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Results 301 - 350 of 1367
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Bartels Dorothee B - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Defining the limit of viability among very preterm infants remains a difficult issue. A recent study suggested severity of intrauterine growth retardation as a decisive criterion, reporting very poor survival for infants born at </=28 weeks with birth weight <2nd centile. OBJECTIVE: To check whether the above criterion can ...
Hill Pamela D - - 2007
The purpose of this article is to provide information for health care professionals to guide the assessment of feeding and growth in breastfed infants. Tools to assist in the assessment of breastfeeding are discussed, as well as infant weight, infant test-weighing, elimination, and growth patterns. We present in detail the ...
Piper Kristin M E - - 2007
Human breastmilk is widely accepted to be the optimal source for nutrition for the newborn infant, containing all the proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, micronutrients and trace elements required for growth, development and immune protection. In addition human breastmilk plays a significant role in the prevention of medical conditions such as childhood ...
Setia Sajita - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To study growth hormone levels in IUGR and healthy controls and its association with birth weight and ponderal index. METHODS: We studied 50 Intra uterine growth retarded (IUGR) and 50 healthy newborns born at term by vaginal delivery in JIPMER, Pondicherry, India. Cord blood was collected at the time ...
Verkauskiene R R INSERM, Unité de recherche U690, Hôpital Robert Debré, 48, bd Serurier, 75019 Paris, France. - - 2007
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) has been related to several health risks, which have been generally identified in small-for-gestational age (SGA) individuals. To evaluate the impact of FGR on body composition and hormonal status in infants born either small- or appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA). Fetal growth was assessed by ultrasound every 4 ...
Prickett Timothy C R - - 2008
CONTEXT: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) plays an essential role in endochondral bone growth. Insight into CNP's paracrine actions is possible using plasma measurements of the amino-terminal pro C-type natriuretic peptide (NTproCNP). Whether correlations of NTproCNP with linear growth, as found in children and lambs, apply in neonates is unknown. OBJECTIVES: ...
Vasu Vimal - - 2007
Growth is the traditional means of assessing the impact of newborn nutrition. We argue that this approach is flawed as the optimum pattern of postnatal growth after extremely preterm birth is unknown and both growth restraint and growth acceleration are associated with beneficial as well as adverse outcomes. Clinical trials ...
Vogt Kelly N - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: We sought to define somatic growth patterns for patients with single ventricle (SV) physiology and associated factors. BACKGROUND: Infants with SV physiology might have somatic growth retardation associated with volume overload and hypoxemia, which might improve after surgical palliation. METHODS: We reviewed 126 patients (35% male) who underwent the ...
Tomlinson Mark - - 2007
In recent years, attention has increasingly focused on the wider context of nutrition, rather than simply on calorie and nutrient intake. Recent estimates put the figure of people in the world living in extreme poverty (an income of less than $1 a day) at 1.1 billion. This has significant implications ...
Rao Shripada C - - 2007
The commonly used growth curves for preterm infants are four decades old and may not be suitable for the current population. Uncertainty exists regarding the most suitable curves for monitoring the growth of preterm infants. While intrauterine growth rate appears to be the ideal growth that needs to be attained ...
Wright C C Division of Developmental Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, - - 2008
The WHO 2006 Child Growth Standard is based on data from international optimally nourished breastfed infants from birth to age 5 years. To assess the potential effect of its use on weight and growth monitoring of UK children. Full-term members of two population-based UK birth cohorts: the Children in Focus ...
McLeod Gemma - - 2007
Nutrition guidelines and growth targets for preterm infants are currently based upon the reference standard of intrauterine growth and fetal nutrient accretion rates. This may not be an entirely appropriate standard--it is rarely achieved in clinical practice. Postnatal growth failure of very preterm infants is a universal problem with potentially ...
Batty Kevin T - - 2007
Doxycycline is reported to impair second-generation parasite schizogony. The effects of doxycycline alone and combined with dihydroartemisinin were investigated in a murine malaria model. Doxycycline lowered the rate of parasite growth within 2 days, with maximum effect in 6 days. Addition of dihydroartemisinin led to an additive antimalarial effect.
Lampl Michelle - - 2007
Growth reference tables present statistical distributions of size for age of individuals within a sample or population. As summaries of phenotypic variability at the group level, they document that individuals grow by different rates during similar time frames. The data are commonly fitted by mathematical functions to produce the convex ...
Lucas P J PJ School for Policy Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK. - - 2007
Associations between growth and size during infancy and adult disease have led some to recommend that interventions in infancy might benefit lifelong health. Any such recommendations should be informed by both the scientific evidence for relationships between infancy and later outcomes and the views and opinions of those who care ...
McDevitt H - - 2007
Studies in preterm infants show reduced speed of sound (SOS) as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) during the immediate neonatal period. There is a scarcity of data on SOS changes following hospital discharge. The aim of this study was to assess SOS over the first 2 years in preterm infants. ...
