Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1181
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Ranganathan S C - - 2002
The raised volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression technique (RVRTC) is being increasingly used to assess airway function in infants, but as yet no consensus exists regarding the equipment, methods, or analysis of recorded data. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between maximal flow at functional residual capacity ...
Canakis Anne-Marie - - 2002
We present the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings in lung biopsies from seven infants with atypical neonatal lung disease. All seven infants presented with tachypnea, hypoxemia, and diffuse interstitial infiltrates with overinflated lungs on chest radiographs in the first month of life. Lung biopsies from all cases showed similar pathology, ...
Rimensberger Peter C - - 2002
The classic entity of neonatal distress syndrome, as a lung disease expressing predominant surfactant deficiency, is currently changing to a more complex disease of the developing lung as a result of the number of extremely immature preterm infants. Prenatal factors, such as the fetal inflammatory response syndrome influence short- and ...
Romagnoli Costantino - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: There is increasing concern in regard to the possible long-term adverse effects of postnatal dexamethasone treatment in preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to assess growth and neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants at high risk of chronic lung disease (CLD), treated with early (<96 hours) postnatal dexamethasone. ...
Nakamura T - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship between the leukemoid reaction and chronic lung disease in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: Neonates born weighing less than 1500 g without evidence of congenital anomalies and admitted to our hospital from October 1985 to December 1999 comprised our study. Leukemoid reaction was defined as a ...
Currie A E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Lung fibrosis is thought to be important in chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD). METHODS: Fibroblast proliferative activity was assessed in 207 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 43 infants. Sixteen developed CLD (birth weight 765 g (630-1230), gestation 26.5 weeks (23-29)), 18 developed respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (birth ...
Johnston Sonya D - - 2002
The antioxidant enzyme (AOE) system protects the lung from oxidative damage. The pulmonary surfactant (PS) system lowers the interfacial pressure within the lung, improving lung compliance and aiding lung clearance. In mammals, the AOE and PS systems develop in tandem during the final 10%-20% of gestation. Here, we investigated the ...
Mieskonen Suvi T - - 2002
Prematurely born infants with neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) have increased respiratory morbidity and bronchial obstruction at school age. To evaluate the possible inflammatory basis of lung function abnormalities, we studied 40 children, 7.5-9.6 years of age, born very prematurely (birth weights, 600-1,575 g) and 14 nonatopic term-born controls, using ...
Hoo Ah-Fong - - 2002
Measurements of maximal flow at functional residual capacity (Vmax(FRC)) from partial forced expiratory maneuvers remain the most popular method for assessing small airway function in infants and young children. However, the lack of appropriate reference data that are both applicable outside the centers that developed them and reflect the normal ...
Olsen Steven L - - 2002
It was our objective to quantify platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) by immunohistochemistry in control infants of 22-50 weeks postconceptual age, and to correlate it with varying degrees of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). We tested the hypothesis that the density of PECAM-1 staining will positively correlate with increasing ...
Wang He - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown if interleukin (IL)-16 exists in the lungs of ventilated infants, and because the predominant cells in the airways of infants with CLD are CD4+ macrophages, we hypothesized that IL-16 plays a role as a pro-inflammatory mediator in lung inflammation. AIMS: To examine if IL-16, a ...
Amirav Israel - - 2002
Bronchodilator aerosols are frequently administered to infants with bronchiolitis but with little success. The efficacy of aerosol treatments depends mainly on adequate targeting of the aerosol particles to the inflamed airways. This study evaluated the lower respiratory tract distribution characteristics of nebulized bronchodilators in infants with acute bronchiolitis. METHODS: Twelve ...
Dermendjian Mariette - - 2002
We tested the hypothesis that the initial functional residual capacity (FRC) of preterm infants with hyaline membrane disease (HMD) could predict the response to surfactant replacement (Survanta, 4 mL/kg/dose), with a better initial FRC being correlated with a greater improvement in PaO2, a/A PO2 ratio, and FRC. Thirty-four preterm infants ...
Viscardi Rose M - - 2002
Respiratory tract colonization with Ureaplasma urealyticum in preterm infants has been associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia, severe respiratory failure, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and death. In this report, we characterize the lung pathology and expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) associated with U. urealyticum pneumonia in very low-birth weight ...
Gibson Alan T - - 2002
A significant number of infants are born prematurely each year, many of whom will develop respiratory disease and require ventilation. A substantial number of these infants will die and many of the survivors will subsequently develop chronic inflammatory lung disease. Administration of corticosteroids to women prior to a premature delivery ...
Van Marter Linda J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This case-control study of chronic lung disease (CLD) evaluated the hypothesis that chorioamnionitis promotes CLD and interacts with other risk factors for CLD, including mechanical ventilation and postnatal infection. STUDY DESIGN: We identified a population of 193 infants who met our case criteria for CLD whose birth weights were ...
