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Grainger C - - 2007
Our study compared methane (CH4) emissions from lactating dairy cows measured using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer and open-circuit respiration chamber techniques. The study was conducted using 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. In each chamber, the cow was fitted with the SF6 tracer apparatus to measure total CH4 emissions, including emissions ...
Cole J B - - 2007
(Co)variance components for stillbirth in US Holsteins were estimated under a sire-maternal grandsire threshold model using subsets of data from the national calving ease database, which includes over 6 million calving records with associated stillbirth scores. Stillbirth was coded as a binomial trait indicating whether the calf was alive 48 ...
Cole J B - - 2007
A sire-maternal grandsire threshold model was used for genetic evaluation of stillbirth in US Holsteins. Calving ease and stillbirth records for herds reporting at least 10 dead calves were extracted from the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory database. About half of the 14 million calving ease records in the database had ...
Ohtsuka Yoshikazu - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGB), particularly in newborns, is of serious concern and requires urgent investigation and hospital care. Whereas allergic proctocolitis caused by food protein is a significant cause of LGB in infants with eosinophilia, there are several cases of diseases with symptoms similar to those of allergic proctocolitis ...
Suzuki S - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium is a dominant genus in the intestinal microbiota of infants and comprises many different species. A series of studies performed in northern Europe showed differences in the composition of Bifidobacterium species between allergic infants and healthy controls. Additional studies are needed to confirm this observation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ...
Lowe A J - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Eczema is commonly associated with sensitization in infants, but the causative role of sensitization in the development of eczema has been questioned. OBJECTIVE: To determine if allergic sensitization increases the risk of developing eczema, or alternatively, if eczema increases the risk of developing allergic sensitization. METHODS: We used data ...
Abrahamsson Thomas R - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An altered microbial exposure may underlie the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies. Probiotics may alleviate and even prevent eczema in infants. OBJECTIVE: To prevent eczema and sensitization in infants with a family history of allergic disease by oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri. METHODS: Double-blind, randomized, ...
Van Vleck L D - - 2007
Adjustment factors to allow comparison of EPD from several breed associations for birth, weaning, and yearling weights have been available for more than 10 yr. This paper describes steps to calculate adjustment factors for EPD for 4 carcass traits: marbling score, fat thickness, ribeye area, and retail product percentage. The ...
Ouwehand Arthur C - - 2007
A considerable part of the Western population suffers from some form of allergy, and the incidence is still rising with no sign of an end to this trend. Reduced exposure to microbial allergens as a result of our hygienic lifestyle has been suggested as one of the possible causes. It ...
Amen T S - - 2007
Angus (A) and Bos indicus (B; Brahman or Nellore) reciprocal backcross, embryo transfer calves, belonging to 28 full-sib families, were evaluated for differences in birth weight, gestation length, and weaning weight. Two methods were investigated; method I made no distinction between how the F(1) parents were produced, whereas method II ...
Andreasyan Karen - - 2007
Studies on the role of non-milk fluids in the development of child atopic disease are scarce. We had a unique opportunity to investigate prospective association between the introduction of fruit syrup, orange juice, sterilized water, vitamins and honey at 1 month and the development of child atopic disease. The exposure ...
JarmoĊ‚owska Beata - - 2007
Beta-casomorphins, opioid peptides present in mother's milk, are a good substrate for DPPIV (EC 3.4.14.5) which is a major factor limiting the half-life of biologically active peptides. Serum DPPIV activity of two groups of infants (healthy and atopic dermatitis) and contents of beta-casomorphin-5 and -7 in their mothers' milk were ...
Batchelder Cynthia A - - 2007
The period immediately after birth is a vital time for all newborn calves as the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other organ systems adapt to life ex utero. Reported neonatal mortality rates suggest this period to be especially critical in cloned calves; yet prospective, controlled studies on the physiological status of these ...
von Berg Andrea - - 2007
Infancy represents the period in which an individual may be at the highest risk of sensitization. During the first year of life around 2.5% of neonates experience hypersensitivity reactions to cow's milk protein, which is highly associated with early exposure to cow's milk. Attempts to avoid sensitization in this very ...
Michaelsen Kim Fleischer - - 2007
There are differences between at what age industrialized countries recommend that cow's milk can be introduced to infants. Most countries recommend waiting until 12 months of age, but according to recommendations from some countries (e.g. Canada, Sweden and Denmark) cow's milk can be introduced from 9 or 10 months. The ...
Ziegler Ekhard E - - 2007
The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron ...
Ram F S F - - 2007
In infants with a family history of atopy, food allergen avoidance has been advocated as means of preventing the development of atopic disease, when breast-feeding is not possible or supplemental feeding is needed. Most infant formulas are based on cow's milk protein. Alternative choices include soya based and hydrolysed cows ...
