Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1199
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Mabanta C G - - 2003
Controversy exists over whether or not Ureaplasma urealyticum colonization or infection of the respiratory tract contributes to the severity of chronic lung disease (CLD), a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic or therapeutic erythromycin in preventing chronic lung disease ...
Halliday H L - - 2003
Corticosteroids have been used late in the neonatal period to treat chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm babies, and early to try to prevent it. CLD is likely to be the result of persisting inflammation in the lung and the use of powerful anti-inflammatory drugs like dexamethasone has some rationale. ...
Hofhuis Ward - - 2002
Little is known about the development of maximal flow at functional residual capacity, a measure of airway patency, in infants with chronic lung disease (CLD). In a follow-up study, we evaluated V'maxFRC in very low birth weight infants with CLD, treated with high-frequency oscillation ventilation (HFOV) or conventional mechanical ventilation. ...
Smith Nicola P - - 2002
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a lethal human birth defect. Hypoplastic lung development is the leading contributor to its 30-50% mortality rate. Efforts to improve survival have focused on fetal surgery, advances in intensive care and elective delivery at specialist centres following in utero diagnosis. The impact of abnormal lung ...
Beresford Michael W - - 2002
Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8 play an important role in the inflammatory response to neonatal airway injury. Difficulty in detecting counter-regulatory cytokines such as IL-10 in lavage fluid from preterm infants led to the suggestion that its deficit may be a factor in the etiology of chronic lung disease of ...
Ranganathan Sarath C - - 2002
The tidal and raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression techniques are increasingly used to detect diminished airway function in infancy. The aim of this study was to assess the relative ability of parameters measured by these techniques to identify diminished airway function in infants newly diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF) with ...
Castro-Alcaraz Susana - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Ureaplasma urealyticum and its association with chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity has remained a controversial topic. To readdress this question, we performed a longitudinal study using culture and polymerase chain reaction to detect U urealyticum in the respiratory tract of very low birthweight infants throughout their neonatal intensive ...
Attar Mohammad Ali - - 2002
Mechanical ventilation in premature infants may injure the lungs or exacerbate the pre-existing condition that led to the need for mechanical ventilation. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) may be associated with alveolar structural damage, pulmonary oedema, inflammation, and fibrosis. This injury is not uniform and is associated with surfactant dysfunction. Recovery ...
Romagnoli C - - 2002
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between adrenocortical function and chronic lung disease (CLD) of pre-term infants. Plasma F and ACTH were measured at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life in 25 pre-term infants with gestational age < or = 32 weeks and birth ...
Schibler A - - 2002
Small airway disease in infants is characterised by abnormal lung volume and uneven ventilation distribution. An inert tracer gas washin/washout technique using a pulsed ultrasonic flow meter is presented to measure functional residual capacity (FRC) and ventilation distribution in spontaneously breathing and unsedated infants. With a pulsed ultrasound sent through ...
Stick Stephen M - - 2002
What we know: Tests that have allowed the measurement of lung function in infants have greatly enhanced our understanding of early pulmonary development and the pathophysiology of early respiratory disease. Airway responsiveness in infancy appears to be an independent determinant of symptoms and lung function later in childhood. New tests ...
Weist A - - 2002
Volume history is an important determinant of airway responsiveness. In healthy adults undergoing airway challenge, deep inspiration (DI) provides bronchodilating and bronchoprotective effects; however, the effectiveness of DI is limited in asthmatic adults. We hypothesized that, when assessed under similar conditions, healthy infants have heightened airway reactivity compared with healthy ...
McEvoy Cindy - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: There are no randomized data on the effect of repeat courses of corticosteroids during pregnancy on newborn pulmonary function. Our objective was to compare the effect of a single remote course of antenatal steroids (AS) with weekly courses of AS on functional residual capacity (FRC) and respiratory compliance in ...
Thibeault Donald W - - 2002
Two siblings were born with pleural effusions and hydrops. The first infant was a 26-week-old gestation male and died at 8 hours of life with radiographically small lungs and pulmonary insufficiency. No lung tissue was obtainable. This pregnancy was followed by two normal term infants, a male and female. The ...
Adams Eleri W - - 2002
An increase in lung liquid may contribute to respiratory disease in preterm infants. Uneven distribution of lung liquid may cause heterogeneity in the lung disease seen in these infants. We used magnetic resonance imaging to investigate lung water content and distribution in 16 preterm (24-31 weeks) and 9 term infants ...
Lally Kevin P - - 2002
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia occurs in approximately 1 in every 2500 live births and is associated with a reported mortality of almost 35% in live-born patients and a higher mortality when in utero deaths are counted. Ventilator-induced lung injury, pulmonary hypoplasia, and other associated anomalies account for the high death rate. ...
