The PDF diet effect is greatest in males, possibly reflecting their higher growth rates. The critical growth epoch appears to ...
Wilkins-Haug Louise - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To delineate the frequency and clinical presentation of confined placental mosaicism (CPM) among newborns with idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) as compared to infants with appropriate fetal growth. METHODS: 70 newborns with IUGR (birth weight < 10%) were matched by maternal age (+/-5 years) and gestational age (+/-7 days) ...
Lamb Matthew R - - 2006
Normal endocrine function in utero and early in childhood influences later height and weight attainment. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants with suspected endocrine-disrupting properties. PCBs may mimic or inhibit hormone and endocrine processes based in part on their structural configuration, with non-ortho-substituted PCBs having a coplanar orientation and ...
Bertino E - - 2006
Only a few studies have dealt with postnatal growth velocity of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. To analyse weight growth kinetics of VLBW infants from birth to over 2 years of age. A total of 262 VLBW infants were selected; inaccurate estimate of gestational age, major congenital anomalies, necrotising enterocolitis, ...
Ehrenkranz Richard A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess whether (1) in-hospital growth velocity is predictive of neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes at 18 to 22 months' corrected age among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and (2) in-hospital growth velocity contributes to these outcomes after controlling for confounding demographic and ...
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