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Szymczak Stacy E SE College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
For neonates requiring intensive care, the optimal sound environment is uncertain. Minimal disruptions from medical staff create quieter environments for sleep, but limit language exposure necessary for proper language development. There are two models of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs): open-bay, in which 6-to-10 infants are cared for in a ...
Anthopolos Rebecca R From the aSchool of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; bDepartment of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; cSchool of Community Health, Portland State University, Portland, OR; and dDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, - - 2014
Racial residential segregation has been associated with preterm birth. Few studies have examined mediating pathways, in part because, with binary outcomes, indirect effects estimated from multiplicative models generally lack causal interpretation. We develop a method to estimate additive-scale natural direct and indirect effects from logistic regression. We then evaluate whether ...
Konya T T Division of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, - - 2014
The human gut is host to a diverse and abundant community of bacteria that influence health and disease susceptibility. This community develops in infancy, and its composition is strongly influenced by environmental factors, notably perinatal anthropogenic exposures such as delivery mode (Cesarean vs. vaginal) and feeding method (breast vs. formula); ...
Hershenov David B DB Philosophy Department, University at Buffalo, , Buffalo, New York, - - 2014
Fetuses and infants are said to warrant protecting because of their potential. But valuing potential supposedly leads to absurdities like protecting cells that could be technologically altered to develop into persons. This can be avoided by recognising that morally relevant potential is determined by what is presently healthy development (proper ...
Coffield Caroline N CN The Boggs Center on Developmental Disabilities, Rutgers - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
The effect of odor on cognitive and emotional processes has been studied in adults and children, but less so in infants. In this study twenty-seven six-month-olds were presented with a video while in either an odor (pine or baby-powder) or a no odor control condition. The video was a 92-s ...
Fawcett G L GL Human Genome Sequencing Center, Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas - - 2014
Primate behavior is influenced by both heritable factors and environmental experience during development. Previous studies of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) examined the effects of genetic variation on expressed behavior and related neurobiological traits (heritability and/or genetic association) using a variety of study designs. Most of these prior studies examined genetic ...
Kapoor Amita A Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, - - 2014
Background:It is established that maternal parity can affect infant growth and risk for several disorders, but the prenatal endocrine milieu that contributes to these outcomes is still largely unknown. Recently, it has been shown that hormones deposited in hair can provide a retrospective reflection of hormone levels while the hair ...
Parajuli Rajendra P RP Department of Human Ecology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo. Electronic address: - - 2014
We have previously reported inverse associations between in utero levels of lead (Pb), arsenic (As) (i.e., toxic elements), and neurodevelopmental indicators (i.e., motor and state regulation cluster score) measured by the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale, third edition (NBAS III) in this cohort at birth. Using additional follow-up, this study ...
Raone Beatrice B Department of Specialised, Experimental and Diagnostic Medicine, Dermatology, Sant'Orsola Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is important for evaluating the integrity of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Normal TEWL values in healthy adults and in children ages 2 and older are well known, but few studies have been performed in infants and neonates. TEWL in healthy ...
Lucion Aldo B AB Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul , Porto Alegre , - - 2014
In order to survive after birth, mammalian infants need a caretaker, usually the mother. Several behavioral strategies have evolved to guarantee the transition from a period of intense caregiving to offspring independence. Here, we examine a selection of literature on the genetic, epigenetic, physiological, and behavioral factors relating to development ...
Hawkes Kristen - - 2013
Developmental psychologists identify propensities for social engagement in human infants that are less evident in other apes; Sarah Hrdy links these social propensities to novel features of human childrearing. Unlike other ape mothers, humans can bear a new baby before the previous child is independent because they have help. This ...
Randall Bradley B - - 2013
OBJECTIVE:Sudden and unexplained death is a leading cause of infant mortality. Certain characteristics of the sleep environment increase the risk for sleep-related sudden and unexplained infant death. These characteristics have the potential to generate asphyxial conditions. We tested the hypothesis that infants may be exposed to differing degrees of asphyxia ...
Bretherton Inge - - 2013
This paper describes the evolution of Ainsworth's construct of maternal sensitivity-insensitivity to infant signals from its beginnings in her research in Uganda to its explicit emergence in the findings from the Baltimore study. It provides an analysis of her bipolar Maternal Care Scales (Sensivity-Insensitivity, Cooperation-Interference, Acceptance-Rejection, and Accessibility-Ignoring and Neglecting) ...
Conradt Elisabeth - - 2013
Exposure to maternal mood disorders in utero may program infant neurobehavior via DNA methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 ( 11β-HSD-2), two placental genes that have been implicated in perturbations of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis. We tested the relationship among prenatal exposure to ...
van Hoogmoed Anne H AH Radboud University Nijmegen, Behavioural Science Institute PO Box 9104, Nijmegen, 6500 HE, The Netherlands ; Radboud University Nijmegen, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour PO Box 9101, Nijmegen, 6500 HB, The - - 2013
Fast detection and identification of objects in an environment is important for using objects as landmarks during navigation. While adults rapidly process objects within an environment and use landmarks during navigation, infants do not routinely use distal landmarks below the age of 18 months. In the current event-related potential (ERP) ...