Osborn D A - - 2007
The composition of the intestinal microflora may be different in individuals with atopic eczema from those without this condition, and such differences may precede the development of eczema. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and provide a health benefit to the host. Probiotics added to infant feeds ...
Klaassens Eline S - - 2007
A metaproteomics approach comprising two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (mass spectrometry) was applied to the largely uncultured infant fecal microbiota for the first time. The fecal microbial metaproteome profiles changed over time, and one protein spot contained a peptide sequence that showed high similarity to ...
Penders J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The rise in atopic diseases has been linked to disturbances in the intestinal microbiota composition. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the intestinal microbiota composition in infants in whom atopic (IgE-associated) eczema was or was not developing, using a molecular fingerprinting technique. METHODS: Within a prospective ...
Snijders B E P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Conflicting evidence exists concerning the protective role of breastfeeding in allergy and atopic disease aetiology. Breast milk contains biologically active molecules influencing the innate immune system of newborns. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess whether cytokines (TGF-beta1, IL-10 and IL-12) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in breast milk are influenced by ...
Jøhnke Hanne - - 2006
Longitudinal studies in infant populations using validated diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis and sensitization are rarely reported, and disease definitions, testing procedures, age of study population and evaluation of objective markers vary between countries and studies. The objectives of this prospective birth cohort study were to investigate: (i) the prevalence, ...
Swali A - - 2007
Epidemiological studies in humans suggest that small size at birth is a predictor of some adult diseases. Nutritional constraint experienced in utero may result in fetal adaptations, which alter subsequent body structure and physiology. Size at birth is influenced by maternal age and parity. Most dairy cows are bred for ...
Kukkonen Kaarina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The increase in allergic diseases is attributed to a relative lack of microbial stimulation of the infantile gut immune system. Probiotics, live health-promoting microbes, might offer such stimulation. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of a mixture of 4 probiotic bacterial strains along with prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides in preventing allergic diseases. ...
Taylor Angie L - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Despite preliminary evidence, the role of probiotics in allergy prevention is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether early probiotic supplementation prevents allergic disease in high-risk infants. METHODS: Newborns of women with allergy (n = 231) received either Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAVRI-A1) or placebo daily for the first 6 months of life. ...
Wurzinger M - - 2006
A survey in Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda was conducted in order to determine the different production systems under which Ankole cattle are currently kept. Additionally, selection criteria of livestock keepers were documented. In Burundi, Rwanda and parts of Uganda, livestock keepers are sedentary and herds are small, whereas in ...
Park J-H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been divided into the extrinsic type (ADe) and the intrinsic type (ADi) according to the serum IgE levels and the presence or absence of allergen-specific IgE. Although previous studies have demonstrated differences in the various immunological parameters, the characteristics of AD in infancy have rarely ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2006
The first months of life represent a critical period for the maturation of the infant's immune system and, thus, a window of opportunity for measures to reduce the risk of disease. We hypothesized that specific probiotics might promote mucosal immunologic maturation in formula-fed infants. The numbers of cow's milk-specific and ...
Gasser C L - - 2006
Precocious puberty can be induced in a majority of heifers weaned early and fed a high-concentrate diet. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether induction of precocious puberty is associated with an acceleration of ovarian maturation in heifers. Crossbred Angus and Simmental heifer calves were weaned at 104 ...
Jamison Jennifer R - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In addition to the more usual cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory problems, infants with cow's milk intolerance (CMI) may present with a disturbed sleep pattern. Frustrated mothers may turn to their doctor of chiropractic for assistance. This pilot study shows how a therapeutic trial may offer a realistic, noninvasive approach ...
Maltecca C - - 2006
Differences in conception rates in matings of Holstein sires or F1 Jersey x Holstein sires to Holstein dams in the University of Wisconsin-Madison experimental herd were evaluated, as were differences in birth weight, dystocia, serum protein, serum IgG, fecal consistency, respiratory disease, and perinatal and pre-weaning mortality among the resulting ...
Roche J R - - 2006
According to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, maternal condition at or around conception affects the secondary sex ratio in mammals. However, there are little or no data available on indicators of maternal condition in dairy cows on the sex of the resultant offspring. A total of 76,607 body condition score (BCS; scale ...
Swali A - - 2006
Genetic selection has resulted in larger cows with high milk production potential but a tendency for poor fertility. In multiparous cows fetal development competes for nutrients with concurrent milk production. This study tested the hypotheses that (a) maternal age and milk yield during pregnancy alter calf birth size and (b) ...
