Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1367
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Wells Jonathan C K - - 2003
Medical research is increasingly focusing on the contribution of nutritional programming to disease in later life. Programming is a process whereby a stimulus during a critical window of time permanently affects subsequent structure, function or developmental schedule of the organism. The thrifty phenotype hypothesis is widely used to interpret such ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2003
The objective was to elucidate hemodynamic adaptation in very low birth weight (<1500 g) infants after intrauterine growth retardation. 31 growth-retarded (SGA, birth weight <-2 SD) and 32 appropriate for gestational age (AGA, birth weight within +/- 1 SD range) infants were enrolled. In SGA infants, the diastolic diameters of ...
Bane A L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To establish the incidence, recurrence rate and consequences of massive perivillous fibrinoid. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the histology of all placentas with a diagnosis of massive perivillous fibrinoid between 1991 and 1998, together with the maternal case records. SETTING: The histopathology department of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. POPULATION: ...
Ghezzi Fabio - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess if the delivery of a previous growth-retarded (IUGR) fetus increases the risk of having an IUGR fetus in subsequent pregnancies and to explore if a familial pattern of transmission is involved. METHODS: Seventy consecutive multiparous women whose fetus was IUGR (group 1) and ...
Gökçay Gülbin - - 2003
This study aimed to compare the first-year growth of infants who had received different feeding regimens throughout the first 4 months. Anthropometric measurements of 332 infants attending a well child clinic were analysed. The infants were divided into four groups: exclusively breastfed (BF), predominantly BF, partially BF, and non-BE Exclusively ...
Steward Deborah K - - 2003
Failure to thrive (FTT) is a syndrome of growth failure due to undernutrition. Determining whether an infant has FTT is based on the use of an anthropometric indicator and a selected cutoff value for that indicator. These anthropometric indicators include weight for age, weight for length, and length for age, ...
Zhang Xiu Quan - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction has been associated with failed maternal physiologic changes such as abnormal spiral artery remodeling and reduced maternal blood volume. A polymorphism of angiotensinogen Thr235 has been considered a risk factor for preeclampsia. We genotyped maternal and fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) for angiotensinogen Thr235 to estimate whether ...
Osgerby J C - - 2003
This study investigated the effects of maternal body condition and nutrition on placental and foetal growth in mid-gestation. Welsh Mountain ewes (n=24) of body condition 3.5 (high, H) and 2.0 (low, L) at mating, were fed either 100 per cent or 70 per cent of their daily maintenance requirements from ...
Engström E - - 2003
AIM: To compare and evaluate a mini-knemometer with a simple and inexpensive electronic caliper with regard to precision, handling error (technical error) and estimation of growth velocity. METHODS: Thirty-five prematurely born infants, with a median gestational age of 29 (range 24-33) wk and a median birthweight of 960 (range 480-2,480) ...
Yeung Melinda Y - - 2003
Recent published data show that at hospital discharge, most infants born at <30 weeks of gestation would not achieve the median birth weight of the reference fetus at the same postconceptional age, and many would be less than the 10th centile. Estimating from the current recommendations of calorie and protein ...
Lundgren E M - - 2003
All male singletons born without congenital malformations in Sweden between 1973 and 1978 and conscripted between January 1991 and January 1997 (n = 254426) were studied. Intellectual and psychological performance was tested at conscription. Males born small for gestational age (SGA) had lower results on both intellectual and psychological performance ...
Czyz Marcin - - 2003
The aim of our study was to elaborate a scheme for the development of the particular elements of the lumbar vertebral column in the foetal period based on metrological data analysis. 30 human foetuses between 31 and 183 mm C-R length were examined. The whole vertebral column and lumbar segment ...
Mahajan Viresh - - 2003
Our aim was to assess the effect of intrauterine growth retardation on neurosensory development by evaluating brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) in term small for gestational age (SGA) newborn infants born to undernourished mothers. This prospective clinical study included 25 singleton healthy SGA newborn infants born between 38 and 41 ...
Taylor Robert N - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Complicated pregnancies demonstrate abnormal decidual and placental villous vasculature. We examined maternal concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor in normal pregnancies and in pregnancies that were complicated by isolated idiopathic small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn infants, preeclampsia alone, or preeclampsia with SGA newborn infants at the time ...
Gibson Alan T - - 2003
Measurement of newborn babies is widely regarded as being too inaccurate to justify its regular practice. It is common for infants to be weighed at birth and for no other measurements to be made. Although such assumptions are superficially correct, it is possible to train people to perform accurate measurements ...
Barker D J P - - 2003
A new 'developmental' model for the origins of coronary heart disease and the related disorders of type 2 diabetes, hypertension and stroke is emerging. The finding that people who develop these disorders have altered growth in utero, during infancy and childhood provides a new starting point for research. The immediate ...