Pickier Rita H - - 2013
The purpose of this article is to introduce a model of neurodevelopmental risk and protection that may explain some of the relationships among biobehavioral risks, environmental risks, and caregiving behaviors that potentially contribute to neurobehavioral and cognitive outcomes. Infants born before 30 weeks of gestation have the poorest developmental prognosis ...
Cha Jeeyeon J Division of Reproductive Sciences, Perinatal Institute, Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229-3039, - - 2013
There are currently more than 15 million preterm births each year. We propose that gene-environment interaction is a major contributor to preterm birth. To address this experimentally, we generated a mouse model with uterine deletion of Trp53, which exhibits approximately 50% incidence of spontaneous preterm birth due to premature decidual ...
Druelle François - - 2013
The olive baboon is described as a committed quadrupedal primate. However, available data show that they actually use a variety of locomotor and postural modes. Bipedalism is observed occasionally but spontaneously in captivity and in the wild. As observed in other Catarrhini, immature baboons appear to be more bipedal than ...
Smith Lois E - - 2013
Retinopathy of prematurity occurs because the retina of a preterm infant at birth is incompletely vascularized, and if the postnatal environment does not match the in utero environment that supported retinal development, the vessels and neural retina will not grow normally. Risk factors determined from many clinical studies and animal ...
Bacaër Nicolas - - 2013
We study the probability of extinction for single-type and multi-type continuous-time linear birth-and-death processes in a finite Markovian environment. The probability of extinction is equal to 1 almost surely if and only if the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] is [Formula: see text], the key point being to identify ...
Tummeltshammer Kristen Swan - - 2013
Young infants have demonstrated a remarkable sensitivity to probabilistic relations among visual features (Fiser & Aslin, 2002; Kirkham et al., 2002). Previous research has raised important questions regarding the usefulness of statistical learning in an environment filled with variability and noise, such as an infant's natural world. In an eye-tracking ...
Lidell Martin E - - 2013
The previously observed supraclavicular depot of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans was commonly believed to be the equivalent of the interscapular thermogenic organ of small mammals. This view was recently disputed on the basis of the demonstration that this depot consists of beige (also called brite) brown adipocytes, ...
Buczynski Bradley W BW Department of Environmental Medicine, The University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA. - - 2013
Supplemental oxygen is often used as a life-saving therapy in the treatment of preterm infants. However, its protracted use can lead to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and more recently, has been associated with adversely affecting the general health of children and adolescents who were born preterm. Efforts to ...
Schnitzer Patricia G - - 2013
In responding to an e-mail inquiry from Somers in October 2012, we explained that we do not have specific data on crib mattress firmness in the National Child Death Review-Case Reporting System data used in our analysis of Sudden Unexpected Deaths (SUID). We do not, however, interpret our findings as ...
Storme Laurent - - 2013
The main cause of pulmonary hypertension in newborn babies results from the failure of the pulmonary circulation to dilate at birth, termed 'persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn' (PPHN). This syndrome is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, causing extrapulmonary right-to-left shunting of blood across the ductus arteriosus ...
Dyer Jonathan A - - 2013
Many organ systems undergo significant and rapid changes during the transition from an intrauterine to an extrauterine environment, especially those which serve as interfaces between the infant and the external environment. Historically the skin care methods employed during and after this period of rapid physiologic change have been derived from ...
Conradt Elisabeth - - 2013
Do infants reared in poverty exhibit certain physiological traits that make them susceptible to the positive and negative features of their caregiving environment? Guided by theories of differential susceptibility and biological sensitivity to context, we evaluated whether high baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) operates as a susceptibility factor among infants ...
Dyer Jonathan A - - 2013
Mendelian disorders of cornification (ichthyosis; MeDOC) often present in the neonatal period with little warning to providers or parents. This report reviews the majority of ichthyoses with congenital findings. The neonatal presentation of many MeDOC often differs from the later phenotype because of the changes in the skin that occur ...
Milisavljevic Vladana - - 2013
The distal GI microbiota of hospitalized preterm neonates has been established to be unique from that of healthy full-term infants; the proximal GI, more specifically gastroesophageal colonization has not been systematically addressed. We prospectively evaluated early colonization of gastroesophageal portion of the GI tract of VLBW infants. This study involved ...
Anand Sonia S - - 2013
People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth ...
Watanabe Shimpei - - 2013
Using uterine explants from Per1::Luc rats and in situ hybridization, we recently reported that the circadian property of the molecular clock in the uterus and placenta is stably maintained from non-pregnancy, right through to the end stage of pregnancy under regular light-dark (LD) cycles. Despite long-lasting increases in progesterone during ...
Stewart Christopher J - - 2013
The preterm gut microbiome is a complex dynamic community influenced by genetic and environmental factors and is implicated in the pathogenesis of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis. We aimed to explore the longitudinal development of the gut microbiome in preterm twins to determine how shared environmental and genetic factors may ...