Rada Vojtech - - 2006
Sixty-four breast-fed infants and 23 calves were investigated for bacteria and enzymatic activity in their faecal samples. The bacteria were measured using cultivation and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Enzymatic activity was also examined. Forty-seven (64%) infants and all the calves had high numbers of bifidobacteria (usually >9 log CFU g-1) ...
Rigotti E - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Precise relationship between breastfeeding and infant allergy is poorly understood. Objective Aim was to quantify TGF-beta(1) and IL-10 in colostrum and mature milk from allergic and non-allergic mothers and to verify relationship with allergic disease development. METHODS: Mothers (13 allergics, nine controls) of 22 newborns participated to prospective study ...
Kimata H - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Stress enhanced allergic skin wheal responses and allergen-specific IgE production. In contrast, mothers' kissing caused relaxation in infants, and kissing by lovers or spouses to atopic patients reduced allergic skin wheal responses. I studied the effect of kissing on production of allergen-specific IgE and cytokines in atopic patients. METHODS: ...
Böttcher M F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of atopic disease among children in the formerly socialist countries in Europe, with a life style similar to that prevailing in Western Europe 30-40 years ago, is low, whereas there has been a pronounced increase in industrialized countries over the last decades. The environment during infancy influences ...
Coleman Brenda L - - 2006
Early introduction of cow's milk is a risk factor for the development of anaemia and iron deficiency, which is associated with lower childhood developmental scores. The objective of this paper is to describe the incidence of the introduction of cow's milk before the recommended age of nine months and factors ...
Arvola Taina - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Rectal bleeding is an alarming symptom and requires additional investigation. In infants it has been explained mainly by hypersensitivity. In addition to dietary antigens, intraluminal microbial agents challenge the immature gut mucosa. Although controlled in the mature gut, these antigens may induce inflammation in the developing gastrointestinal tract. The ...
Kitz Richard - - 2006
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are components of cell membranes and may play an immunomodulating role in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD). The goal was to determine the impact of PUFAs on AD by dietary supplementation of infants. Based on the parents' decision on their babies' primary feeding, mothers and ...
Martorell Antonio - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Due to the age when it becomes apparent and the treatment needed, cow's milk proteins (CMP) allergy requires an accurate diagnosis to avoid labelling infants falsely as allergic and subjecting them to unnecessary diets. The objective of this multi-centre study carried out at the Allergy Units of 14 Children's ...
Zutavern Anne - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Prophylactic feeding guidelines recommend a delayed introduction of solid foods for the prevention of atopic diseases. Scientific evidence for this is scarce. This study investigates whether a delayed introduction of solids (past 4 months or 6 months) is protective against the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) and atopic sensitization ...
Vlková E - - 2006
Development of gastrointestinal microflora of calves with special reference to bifidobacteria was investigated; fecal bacteria were enumerated in calves aged 3 days to 7 weeks. Bacteria were detected by using selective media, bifidobacteria using modified TPY agar with an addition of mupirocin and acetic acid and by fluorescence in situ ...
Osborn D A - - 2006
Allergies and food reactions are common and may be associated with foods including adapted cow's milk formula. Formulas containing hydrolysed proteins have been used to treat infants with allergy or food intolerance. However, it is unclear whether hydrolysed formula can be advocated for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in ...
Osborn D A - - 2006
Allergies and food reactions in infants and children are common and may be associated with a variety of foods including adapted cow's milk formula. Soy based formulas have been used to treat infants with allergy or food intolerance. However, it is unclear whether they can help prevent allergy and food ...
Estrada-Reyes E - - 2006
This study aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of extensively hydrolyzed milk formula on growth in infants and toddlers. Prospectively, 45 infants and toddlers with a positive history of cow's milk allergy confirmed by positive skin prick test and high IgE levels for either alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, or casein and positive ...
Grings E E - - 2005
A 3-yr study evaluated late winter (Feb), early spring (Apr), and late spring (Jun) calving systems in conjunction with varied weaning strategies on beef cow and calf performance from Northern Great Plains rangelands. Crossbred cows were randomly assigned to one of three calving systems (on average n= 168.calving system(-1).yr(-1)) and ...
Baudon Jean-Jacques - - 2005
AIMS: Determine the proportion of infants whose celiac disease (CD) was confirmed in childhood and evaluate their prognosis in adulthood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The diagnosis of CD was established between 1971 and 1982 in 84 infants based on intestinal biopsy data; a gluten-free diet was prescribed and the cohort followed ...
Furrie Elizabeth - - 2005
Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by ...
Ewing Whitney Merrill - - 2005
Cow milk protein intolerance (CMPI) affects 3% of infants under the age of 12 months and is often misdiagnosed as GERD or colic, risking dangerous exposure to antigens. Most infants out grow CMPI by 12 months; however, those with IgE-mediated reactions usually continue to be intolerant to cow's milk proteins ...
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