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Karwowski Mateusz P - - 2014
Given the relationship between iron metabolism and lead toxicokinetics, we hypothesized that polymorphisms in iron metabolism genes might modify maternal-fetal lead transfer. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal and/or infant transferrin (TF) and hemochromatosis (HFE) gene missense variants modify the association between maternal blood lead (MBL) ...
Schierholz Elizabeth E AirLife Denver Neonatal Transport Team, Englewood, - - 2014
Subgaleal hemorrhage is an uncommon but often fatal complication of a traumatic birth. Careful assessment and monitoring of the infant following birth are necessary to ensure prompt intervention, referral, and improved outcomes. Additional care, planning, and communication are especially important in the transport environment.
Radicioni Maurizio M Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, S. Maria della Misericordia Hospital of Perugia, Perugia, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: To delineate thromboelastographic profiles of the premature infants with and without intracranial hemorrhage during the first 21 days of life. Methods: 49 premature infants (24 female; 25 male) consecutively admitted at our neonatal intensive care unit during a 6 months period were subject to thromboelastography and standard coagulation ...
Schreiner Christine - - 2014
Pathogenesis of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in premature infants is multifactorial. Little is known about the impact of genetic variants in the vitamin K-dependent coagulation system on the development of IVH. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1 -1639G>A) and coagulation factor 7 (F7 -323Ins10) were ...
Mandalaywala Tara M TM Institute for Mind and Biology, The University of Chicago Department of Comparative Human Development, The University of Chicago - - 2014
Both human and nonhuman primates exhibit a cognitive bias to social threat, but little is known about how this bias develops. We investigated the development of threat bias in free-ranging infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at 3 months (n = 45) and 9 months (n = 46) of age. Three-month-olds ...
Colvin Jeffrey D JD Department of Pediatrics, Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Missouri;Department of Pediatrics, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, Missouri; - - 2014
Sudden infant death syndrome and other sleep-related causes of infant mortality have several known risk factors. Less is known about the association of those risk factors at different times during infancy. Our objective was to determine any associations between risk factors for sleep-related deaths at different ages.METHODS: A cross-sectional study ...
Hystad Perry P College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, - - 2014
Half the world's population lives in urban areas. It is therefore important to identify characteristics of the built environment that are beneficial to human health. Urban greenness has been associated with improvements in a diverse range of health conditions, including birth outcomes; however, few studies have attempted to distinguish potential ...
Olusanya Bolajoko O - - 2014
In many resource-limited settings, the availability of effective phototherapy for jaundiced infants is frequently hampered by lack of, or inadequate resources to acquire and maintain conventional electric-powered phototherapy devices. This study set out to ascertain maternal experience and satisfaction with a novel treatment of infants with significant hyperbilirubinemia using filtered ...
Ruiz Géraldine G Centre Universitaire Romand de Médecine Légale, University of Geneva, Rue Michel-Servet 1, 1205, Geneva, Switzerland, - - 2014
Prisoners sometimes die in prison, either due to natural illness, violence, suicide, or a result of imprisonment. The purpose of this study is to understand deaths in custody using qualitative methodology and to argue for a comprehensive definition of death in custody that acknowledges deaths related to the prison environment. ...
Dosso Jill A JA Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, 350 Victoria St., Toronto, ON, M5B 2K3, Canada, - - 2014
From birth, infants move their bodies in order to obtain information and stimulation from their environment. Exploratory movements are important for the development of an infant's understanding of the world and are well established as being key to cognitive advances. Newly acquired motor skills increase the potential actions available to ...
Kinzler Katherine D KD Department of Psychology,University of Chicago,Chicago,IL - - 2014
The negativity bias in human cognition emerges in infancy and continues throughout childhood. To fully understand the relationship between differences in attention to negative stimuli and variance in political ideologies, it is critical to consider human development and the process by which early individual differences in negativity unfold and are ...
Gutteridge Kathryn - - 2014
The birth environment continues to be a subject of midwifery discourse within theory and practice. This article discusses the birth environment from the perspective of understanding the aromas and aromatherapy for the benefit of women and midwives The dynamic between the olfactory system and stimulation of normal birth processes proves ...
Kajale Neha N Hirabai Cowasji Jehangir Medical Research Institute, Pune, - - 2014
During lactation, traditional food supplements (TFS) are commonly consumed in India to increase lactation performance and health of mothers. TFS are rich in fats, nuts, dry fruits, and sugars and indulging in such supplements for 3 to 6 mo postpartum may put the mother at risk for obesity. The aim ...
Szymczak Stacy E SE College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
For neonates requiring intensive care, the optimal sound environment is uncertain. Minimal disruptions from medical staff create quieter environments for sleep, but limit language exposure necessary for proper language development. There are two models of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs): open-bay, in which 6-to-10 infants are cared for in a ...