- - 2012
Unintentional suffocation is the leading cause of injury death among children aged <1 year in the United States, accounting for nearly 1,000 infant deaths annually. Since 1984, an estimated fourfold increase has been observed in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, with many of these deaths linked to unsafe sleep ...
Pongou Roland - - 2012
Infant mortality is higher in boys than girls in most parts of the world. This has been explained by sex differences in genetic and biological makeup, with boys being biologically weaker and more susceptible to diseases and premature death. At the same time, recent studies have found that numerous preconception ...
Yu Zhuo-Teng ZT Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02129, - - 2013
Breast-fed infant microbiota is typically rich in bifidobacteria. Herein, major human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS) are assessed for their ability to promote the growth of bifidobacteria and to acidify their environment, key features of prebiotics. During in vitro anaerobic fermentation of infant microbiota, supplementation by HMOS significantly decreased the pH even ...
Klebermass-Schrehof K - - 2012
PURPOSE: Despite a decreasing incidence, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) remains a point of major concern in neonatology due to its association to adverse neurodevelopmental outcome (NDO). Aim of this study was to compare outcome of preterm infants with different grades of IVH born below 32 weeks of gestational age (GA) with outcome ...
Warwick Eliz - - 2012
Phase II metabolising enzymes enable the metabolism and excretion of potentially harmful substances in adults, but to date it is unclear whether dietary phytochemicals can induce phase II enzymes differently between adults and infants. We investigated the expression of phase II enzymes in an in vitro model of primary skin ...
Patrick Susan K - - 2012
Human infants can crawl using several very different styles; this diversity appears at first glance to contradict our previous findings from hands-and-knees crawling, which suggested that there were strict limitations on coordination, imposed either mechanically or by the developing nervous system. To determine whether coordination was similarly restricted across crawling ...
Sloane Stephanie - - 2012
Two experiments examined infants' expectations about how an experimenter should distribute resources and rewards to other individuals. In Experiment 1, 19-month-olds expected an experimenter to divide two items equally, as opposed to unequally, between two individuals. The infants held no particular expectation when the individuals were replaced with inanimate objects, ...
Sim Sook Young - - 2012
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the anatomical development of physiologic suture closure processes in infants using three dimensional reconstructed computed tomography (CT). A consecutive series of 243 infants under 12 months of age who underwent three dimensional CT were included in this study. Four major cranial sutures ...
Devries Jennifer - - 2012
In this birth story, a second-time mother relates her experience of birthing her son at home after her daughter was born via cesarean surgery. Support from the International Cesarean Awareness Network, as well as a home birth midwife specializing in vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), made the dream of a ...
Coslovsky Michael - - 2012
Adaptive maternal responses to stressful environments before young are born can follow two non-exclusive pathways: either the mother reduces current investment in favor of future investment, or influences offspring growth and development in order to fit offspring phenotype to the stressful environment. Inducing such developmental cues, however, may be risky ...
Rose M A - - 2011
Cite this as: M. A. Rose, R. Schubert, J. Schulze and S. Zielen, Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2011 (41) 1819;-1821.
Geddes Donna T - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Recent literature supports the theory that vacuum is integral to the removal of milk from the breast rather than peristaltic compression of the breast. AIM: We aimed to determine if breastfed infants could remove breast milk from an experimental teat designed to release milk only when a vacuum is ...
Allen Kimberly A - - 2011
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious birth complication affecting full term infants: 40-60% of affected infants die by 2 years of age or have severe disabilities. The majority of the underlying pathologic events of HIE are a result of impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain ...
Koletzko Berthold - - 2011
The biology of human milk and lactation helps understand the physiology of breastfed infants. The compositional and biological effects of human milk lipids have received considerable interest regarding their modulating effects on growth, metabolism and functions of the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system. This paper describes key aspects of a ...
Heron-Delaney Michelle - - 2011
Recognition of individuals at first sight is important for social species and can be achieved by attending to facial or body information. Previous research suggests that infants possess a perceptual template for evolutionarily relevant stimuli, which may include humans, dangerous animals (e.g. snakes), but not non-dangerous animals. To be effective, ...
Weintraub Michael - - 2012
Infants with 4s neuroblastoma (NB) and massive hepatomegaly have a guarded prognosis and mortality approaches 30%. We report on eight patients with 4s NB and massive hepatomegaly treated with multiple modalities. One patient had spontaneous tumor regression. Three patients had progressive disease and responded to chemotherapy. Four patients progressed despite ...
Fewtrell Mary S - - 2011
Preterm infants are at risk of metabolic bone disease (MBD) because of an inadequate mineral intake. Although infants with MBD are frequently asymptomatic during the neonatal period, we previously reported that MBD predicted reduced linear growth in infancy and midchildhood. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that preterm infants undergo catch-up growth ...
Hirata Satoshi - - 2011
Researchers have argued that the process of human birth is unique among primates and mammals in that the infant emerges with its face oriented in the opposite direction from its mother (occiput anterior) and head rotation occurs in the birth canal. However, this notion of human uniqueness has not been ...
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