Schreiner Felix - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants with very low birth weight frequently exhibit impaired longitudinal growth during the first years of life. Recently, the d3-isoform (genomic deletion of exon 3) of the GH receptor (GHR) has been linked to an increased responsiveness to GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether the GHRd3 ...
Williams Elizabeth A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Growth faltering during infancy is a characteristic of life in developing countries. Previous studies have shown that small-intestine mucosal enteropathy, accompanied by endotoxemia and a persistent systemic inflammatory response, accounts for up to 64% of the growth faltering in Gambian infants. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to test whether glutamine, ...
Wells Jonathan C K - - 2007
There is now compelling evidence that growth patterns in early life are associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, although the relative importance of prenatal v. postnatal growth for such associations remains controversial. Body composition may play a key role in the 'programming' of such diseases, through itself ...
López Gutiérrez Juan Carlos - - 2007
Evaluation of the placenta provides some important insights into pathophysiologic changes that take place during the prenatal and intrapartum process. We investigated the pathogenic significance of placental features and their relationship to the development of infantile hemangioma in order to obtain a better understanding of its cause. Placental specimens were ...
Bell Peter R F - - 2007
The results from the multimillion dollar Enrichment of Nutrients on Coral Reefs Experiment (ENCORE) on One Tree Island Reef (OTIR) suggest that increased nutrient loads to coral reefs will have little or no effect on the algal growth rates and, hence, on the associated effects that increased algal growth might ...
de Boo H A - - 2007
There is growing evidence that neonatal and long-term morbidity in preterm infants, particularly those born before 32 weeks' gestation, can be modified by attained growth rate in the neonatal period. Guidelines for optimal growth and the nutritional intakes, particular of protein, required to achieve this are not well defined. Due ...
Turner Paul C PC Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK LS2 - - 2007
Growth faltering in West African children has previously been associated with dietary exposure to aflatoxins, particularly upon weaning. However, in animal studies in utero exposure to low levels of aflatoxin also results in growth faltering. This study investigated the effect of in utero aflatoxin exposure on infant growth in the ...
Chen M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare bone status of small-for-gestational age (SGA) versus appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborn preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Tibial speed of sound (SOS) was measured in 144 infants categorized as SGA or AGA using the reference tables of Lubchenco et al. and Alexander et al. RESULTS: By the Lubchenco tables, ...
Hui L L LL The University of Hong Kong, Department of Community Medicine, 5/F William MW Mong Block, Room 5-21, 21 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, People's Republic of - - 2008
In 2006 the World Health Organization (WHO) published new optimal growth standards for all healthy infants worldwide. To assess their general applicability to a recently transitioned Chinese population, we compared them with infant growth patterns in a representative sample of Hong Kong infants. Weight at birth and at 1, 3, ...
Freking B A - - 2007
Selection for 11 generations in swine for ovulation rate (OR) or uterine capacity (UC) resulted in 19.6% greater prenatal survival at term in UC compared with OR. Our objective was to characterize the number of fetuses throughout gestation in each line, including an unselected control (CO) line. Five hundred ninety-three ...
Domzalski Marcin E - - 2007
We hypothesized the extent of involvement of the proximal femoral growth plate in Perthes disease determined the final radiographic outcome after containment by shelf acetabuloplasty. We retrospectively evaluated the extent of growth plate involvement using a modified version of the method described by Yasuda and Tamura. In our modification, we ...
Dettmer Amanda M - - 2007
Infants classified as "high risk" are born with a greater chance of developing medical complications at birth, and may have cognitive and other developmental complications later in life. Very few reports exist regarding the survival and outcome of such infants in primate colonies. Here we present early growth and developmental ...
Gonzalez Juan M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy of nonstress test, biophysical profile, or abnormal Dopplers in predicting adverse perinatal outcomes in intrauterine growth restriction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of intrauterine growth restriction (birthweight < fifth percentile for gestation) over a 7-year period. We excluded twins or fetuses ...
Adair Linda S - - 2007
Few studies in developing countries follow growth trajectories from birth to adulthood. Such studies are important because size at birth and postnatal growth affect risk of chronic disease in adulthood. This study examines the inter-relationships of maternal factors during pregnancy, infant birth weight and length, early postnatal growth, and young ...
Perlhagen Markus - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: For diagnosing urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants, the urine collection bag is a common sampling method. It has several advantages versus other methods but a high risk of contamination makes culture results difficult to evaluate. Previous studies report a specificity ranging from 14% to 84%. The objective of ...
Ehrenkranz Richard A - - 2007
The American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition goal of providing nutrient intakes that permit the rate of postnatal growth and the composition of weight gain to approximate that of a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age is rarely met by extremely low gestational age neonates. Therefore, postnatal growth ...
Stewart Robert C - - 2007
Depressive disorder occurring during pregnancy and the post-natal period (maternal depression) is common in both developed and developing countries. It can cause functional impairment at a time when the mother is performing tasks vital to her infant's growth and development. This article reviews recent research investigating whether there is an ...