- - 2002
This statement is intended for health care professionals caring for neonates and young infants. The objectives of this statement are to review the short- and long-term effects of systemic and inhaled postnatal corticosteroids for the prevention or treatment of evolving or established chronic lung disease and to make recommendations for ...
Ohyama Makiko - - 2002
Our purpose is to prove that prolonged inflammation of the chorionic plate, which we have termed subacute chorioamnionitis (SCAM), is a distinctive entity and should be differentiated from acute chorioamnionitis (ACAM) because it is an excellent prognostic indicator of chronic lung disease (CLD), including Wilson-Mikity syndrome (WMS). Ninety singleton placentas ...
Aikio O - - 2002
AIM: Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator required for neonatal pulmonary circulatory adaptation and for pulmonary defence. Both deficient and excessive NO production have been proposed to play a role in neonatal lung disease. This study aimed to establish a method that allows direct measurement of exhaled and nasal ...
Wildhaber Johannes H - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare subjective measures (overall health assessment both by the study physician and the child's mother) with objective measurements of forced expiratory volumes (FEV(t)) and maximal flow at functional residual capacity V(max)FRC) in recurrently wheezy infants. METHODS: Sixteen wheezy infants (12 boys) aged ...
Oei J - - 2002
The inability to balance pulmonary injury with healing may predispose preterm infants to chronic lung disease (CLD). It is postulated that the production of interleukin (IL)-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is gestationally influenced and that CLD-prone infants may have a reduced ability to produce IL-10. METHODS: Tracheal fluid (TF) was collected ...
Chien Yin Hsiu - - 2002
AIMS: To determine whether (1) chronic lung disease (CLD) is the prime reason for extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infant readmission during the first 2 years of life, (2) surfactant and other advanced therapies have reduced ELBW infant readmissions, (3) home oxygen therapy (HOT) is efficacious for this group. STUDY DESIGN: The hospital ...
Ho L Y - - 2002
Remarkable advances in the treatment of neonatal respiratory disorders, such as antenatal glucocorticoid therapy, surfactant replacement therapy and alternative modes of ventilation, have reduced neonatal mortality and acute respiratory morbidity. However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and chronic lung disease of infancy remain a substantial complication, especially among the most immature infants. The ...
Sveger T - - 2002
This study aimed to determine whether the protease/protease inhibitor balance and neutrophil activity is of pathophysiological importance in the severity and resolution of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the eventual development of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). Ventilated preterm infants with RDS (n = 43) were studied during their first ...
Lagerstrand Lars - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The tidal volume forced expiration technique used in infants is considered as the first practical noninvasive method of assessing airway physiology in infants. However, its role has been discussed mainly due to the high variability of the derived parameters. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the ...
Hjalmarson Ola - - 2002
The aim of this study was to assess the consequences of preterm birth for the functional development of the lungs. We studied 32 healthy preterm infants (gestational age 25 to 33 wk at birth) and 53 healthy full-term infants (37 to 42 wk) at the same mean postmenstrual age of ...
Bolt R J - - 2002
The aim of this study was to study the effect of chronic lung disease (CLD) and dexamethasone treatment on body composition in preterm infants (birthweight < 1500 g). In addition, anthropometric measurement of body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Fourteen preterm infants with CLD and a comparison ...
Jangaard K A - - 2002
Inflammation plays an important role in the development of chronic lung disease (CLD), which has become a major cause of morbidity in surviving infants less than 1250 g at birth. The authors hypothesized that the progression of this inflammation and, therefore, the establishment of CLD would be decreased with the ...
Brion L P - - 2002
The aim of this review is to assess the risks and benefits of diuretics acting on distal segments of the renal tubule (distal diuretics) in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives are to assess changes in need for oxygen or ventilatory support and effects on ...
Brion L P - - 2002
Lung disease in preterm infants is often complicated with lung edema. The aim of this review was to assess the risks and benefits of administration of a diuretic acting on the loop of Henle (loop diuretic) in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives were to ...
Kennedy K A - - 2001
This review evaluates and compares, by using the best available medical evidence, the risks and benefits of postnatal steroid use in very low birth weight infants. Systemic postnatal steroids are effective at reducing the risk of chronic lung disease in ventilated very low birth weight infants; they appear to be ...
Brosnan P G - - 2001
Glucocorticoid receptor activation in the fetal lung triggers maturation necessary for extra-uterine life. Antenatal treatment with betamethasone and dexamethasone has lowered severity of respiratory distress in very low birth weight infants, and dexamethasone given postnatally has resulted in short-term improvement in chronic lung disease. Recently, however, surfactant therapy has diminished ...
Dahlstrom J E - - 2001
We describe a sporadic case of lethal prenatal onset infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), which resulted in early postnatal death at 30 weeks gestation. The mother presented with antepartum haemorrhage and preterm labour. She was found to have polyhydramnios. The infant showed extensive symmetrical diaphyseal subperiosteal cortical thickening throughout the ...
