Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1199
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Ranganathan S C - - 2003
Simple methods are needed to assess lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study determined the relationship between simple measurements obtained from tidal breathing with those from more complicated forced expiratory manoeuvres. Healthy infants and infants with CF were recruited from two maternity units and five specialist CF ...
Mhanna Maroun J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if treatment of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), found at the time of an acute respiratory deterioration, decreases the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very low birth weight infants (VLBW). STUDY DESIGN: Between 1996 and 1999, medical records of all mechanically ventilated VLBW infants, who had an ...
Courtney Sherry E - - 2003
Variable flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure (VF-NCPAP) recruits lung volume more effectively and reduces work of breathing (WOB) compared to constant-flow NCPAP (CF-NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Because different VF-NCPAP devices have somewhat different flow patterns, whether different VF-NCPAP devices function similarly is unknown. We compared ...
Shinwell E S - - 2003
Two historical cohorts (1993-1994 and 2001) of preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome were compared. Dexamethasone administration fell from 22% to 6%. Chronic lung disease in survivors rose slightly from 13% to 17%, and mortality fell from 21% to 15% (other causes). The effect of restriction of dexamethasone use ...
Hülskamp Georg - - 2003
During the last 30 years, there has been an unexplained trend toward declining values for plethysmographic assessments of lung volume at functional residual capacity (FRC) in infants. The aim of this study was to compare data collected from healthy infants using contemporary equipment with published reference data and to explore ...
Sun A P - - 2003
KL-6, one of the MUC1 antigens, is a mucin-like high-molecular-weight glycoprotein, which is strongly expressed on type II pneumocytes. Serum levels of KL-6 have been shown to correlate with activity of interstitial pneumonia (IP). During embryonic development, MUC1 expression coincides with the onset of epithelial sheet and glandular formation. To ...
Amirav I - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Small volume nebulisers (SVNs) with masks commonly provide aerosol therapy for infants with lung diseases. However, infants and toddlers are often disturbed by and thus reject masks. AIMS: To compare the lung deposition efficiency of the "usual" SVN aerosol mask and a prototype hood attached to an SVN. The ...
Soil R F - - 2003
Postnatal corticosteroids may prevent chronic lung disease in ventilated very low birthweight infants. However, concern regarding serious neurodevelopmental consequences of therapy has led to strong recommendations to curtail use of this treatment. Despite the high risk of severe neurological side effects, centers in Europe and North America continue to utilize ...
Hammer Jürg - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of forced deflation maneuvers on respiratory mechanics and to assess the reproducibility of such measurements in intubated infants with lung disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study in the pediatric intensive care unit of a university children's hospital. PATIENTS: Ten clinically stable infants requiring mechanically assisted ...
Williams Olivia - - 2003
Corticosteroids given systemically in the first 2 weeks after birth may reduce chronic lung disease (CLD) and mortality, but there are concerns regarding the long-term adverse effects which may have influenced prescribing habits. The aim of this study was to determine whether corticosteroids were still prescribed and, if so, was ...
Godfrey S - - 2003
This review considers whether there is a role for lung function tests in the clinical management of infants with lung disease. The purpose of testing lung function in older subjects, the tests available for infants, and the practical problems of testing lung function in infants are considered. After reviewing all ...
Nishimaki Shigeru - - 2003
The urinary beta(2)-microglobulin (MG) concentration on day 0 to 2 was significantly higher in premature infants with chorioamnionitis (CAM) than in infants without CAM and in infants who developed chronic lung disease (CLD) than in those who did not. We propose that an elevated urinary beta(2)-MG can indicate a fetal ...
de Mello Rosane Reis - - 2003
CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than ...
Ramchandani R - - 2003
Immature rabbits have greater maximal airway narrowing with bronchoconstriction in vivo compared with mature animals. As isolated immature lungs have a lower shear modulus, it is unclear whether the greater airway narrowing in the immature lung is secondary to less tethering between the airways and the lung parenchyma or to ...
Dimitriou Gabriel - - 2003
Infants with surgically correctable anomalies, abdominal wall defects (AWD) or congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) may have poor postnatal diaphragmatic function, because the low intra-abdominal pressure experienced by such patients in utero could result in impaired diaphragmatic development. Our objective was to compare postoperative diaphragmatic function of infants with CDH or ...
Flecknoe S J - - 2003
Basal lung expansion is an important determinant of alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) phenotype in the fetus. Because basal lung expansion increases toward term and is reduced after birth, we hypothesized that these changes would be associated with altered proportions of AECs. AEC proportions were calculated with electron microscopy in fetal ...