Anthopolos Rebecca R From the aSchool of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; bDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; cSchool of Community Health, Portland State University, Portland, OR; and dDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Racial residential segregation has been associated with preterm birth. Few studies have examined mediating pathways, in part because, with binary outcomes, indirect effects estimated from multiplicative models generally lack causal interpretation. We develop a method to estimate additive-scale natural direct and indirect effects from logistic regression. We then evaluate whether ...
Konya T T Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, - - 2014
The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); ...
Hershenov David B DB Philosophy Department, University at Buffalo, , Buffalo, New York, - - 2014
Fetuses and infants are said to warrant protecting because of their potential. But valuing potential supposedly leads to absurdities like protecting cells that could be technologically altered to develop into persons. This can be avoided by recognising that morally relevant potential is determined by what is presently healthy development (proper ...
Coffield Caroline N CN The Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities, Rutgers - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The effect of odor on cognitive and emotional processes has been studied in adults and children, but less so in infants. In this study twenty-seven six-month-olds were presented with a video while in either an odor (pine or baby-powder) or a no odor control condition. The video was a 92-s ...
Fawcett G L GL Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas - - 2014
Primate behavior is influenced by both heritable factors and environmental experience during development. Previous studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) examined the effects of genetic variation on expressed behavior and related neurobiological traits (heritability and/or genetic association) using a variety of study designs. Most of these prior studies examined genetic ...
Kapoor Amita A Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, - - 2014
Background:It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair ...
Parajuli Rajendra P RP Department of Human Ecology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo. Electronic address: - - 2014
We have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) (i.e., toxic elements), and neurodevelopmental indicators (i.e., motor and state regulation cluster score) measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III) in this cohort at birth. Using additional follow-up, this study ...
Raone Beatrice B Department of Specialised, Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Dermatology, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is important for evaluating the integrity of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Normal TEWL values in healthy adults and in children ages 2 and older are well known, but few studies have been performed in infants and neonates. TEWL in healthy ...
Lucion Aldo B AB Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , - - 2014
In order to survive after birth, mammalian infants need a caretaker, usually the mother. Several behavioral strategies have evolved to guarantee the transition from a period of intense caregiving to offspring independence. Here, we examine a selection of literature on the genetic, epigenetic, physiological, and behavioral factors relating to development ...
Hawkes Kristen - - 2013
Developmental psychologists identify propensities for social engagement in human infants that are less evident in other apes; Sarah Hrdy links these social propensities to novel features of human childrearing. Unlike other ape mothers, humans can bear a new baby before the previous child is independent because they have help. This ...
Randall Bradley B - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Sudden and unexplained death is a leading cause of infant mortality. Certain characteristics of the sleep environment increase the risk for sleep-related sudden and unexplained infant death. These characteristics have the potential to generate asphyxial conditions. We tested the hypothesis that infants may be exposed to differing degrees of asphyxia ...
Bretherton Inge - - 2013
This paper describes the evolution of Ainsworth's construct of maternal sensitivity-insensitivity to infant signals from its beginnings in her research in Uganda to its explicit emergence in the findings from the Baltimore study. It provides an analysis of her bipolar Maternal Care Scales (Sensivity-Insensitivity, Cooperation-Interference, Acceptance-Rejection, and Accessibility-Ignoring and Neglecting) ...
Conradt Elisabeth - - 2013
Exposure to maternal mood disorders in utero may program infant neurobehavior via DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ( 11β-HSD-2), two placental genes that have been implicated in perturbations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We tested the relationship among prenatal exposure to ...
van Hoogmoed Anne H AH Radboud University Nijmegen, Behavioural Science Institute PO Box 9104, Nijmegen, 6500 HE, The Netherlands ; Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour PO Box 9101, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The - - 2013
Fast detection and identification of objects in an environment is important for using objects as landmarks during navigation. While adults rapidly process objects within an environment and use landmarks during navigation, infants do not routinely use distal landmarks below the age of 18 months. In the current event-related potential (ERP) ...
Pickier Rita H - - 2013
The purpose of this article is to introduce a model of neurodevelopmental risk and protection that may explain some of the relationships among biobehavioral risks, environmental risks, and caregiving behaviors that potentially contribute to neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. Infants born before 30 weeks of gestation have the poorest developmental prognosis ...
Cha Jeeyeon J Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, - - 2013
There are currently more than 15 million preterm births each year. We propose that gene-environment interaction is a major contributor to preterm birth. To address this experimentally, we generated a mouse model with uterine deletion of Trp53, which exhibits approximately 50% incidence of spontaneous preterm birth due to premature decidual ...