Kondrachuk Alexander V - - 2003
It has been suggested that, in the fish, the change of otolith mass during development under altered gravity conditions and the growth of otoliths in normal conditions, are determined by feedback between otolith dynamics and the processes that regulate otolith growth. The hypothesis originates from an oscillator model of the ...
Kajantie Eero - - 2003
Small preterm infants experience a unique postnatal period characterized by slow growth, inadequate nutrition and growth inhibiting treatments. Many have already been growth-restricted in utero. Studying this period is important when developing growth optimizing strategies for these infants and, in a broader context, as a model of extreme conditions that ...
Mellish J E - - 2003
Otariid lactation and neonatal growth are cyclical processes tied to maternal foraging and nursing patterns (i.e. at sea and on land). Both mother and pup undergo repeated shifts from a positive to a negative energy balance, the physiological mechanisms of which are unclear. We measured plasma and tissue lipoprotein lipase ...
Karlberg Johan - - 2002
We explored factors related to early catch-up growth in healthy children in Göteborg, Sweden. Most (82.9%) infants born small for gestational age (SGA) showed catch-up growth during their first 6 months, and 94.3% reached a final height within the normal range. At 6 months, 21 SGA children remained short and ...
Ong Ken K L - - 2002
There is remarkably wide variation in rates of infancy growth, however, its regulation is not well understood. We examined the relationship between maternal smoking, parity, and breast- or bottle-feeding to size at birth and childhood growth between 0 and 5 y in a large representative birth cohort. A total of ...
Olsen Irene E - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To explain differences in weight growth velocity of extremely premature infants among 6 level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS: In 6 NICUs, we studied 564 infants, stratified by gestational age (GA), who were first admissions, survivors, <30 weeks' GA at birth, and in the NICU at least ...
Skalkidou A - - 2002
Pre- and perinatal conditions and processes may affect the risk for some forms of cancer in later life, while the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system may play a role in both early somatic growth and later carcinogenesis. Birth weight and length, and the variation of major components of the IGF ...
Sayer Avan Aihie - - 2002
Grip strength is a simple measure of skeletal muscle function but a powerful predictor of disability, morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence has shown that prenatal and infant growth influence grip strength in later life; this may reflect genetic influences on muscle size and function, although strong candidate genes have not ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To study whether intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with decreased sensitivity to the main fetal growth factor, insulin, and the effect of glucocorticoid therapy on insulin sensitivity in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Newborn infants with a birth weight (BW) of< 1500 g were classified as appropriate for gestational ...
Olsen Øystein E - - 2002
PURPOSE: To determine population-based references for the relationships between the presence of ossification centers and gestational age and skeletal length measurements among infants who die during the perinatal period, as well as to evaluate the possible influence of intrauterine growth restriction on ossification stage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During an 11-year ...
Oz U - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that, as with other areas of the peripheral circulation, fetal splenic artery blood flow undergoes changes in small-for-gestational age (SGA) fetuses due to a redistribution of cardiac output, and that the Doppler peak systolic velocity (PSV) reflects such changes and thus may be used to predict fetuses ...
Phupong Vorapong - - 2003
The objective was to assess the value of uterine artery notching as a screening test for preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction in a low-risk population of healthy pregnant women. Color Doppler ultrasound was used to examine both uterine arteries in 322 healthy pregnant women at 24.9 +/- 1.9 (range 22-28) ...
Sarkar Sovan - - 2002
Nonself recognition during vegetative growth in filamentous fungi is mediated by heterokaryon incompatibility (het) loci. In Neurospora crassa, het-c is one of 11 het loci. Three allelic specificity groups, termed het-c(OR), het-c(PA) and het-c(GR), exist in natural populations. Heterokaryons or partial diploids that contain het-c alleles of alternative specificity show ...
Gharoro E P - - 2002
The Objective of the study is to investigate foetal growth curve amongst the women attending the antenatal clinic of the UBTH and determine if the gravidogram needs to be customised for use in our community. Five hundred and sixty booked antenatal patients with certain last menstrual period dates were recruited ...
Cheung Y B - - 2002
While previous research has suggested that body thinness is related to subsequent linear growth in children, it is unclear whether thinness at birth is related to linear growth in newborns and catch-up growth in small-forgestational age newborns. Drawing on data from a longitudinal growth study of 3,650 full-term Swedish babies, ...
McDowell Nate G - - 2002
The hydraulic limitation hypothesis (Ryan and Yoder 1997) proposes that leaf-specific hydraulic conductance (kl) and stomatal conductance (gs) decline as trees grow taller, resulting in decreased carbon assimilation. We tested the hydraulic limitation hypothesis by comparison of canopy-dominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees in stands that were ...
Hindmarsh Peter C - - 2002
Birth size and shape are commonly used as indicators of fetal growth. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a relationship between birth size and the risk of developing cardiovascular disease in later life. Certain "growth phenotypes" have been linked to the development of certain components of cardiovascular disease, particularly babies who display ...