Kaya Meryem - - 2003
PURPOSE: Isocyanates are highly reactive chemicals used in a number of industries including paints. Therefore, house painters are known to be at risk for occupational exposure to isocyanates. Our objectives in this study were: (1) to investigate the possible effects of isocyanate exposition on the bronchoalveolar epithelial permeability in house ...
Bauer Jacqueline - - 2003
The present study examined the hypothesis that the energy expenditure (EE) increases during the development of chronic lung disease (CLD) together with serum catecholamines as indicator of stress. Sixteen spontaneously breathing infants with gestational age of 28-34 weeks and birth weight of 870-1920 g were studied. Eight patients were at ...
Steinberg Jay - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil activation with concomitant matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) release has been implicated in the development of sepsis-induced acute lung injury. We hypothesized that COL-3, a chemically modified tetracycline known to inhibit MMP-2 and MMP-9, would reduce lung injury and improve survival in rats following cecal ligation ...
Hadley Jeffrey A - - 2003
An examination of the organ weights associated with victims of drowning, asphyxiation and trauma was undertaken to determine (a) the effects of asphyxiation compared to a trauma group, and in turn, (b) the effects of drowning compared to an asphyxiation group. Included in the study were 217 drowning deaths, 166 ...
Nagai Takuhito - - 2003
We report the first case of neonatal Legionnaires' disease associated with water birth in a spa bath at home. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 6 was detected from postmortem lung tissue.
Nakata Masahiko - - 2003
To assess the prenatal evaluation of lung hypoplasia in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), we attempted to measure the right lung area/thorax area ratio (rLT ratio) in normal fetuses and in seven cases of left-sided CDH. In addition, we analyzed early neonatal blood gas data, which were compared with the prenatal ...
Oei J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hypothesis that preterm infants who are more susceptible to lung damage have decreased neutrophil apoptosis, and to explore its relation to interleukin 10 (IL10) concentration. DESIGN: Prospective cohort design. PATIENTS: One hundred tracheal fluid specimens from 50 week-1 ventilated infants were examined for IL10 (by enzyme ...
Rajadurai V S - - 2003
Corticosteroids are one of the most powerful drugs increasingly used in the perinatal and neonatal period. This review discusses the merits and demerits of antenatal as well as postnatal use of steroids. A single course of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of premature delivery is highly effective in reducing ...
Dik W A - - 2003
Pulmonary fibrosis results from excessive fibroblast proliferation and increased collagen deposition and occurs in chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB is mitogenic for fibroblasts and levels are increased in fibrotic lung disorders. Systemic dexamethasone (DEX) treatment improves pulmonary function and reduces inflammation in infants with or ...
Schmalisch Gerd - - 2003
The preterm onset of inspiration (POI) is a well-known breathing strategy in newborns to increase their end-expiratory lung volume. The aim of this study was to investigate to which extent POI is related to tidal breathing (TB) parameters in healthy neonates (n=54) and infants with chronic lung diseases (CLD, n=45) ...
Chao Angela Chueh - - 2003
One of the major survival challenges of premature birth is production of lung surfactant. The lipid component of surfactant, dipalmitoyl PC (DPPC), increases in concentration in the period before normal term birth via a net shift in FA composition away from unsaturates. We investigated the influence of dietary DHA and ...
Sharek Paul J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Despite increased knowledge and improving technology, chronic lung disease (CLD) rates in extremely low birth weight infants have remained constant for 20 years. One reason for this is an ineffective translation of research-proven improvements into practice. The Neonatal Intensive Care Quality Improvement Collaborative Year 2000 (NIC/Q 2000) was created ...
Curley Anna E - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) degrades type IV collagen, the major constituent of lung basement membrane. We studied the effects of chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroids on bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid levels of MMP-9, and its inhibitor, TIMP-1 in preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was performed on serial BAL samples ...
Thibeault Donald W - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) have an arrest of primary and secondary septation. We hypothesized that this may be related to damage or abnormal development of lung collagen secondary to positive pressure ventilation. Our aims were to identify the sites and quantity of collagen in control infants 22 ...
Urlando Alessandro - - 2003
ABSTRACT This article introduces and evaluates the PEA POD Infant Body Composition System, an air displacement plethysmograph designed for the assessment of body composition in infants between birth and 6 mo of age. The performance of the PEA POD was evaluated by repeated testing of National Institute of Standards and ...
Zhu Bao-Li - - 2003
There are several controversial findings and arguments about the lung weight as a marker of drowning. The aim of the present study was to examine the difference in the lung weight and the amount of pleural effusion between freshwater and saltwater drownings (n=70 and n=75, respectively), in comparison with asphyxiation ...