Kovar Jana - - 2002
Previous studies of alveolarization have used rats or lambs; however, neither closely reflects human alveolar development. We characterized alveolar development in rabbits (n = 3-7 /group) at 28 days gestation (dg) to 9 mo to determine whether they followed the human pattern more closely. The right lung was made up ...
Abe Katsumi - - 2002
Chronic pneumonitis of infancy (CPI) is a very rare lung disease in infants and young children. We report a 33-day-old infant with CPI, focusing on the radiologic aspects of the disease. Chest radiographs showed variable and non-specific appearances including ground-glass shadowing, consolidation, volume loss, and hyperinflation. Dense alveolar opacities progressed ...
Ranganathan S C - - 2002
The raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression technique (RVRTC) is being increasingly used to assess airway function in infants, but as yet no consensus exists regarding the equipment, methods, or analysis of recorded data. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maximal flow at functional residual capacity ...
Canakis Anne-Marie - - 2002
We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in lung biopsies from seven infants with atypical neonatal lung disease. All seven infants presented with tachypnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse interstitial infiltrates with overinflated lungs on chest radiographs in the first month of life. Lung biopsies from all cases showed similar pathology, ...
Rimensberger Peter C - - 2002
The classic entity of neonatal distress syndrome, as a lung disease expressing predominant surfactant deficiency, is currently changing to a more complex disease of the developing lung as a result of the number of extremely immature preterm infants. Prenatal factors, such as the fetal inflammatory response syndrome influence short- and ...
Romagnoli Costantino - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing concern in regard to the possible long-term adverse effects of postnatal dexamethasone treatment in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to assess growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants at high risk of chronic lung disease (CLD), treated with early (<96 hours) postnatal dexamethasone. ...
Nakamura T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between the leukemoid reaction and chronic lung disease in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Neonates born weighing less than 1500 g without evidence of congenital anomalies and admitted to our hospital from October 1985 to December 1999 comprised our study. Leukemoid reaction was defined as a ...
Currie A E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Lung fibrosis is thought to be important in chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD). METHODS: Fibroblast proliferative activity was assessed in 207 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 43 infants. Sixteen developed CLD (birth weight 765 g (630-1230), gestation 26.5 weeks (23-29)), 18 developed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (birth ...
Johnston Sonya D - - 2002
The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system protects the lung from oxidative damage. The pulmonary surfactant (PS) system lowers the interfacial pressure within the lung, improving lung compliance and aiding lung clearance. In mammals, the AOE and PS systems develop in tandem during the final 10%-20% of gestation. Here, we investigated the ...
Mieskonen Suvi T - - 2002
Prematurely born infants with neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) have increased respiratory morbidity and bronchial obstruction at school age. To evaluate the possible inflammatory basis of lung function abnormalities, we studied 40 children, 7.5-9.6 years of age, born very prematurely (birth weights, 600-1,575 g) and 14 nonatopic term-born controls, using ...
Hoo Ah-Fong - - 2002
Measurements of maximal flow at functional residual capacity (Vmax(FRC)) from partial forced expiratory maneuvers remain the most popular method for assessing small airway function in infants and young children. However, the lack of appropriate reference data that are both applicable outside the centers that developed them and reflect the normal ...
Olsen Steven L - - 2002
It was our objective to quantify platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) by immunohistochemistry in control infants of 22-50 weeks postconceptual age, and to correlate it with varying degrees of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). We tested the hypothesis that the density of PECAM-1 staining will positively correlate with increasing ...
Wang He - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown if interleukin (IL)-16 exists in the lungs of ventilated infants, and because the predominant cells in the airways of infants with CLD are CD4+ macrophages, we hypothesized that IL-16 plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in lung inflammation. AIMS: To examine if IL-16, a ...
Amirav Israel - - 2002
Bronchodilator aerosols are frequently administered to infants with bronchiolitis but with little success. The efficacy of aerosol treatments depends mainly on adequate targeting of the aerosol particles to the inflamed airways. This study evaluated the lower respiratory tract distribution characteristics of nebulized bronchodilators in infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Twelve ...
Dermendjian Mariette - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that the initial functional residual capacity (FRC) of preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) could predict the response to surfactant replacement (Survanta, 4 mL/kg/dose), with a better initial FRC being correlated with a greater improvement in PaO2, a/A PO2 ratio, and FRC. Thirty-four preterm infants ...
Viscardi Rose M - - 2002
Respiratory tract colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum in preterm infants has been associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia, severe respiratory failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and death. In this report, we characterize the lung pathology and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) associated with U. urealyticum pneumonia in very low-birth weight ...
Gibson Alan T - - 2002
A significant number of infants are born prematurely each year, many of whom will develop respiratory disease and require ventilation. A substantial number of these infants will die and many of the survivors will subsequently develop chronic inflammatory lung disease. Administration of corticosteroids to women prior to a premature delivery ...