Oslislo Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the study was to compare epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration in 81 colostrum samples collected from mothers of newborns in the following growth categories: preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and full term (FT). RESULTS: Significantly higher concentrations ...
Moyer-Mileur Laurie J - - 2007
Very low birth weight (VLBW; < or =1500 g), preterm infants have numerous physiological and developmental concerns, including growth and the provision of adequate nutrients to sustain growth. Growth is an important health care outcome measure for VLBW infants. Provision of energy and nutrients at levels to support growth and ...
Vujic Ana - - 2007
The omission of standards for renal length in infants younger than 1 year may result in a statistically significant increase in the frequency of "spurious" nephromegaly. Nonetheless, there are only a few reports specifically dealing with normal kidney dimensions in infants. Based on sonographic assessments performed on a sample of ...
Ahmad Irfan - - 2007
Little is understood about the optimal balance between IGF-I and antagonistic inflammatory mediators, such as IL-6, in growing preterm infants. Using a prospective cohort study, we investigated the relationship between postnatal growth of preterm infants and key growth and inflammatory mediators. We studied 51 stable, growing preterm infants (mean gestational ...
Megremis Stylianos - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to ultrasonographically evaluate spleen dimensions in healthy prematurely born neonates and infants during the first 3 months of life. METHODS: Ninety-six neonates and infants aged from 2 to 90 days, with gestational ages from 25 to 35 weeks, were prospectively examined between 2001 ...
Rice F F Department of Psychological Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK. - - 2007
Events occurring very early in life, even prenatally, may have long-term effects on future health and behaviour. The influence of poor foetal growth and gestational stress in the mother on the risk of emotional problems in offspring was reviewed. A selective review of the literature was undertaken. Studies of preterm ...
Fenton T R - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The use of exact percentiles and z-scores permit optimal assessment of infants' growth. In addition, z-scores allow the precise description of size outside of the 3rd and 97th percentiles of a growth reference. To calculate percentiles and z-scores, health professionals require the LMS parameters (Lambda for the skew, Mu ...
Pettorelli Nathalie - - 2007
Seasonal patterns of climate and vegetation growth are expected to be altered by global warming. In alpine environments, the reproduction of birds and mammals is tightly linked to seasonality; therefore such alterations may have strong repercussions on recruitment. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a satellite-based measurement that ...
Sauer Pieter J J - - 2007
Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about gestational age, reasons for preterm birth, and, ...
Ong Ken K KK MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK. - - 2007
Most small for gestational age infants show rapid early postnatal growth and weight gain. Increasing trends towards childhood overweight and its metabolic consequences, and their epidemiological associations with lower birth weight, have led to critical assessments of the benefits and disadvantages of rapid early growth. In the last 12 months, ...
Janssen Patricia A - - 2007
Fetal growth restriction is associated with metabolic derangements in the newborn, impaired functioning in childhood and chronic diseases in adulthood. Differences between ethnic groups with respect to fetal growth may result in the misclassification of constitutionally small or large babies as having abnormal growth for their gestational age. We have ...
Shoshani Mirit - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether triplet- or singleton-specific growth standards should be used to define the growth restricted triplet fetus/neonate. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively compared the predictive values of singleton vs. triplet-specific "growth" standards using the neonatal ponderal index as reference for growth restriction. RESULTS: A ponderal index <1 SD from ...
Netta Denise A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To assess intrauterine growth for fetuses with gastroschisis using retrospective serial ultrasound assessment from fetuses diagnosed prenatally with gastroschisis. The growth assessment could be available as a prospective tool to direct an antepartum fetal surveillance protocol. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of all cases of gastroschisis evaluated prenatally ...
Solomons Noel W - - 2007
A normal pregnancy and adequate lactation performance should produce at 6 months of life a healthy baby, who has a weight and height within the limits of international growth norms. When that does not happen and the child is either too small (or too big), i.e. 'malnourished', strong determinants will ...
Schaefer Melissa S - - 2007
Since primate infants are not simply miniature adults, adult shape results from differential growth patterns of individual body segments. Initially an infant relies on its mother for transportation, and later begins independent locomotion. Skeletal growth patterns must meet the functional demands of independent locomotion. In this study we sought to ...
Korkmaz Ay┼če - - 2007
Enteral and parenteral glutamine supplementation in preterm infants has been shown to have some beneficial effects on neonatal morbidity and mortality, although the results are controversial. In this study, we aimed to determine if long-term glutamine-supplemented enteral nutrition affects growth parameters in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Preterm infants with a ...
de Onis Mercedes - - 2007
The evaluation of child growth trajectories and the interventions designed to improve child health are highly dependent on the growth charts used. The U.S. CDC and the WHO, in May 2000 and April 2006, respectively, released new growth charts to replace the 1977 NCHS reference. The WHO charts are based ...
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