Druelle François - - 2013
The olive baboon is described as a committed quadrupedal primate. However, available data show that they actually use a variety of locomotor and postural modes. Bipedalism is observed occasionally but spontaneously in captivity and in the wild. As observed in other Catarrhini, immature baboons appear to be more bipedal than ...
Bacaër Nicolas - - 2013
We study the probability of extinction for single-type and multi-type continuous-time linear birth-and-death processes in a finite Markovian environment. The probability of extinction is equal to 1 almost surely if and only if the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text], the key point being to identify ...
Smith Lois E LE Department of Ophthalmology, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity occurs because the retina of a preterm infant at birth is incompletely vascularized, and if the postnatal environment does not match the in utero environment that supported retinal development, the vessels and neural retina will not grow normally. Risk factors determined from many clinical studies and animal ...
Tummeltshammer Kristen Swan - - 2013
Young infants have demonstrated a remarkable sensitivity to probabilistic relations among visual features (Fiser & Aslin, 2002; Kirkham et al., 2002). Previous research has raised important questions regarding the usefulness of statistical learning in an environment filled with variability and noise, such as an infant's natural world. In an eye-tracking ...
Lidell Martin E - - 2013
The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, ...
Buczynski Bradley W BW Department of Environmental Medicine, The University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. - - 2013
Supplemental oxygen is often used as a life-saving therapy in the treatment of preterm infants. However, its protracted use can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and more recently, has been associated with adversely affecting the general health of children and adolescents who were born preterm. Efforts to ...
Schnitzer Patricia G - - 2013
In responding to an e-mail inquiry from Somers in October 2012, we explained that we do not have specific data on crib mattress firmness in the National Child Death Review-Case Reporting System data used in our analysis of Sudden Unexpected Deaths (SUID). We do not, however, interpret our findings as ...
Storme Laurent - - 2013
The main cause of pulmonary hypertension in newborn babies results from the failure of the pulmonary circulation to dilate at birth, termed 'persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn' (PPHN). This syndrome is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, causing extrapulmonary right-to-left shunting of blood across the ductus arteriosus ...
Dyer Jonathan A - - 2013
Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from ...
Conradt Elisabeth - - 2013
Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment? Guided by theories of differential susceptibility and biological sensitivity to context, we evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) operates as a susceptibility factor among infants ...
Dyer Jonathan A - - 2013
Mendelian disorders of cornification (ichthyosis; MeDOC) often present in the neonatal period with little warning to providers or parents. This report reviews the majority of ichthyoses with congenital findings. The neonatal presentation of many MeDOC often differs from the later phenotype because of the changes in the skin that occur ...
Milisavljevic Vladana - - 2013
The distal GI microbiota of hospitalized preterm neonates has been established to be unique from that of healthy full-term infants; the proximal GI, more specifically gastroesophageal colonization has not been systematically addressed. We prospectively evaluated early colonization of gastroesophageal portion of the GI tract of VLBW infants. This study involved ...
Anand Sonia S - - 2013
People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth ...
Stewart Christopher J - - 2013
The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may ...
Watanabe Shimpei S Department of Neonatology, Kanagawa Children's Medical Center , Yokohama , - - 2013
Using uterine explants from Per1::Luc rats and in situ hybridization, we recently reported that the circadian property of the molecular clock in the uterus and placenta is stably maintained from non-pregnancy, right through to the end stage of pregnancy under regular light-dark (LD) cycles. Despite long-lasting increases in progesterone during ...
- - 2012
Unintentional suffocation is the leading cause of injury death among children aged <1 year in the United States, accounting for nearly 1,000 infant deaths annually. Since 1984, an estimated fourfold increase has been observed in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, with many of these deaths linked to unsafe sleep ...
Pongou Roland - - 2012
Infant mortality is higher in boys than girls in most parts of the world. This has been explained by sex differences in genetic and biological makeup, with boys being biologically weaker and more susceptible to diseases and premature death. At the same time, recent studies have found that numerous preconception ...
Yu Zhuo-Teng ZT Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129, - - 2013
Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even ...
Klebermass-Schrehof K - - 2012
PURPOSE: Despite a decreasing incidence, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains a point of major concern in neonatology due to its association to adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO). Aim of this study was to compare outcome of preterm infants with different grades of IVH born below 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) with outcome ...
Hwang Ai-Wen AW Graduate Institute of Early Intervention, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, - - 2014
Previous cohort studies for the general pediatric population had a limited focus on either environmental or biological influences, or a specific theoretical framework. The child's development, however, is a composite of physical, mental, social, environmental, and personal factors. The framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health-Children and ...
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