Van Marter Linda J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study of chronic lung disease (CLD) evaluated the hypothesis that chorioamnionitis promotes CLD and interacts with other risk factors for CLD, including mechanical ventilation and postnatal infection. STUDY DESIGN: We identified a population of 193 infants who met our case criteria for CLD whose birth weights were ...
- - 2002
This statement is intended for health care professionals caring for neonates and young infants. The objectives of this statement are to review the short- and long-term effects of systemic and inhaled postnatal corticosteroids for the prevention or treatment of evolving or established chronic lung disease and to make recommendations for ...
Ohyama Makiko - - 2002
Our purpose is to prove that prolonged inflammation of the chorionic plate, which we have termed subacute chorioamnionitis (SCAM), is a distinctive entity and should be differentiated from acute chorioamnionitis (ACAM) because it is an excellent prognostic indicator of chronic lung disease (CLD), including Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). Ninety singleton placentas ...
Aikio O - - 2002
AIM: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator required for neonatal pulmonary circulatory adaptation and for pulmonary defence. Both deficient and excessive NO production have been proposed to play a role in neonatal lung disease. This study aimed to establish a method that allows direct measurement of exhaled and nasal ...
Wildhaber Johannes H - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare subjective measures (overall health assessment both by the study physician and the child's mother) with objective measurements of forced expiratory volumes (FEV(t)) and maximal flow at functional residual capacity V(max)FRC) in recurrently wheezy infants. METHODS: Sixteen wheezy infants (12 boys) aged ...
Oei J - - 2002
The inability to balance pulmonary injury with healing may predispose preterm infants to chronic lung disease (CLD). It is postulated that the production of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is gestationally influenced and that CLD-prone infants may have a reduced ability to produce IL-10. METHODS: Tracheal fluid (TF) was collected ...
Chien Yin Hsiu - - 2002
AIMS: To determine whether (1) chronic lung disease (CLD) is the prime reason for extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infant readmission during the first 2 years of life, (2) surfactant and other advanced therapies have reduced ELBW infant readmissions, (3) home oxygen therapy (HOT) is efficacious for this group. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital ...
Ho L Y - - 2002
Remarkable advances in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders, such as antenatal glucocorticoid therapy, surfactant replacement therapy and alternative modes of ventilation, have reduced neonatal mortality and acute respiratory morbidity. However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and chronic lung disease of infancy remain a substantial complication, especially among the most immature infants. The ...
Lagerstrand Lars - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The tidal volume forced expiration technique used in infants is considered as the first practical noninvasive method of assessing airway physiology in infants. However, its role has been discussed mainly due to the high variability of the derived parameters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the ...
Hjalmarson Ola - - 2002
The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of preterm birth for the functional development of the lungs. We studied 32 healthy preterm infants (gestational age 25 to 33 wk at birth) and 53 healthy full-term infants (37 to 42 wk) at the same mean postmenstrual age of ...
Bolt R J - - 2002
The aim of this study was to study the effect of chronic lung disease (CLD) and dexamethasone treatment on body composition in preterm infants (birthweight < 1500 g). In addition, anthropometric measurement of body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fourteen preterm infants with CLD and a comparison ...
Jangaard K A - - 2002
Inflammation plays an important role in the development of chronic lung disease (CLD), which has become a major cause of morbidity in surviving infants less than 1250 g at birth. The authors hypothesized that the progression of this inflammation and, therefore, the establishment of CLD would be decreased with the ...
Brion L P - - 2002
The aim of this review is to assess the risks and benefits of diuretics acting on distal segments of the renal tubule (distal diuretics) in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives are to assess changes in need for oxygen or ventilatory support and effects on ...
Brion L P - - 2002
Lung disease in preterm infants is often complicated with lung edema. The aim of this review was to assess the risks and benefits of administration of a diuretic acting on the loop of Henle (loop diuretic) in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives were to ...
Sveger T T Department of Paediatrics, University of Lund, University Hospital, Malmö, - - 2002
This study aimed to determine whether the protease/protease inhibitor balance and neutrophil activity is of pathophysiological importance in the severity and resolution of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the eventual development of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). Ventilated preterm infants with RDS (n = 43) were studied during their first ...
Kennedy K A - - 2001
This review evaluates and compares, by using the best available medical evidence, the risks and benefits of postnatal steroid use in very low birth weight infants. Systemic postnatal steroids are effective at reducing the risk of chronic lung disease in ventilated very low birth weight infants; they appear to be ...
Brosnan P G - - 2001
Glucocorticoid receptor activation in the fetal lung triggers maturation necessary for extra-uterine life. Antenatal treatment with betamethasone and dexamethasone has lowered severity of respiratory distress in very low birth weight infants, and dexamethasone given postnatally has resulted in short-term improvement in chronic lung disease. Recently, however, surfactant therapy has diminished ...
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