Zaffanello Marco - - 2002
To understand the effects of hyperphenylalaninaemia on fetal growth, we studied growth parameters (weight, length and head circumference) of 23 phenylketonuric (PKU) and 60 hyperphenylalaninaemic (HPA) newborns from healthy mothers and of 1853 healthy neonates from north-east Italy. A comparison of the growth parameters for both PKU and HPA newborns, ...
Westergaard Hanne Brix - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In order to assess the organizational and economical implications of Doppler ultrasonography used in high risk pregnancies, a national estimate of the use in singleton pregnancies with risk of small for gestational age (>2 SD below mean birthweight) (SGA) or intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was needed. METHODS: Through retrospective ...
Corkins Mark R - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: A variety of methods are used to assess the length of infants at hospital admission. A tape-measure technique is commonly used; however, this measure is potentially inaccurate. We aimed to assess accuracy of tape measurement of infant lengths by comparison with the more accurate length-board technique. METHODS: During a ...
Griffin Ian J - - 2002
Despite improvements in neonatal care, many preterm babies suffer growth failure during their hospitalization. This appears to persist through early childhood, and possibly into adolescence. The use of enriched formulas improves the early growth of preterm infants, although most if not all of the benefit seems to be lost by ...
Wells James P - - 2002
Detailed measurements were acquired from 168 healthy subjects who were brought to the West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine's Robert C. Byrd Clinic in Lewisburg, WVa, during 1998 and 1999 by their parents for routine well-baby visits. Measurements of body-segment length, diameter, circumference, and skinfold thickness were taken at several ...
Witek-Janusek Linda - - 2002
Premature and critically ill infants are highly susceptible to Candida albicans. This study evaluated the lymphocyte-mediated antifungal capacity of infants relative to birth weight, prematurity, and illness severity. Growth inhibition of C. albicans by lymphocytes from preterm and low-birth weight infants was significantly reduced, compared with full-term and normal-weight infants. ...
Kajantie Eero - - 2002
Impaired postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants is per se a major clinical challenge and may also serve as a model in studying the mechanisms of growth retardation in general. This study was undertaken to characterize the role of IGFs and their binding proteins (IGFBPs), ...
Weiler H A - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at risk for suboptimal growth and bone mineralization compared to infants born at term but long-term outcomes into early adulthood are unclear. AIMS: To determine (1) if growth and nutrition in the first year of life significantly predict the outcomes measured at adulthood and (2) whole ...
Bolt R J - - 2002
Small for gestational age preterm infants have a higher risk of neonatal morbidity compared to appropriate for gestational age preterm infants. A diminished adrenal response to stress may be involved in the higher postnatal morbidity. The adrenal cortex response in relation to fetal growth was studied by ACTH stimulation tests ...
Burrin Douglas G - - 2002
The nutritional support of gastrointestinal growth and function is an important consideration in the clinical care of neonatal infants. In most health infants, the provision of either breast milk or formula seems to support normal intestinal mucosal growth, but the most significant advantages of breast milk may be for host ...
Beliles Robert P - - 2002
Reproductive and developmental toxicities resulting from exposure to tetrachloroethylene include delayed or impaired conception, sperm quality, death during development, developmental neurotoxicity, and growth retardation. In most cases there was concordance between rodents and humans. The risk assessments indicated that neurotoxicity was the most sensitive endpoint for inhalation, whereas growth retardation ...
Hussain Naveed - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: There has been a major increase in the incidence of hypospadias in infants in the 1990s, but the risk factors are not known. Although there are scattered reports in the literature regarding the association of low birth weight and hypospadias, this has not been systematically studied. The objective of ...
Henriksen Tore - - 2002
The 'Fetal origins hypothesis' states that individuals born small because of malnutrition are predisposed to adult diseases. Fetal malnutrition has two main causes, poor maternal nutrition and placental insufficiency. A distinction between these causes is important because it is likely that maternal nutrition has been sufficient in the majority of ...
Apple Martha - - 2002
Morphological differences between old-growth trees and saplings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross sections of previous-year needles of old-growth Douglas-fir trees and saplings at the Wind River Canopy Crane ...
Trotter Andreas - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Growth of the uterus and the mammary glands and changes in vaginal cytologic features are known to be estrogen dependent and were evaluated to proof the biologic effectiveness of a postnatal replacement of estradiol and progesterone in extremely premature infants. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty female infants with a mean gestational ...
Tolcos Mary - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prenatal growth restriction on the ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to asphyxia and hypercapnia in the newborn guinea-pig. Spontaneously growth-restricted (SGR) animals born to unoperated dams, and growth-retarded (GR) neonates born to dams in which a uterine artery had been ...
Roberts S K - - 2002
AIMS: To determine the expediency of a microtitre assay system for establishing, quantifying and antimicrobial testing of two representative oral pathogens. METHODS AND RESULTS: Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis were used. Morphological characteristics of the attached population were evaluated. Biofilm growth was evaluated spectrophotometrically (undisturbed and 1 N NaOH dissipated ...
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