Rosenfeld M - - 2001
A thorough understanding of the early natural history of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease is critical for the development of effective interventions in the youngest patients. We assessed the evolution of pulmonary infection, inflammation, and clinical course among 40 infants over a 2-year period through annual bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for ...
Currie A E - - 2001
Growth factors important to lung growth and fibrosis have been poorly studied in chronic lung disease (CLD) of prematurity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes epithelial cell maturation, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is important in angiogenesis. The concentration of these growth factors was determined in 111 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ...
Yamada H - - 2001
We evaluated the sequence dependency of antitumor efficacy and toxicity in combination therapy of nedaplatin (NDP) with paclitaxel (TXL) against Lewis lung carcinoma. The sequential administration of NDP prior to TXL (NT therapy) resulted in severe body weight loss followed by frequent toxic death of mice. In contrast, the sequential ...
Hall G L - - 2001
Low-frequency forced oscillation (LFOT) and raised volume rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC) techniques were used to measure airways and respiratory tissue mechanics and forced expiratory volumes in 24 asymptomatic infants with recurrent wheeze. Total respiratory impedance spectra (Zrs) (0.5 to 20 Hz) were obtained (n = 22) and a model containing ...
Greenough A - - 2001
Chronic lung disease (CLD) following premature birth is a common adverse outcome of neonatal intensive care. It particularly occurs in infants born at very early gestations who are exposed to the dual insults of volutrauma and oxygen toxicity. Many possible prophylactic strategies have been investigated in randomized trials, but none ...
Ollikainen J - - 2001
To clarify the association of Ureaplasma urealyticum infection with chronic lung disease of the newborn 145 preterm infants less than 34 weeks of gestation were examined. The infants were enrolled during two separate periods. The presence of U. urealyticum was studied by obtaining endotracheal culture samples and blood samples; if ...
Davey M G - - 2001
Increased lung expansion in the fetus stimulates lung growth and is being trialed clinically to reverse severe fetal lung hypoplasia. Our aim was to examine the effects of increased fetal lung expansion in the presence of lung hypoplasia on lung structure in sheep at term and 8 weeks after birth. ...
Beech D J - - 2001
Equine lung and kidney organogenesis has not previously been examined with the use of unbiased stereological techniques. The present study examined healthy (control) pony and Thoroughbred lungs and kidneys to establish baseline data of organ development from before birth until maturity at age 3-18 years. Whole left lungs and kidneys ...
Heggie A D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in the development of chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants continues to be disputed. Recently U. urealyticum has been found to consist of two species, U. urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, a finding that has not been considered in previous studies of CLD. This ...
Dubus J C - - 2001
Little is known about the ability of small-volume valved spacer devices to deliver a significant amount of an aerosolized drug to the lungs of babies. This study compared the in vitro delivery of salbutamol administered via Aerochamber-Infant (145 mL), Babyhaler (350 mL), and metallic NES-spacer (250 mL), as well as ...
Watterberg K L - - 2001
Premature infants have higher cortisol precursor concentrations than term infants; however, many sick preterm infants have surprisingly low cortisol concentrations. Those who develop chronic lung disease (CLD) have lower cortisol values than those who recover. We hypothesized that some infants have a decreased ability to synthesize cortisol, leading to physiologic ...
Fauza D O - - 2001
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The authors have shown previously in an animal model that neonatal lung growth can be accelerated by continuous intrapulmonary distension with a perfluorocarbon (PFC). The authors now describe a preliminary clinical experience with this therapeutic concept in a select group of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Neonates ...
Heling K S - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to assess the value of biometric lung measurements for the diagnosis of severe fetal pulmonary hypoplasia by investigating whether a significant correlation between two-dimensional lung biometry measurements and autopsy findings could be established. METHODS: This was a prospective study carried out between ...
Chavasse R J - - 2001
Airways resistance measured by the interrupter technique (Rint) requires little patient cooperation and has been successfully used in young children, but little studied in infants. The authors aimed to evaluate the measurement of Rint in infants, using a commercially available device (the MicroRint), by comparing it with an established technique ...
Frey U - - 2001
Wheezing in infants is common and increasing in prevalence. Infants are particularly prone to wheezing due to developmental differences in airway mechanics compared to adults. These effects are enhanced in the presence of airway inflammation. Wheezing in infants is related to flow limitation which is a function of airway calibre ...
Bolt R J - - 2001
During the final prenatal period of fetal lung development in humans, important maturational processes occur, including the production of surfactant necessary to decrease surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the alveoli. During early gestation, the glucocorticoid receptor is expressed in the fetal lung, and glucocorticoids stimulate the production of ...
Frey U - - 2001
Infant lung function testing is important in clinical research and recent standardisation efforts have enabled measurements to be made in infants in different laboratories throughout the world. Thus, the theoretical conditions are now fulfilled for use of these techniques in clinical practice. This review discusses the usefulness of various infant ...
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