Buss I Hendrikje - - 2003
Oxidative injury is implicated in the development of chronic lung disease in preterm infants with respiratory distress. However, direct evidence of a causal role is limited and the source of reactive oxidants has not been identified. We have previously shown that protein carbonyl levels in tracheal aspirates correlate positively with ...
Jones Marcus H - - 2003
We evaluated the ability of forced expiratory flow volume curves from raised lung volumes to assess airway function among infants with differing severities of respiratory symptoms. Group 1 (n = 33) had previous respiratory symptoms but were currently asymptomatic; group 2 (n = 36) was symptomatic at the time of ...
Lukkarinen Heikki P - - 2003
For studying the presence of programmed cell death in the lungs of infants with fatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and the possible contribution of postnatal glucocorticoid administration on this cell destruction, lung tissue samples from autopsies of 16 premature infants with fatal RDS were studied. The infants had neither been ...
Anand D - - 2003
AIMS: To determine if very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight <1500 g) is associated with reduced lung function and respiratory health in adolescence and, if it is, whether this impairment is associated with prematurity or intrauterine growth restriction. METHODS: A geographically defined cohort of 128 VLBW infants and an ...
Haworth Sheila G - - 2003
Chronic hypoxia compromises the development of both airways and pulmonary vasculature following exposure before or after birth. It also impairs adaptation to extrauterine life. The immediate morbidity and mortality is high, and long-term sequelae in terms of lung structure, and thus function, are common, particularly in premature infants. Chronic lung ...
Adzick N Scott - - 2003
The prenatal diagnostic hallmarks, natural history, and management of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung and pulmonary sequestration are reviewed. Large lung tumors may disappear partially on serial prenatal sonography, suggesting that improvement can occur occasionally during fetal life. The fetus with a lung mass but without hydrops has ...
Habib Robert H - - 2003
We compared the harmonic content of tidal flows measured simultaneously at the mouth and chest wall in spontaneously breathing very low birth weight infants (n = 16, 1,114 +/- 230 g, gestation age: 28 +/- 2 wk). Airway opening flows were measured via face mask-pneumotachograph (P-tach), whereas chest wall flows ...
Shinwell Eric S - - 2003
Postnatal steroid therapy has been widely used for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Recently, evidence has accumulated to suggest that the risks of therapy may outweigh the possible benefits. In 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society issued guidelines for ...
Sveger T - - 2003
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) are associated with inflammation of the airways and interstitial tissue of the lung. It is hypothesized that RDS severity and the risk of developing CLD may be correlated with neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of leucocyte activity, human ...
Zoban P - - 2003
Acute lung injury occurs mostly in the very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants. The pathological process leading to acute lung injury includes immature and/or diseased lung that experienced oxidative stress, inflammation and mechanical insult with the bronchial, alveolar and capillary injuries and cell death. It may ...
Walker G M - - 2003
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia contributes to mortality in infants with severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Accelerated postnatal lung growth with perfluorocarbon lung distension has been demonstrated in animals. The authors present a study measuring perfluorodecalin distension in neonates with severe CDH on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. METHODS: Six consecutive neonates ...
Dimitriou Gabriel - - 2003
Infant diaphragm function may be adversely affected in a variety of disorders and conditions. Key to establishing an accurate diagnosis are appropriate control data. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturation on diaphragm function, using a nonvolitional test. Diaphragm function was assessed by measuring the ...
Dik Willem A - - 2003
Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is a common consequence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis. Increased thrombin activity in the alveolar compartment is associated with pulmonary fibrosis in adults and animals, and contributes to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid mitogenicity for fibroblasts. We hypothesized ...
Johnsson Hans - - 2003
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of gestational age at birth, postnatal age, specific complications and methods of treatment on the lung hyaluronan concentration in infants. Lung samples and clinical records from 117 infants who died 0-228 days (32 weeks) after preterm or term birth were ...
Aikio Outi - - 2003
Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension. However, the safety of inhaled NO (iNO) has not been established. Using an immunohistochemical technique, we studied the expression of NO synthase (NOS) isoforms NOS1, NOS2, NOS3, and nitrotyrosine, the marker of toxic NO-superoxide pathway, in lung specimens from ...
Shah Prakesh S - - 2003
Chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a recognized sequel of preterm birth. With improving survival of infants at lower gestational ages, the incidence is on the rise. Pathological features of CLD include alveolar maldevelopment, with or without areas of pulmonary fibrosis. Assisted ventilation, infection/inflammation, oxygen administration, and fluid ...
Darlow B A - - 2003
Selenium is an essential trace element and component of a number of selenoproteins including glutathione peroxidase, which has a role in protecting against oxidative damage. Selenium is also known to play a role in immunocompetence. Blood selenium concentrations in newborns are lower than those of their mothers and lower still ...
Halliday H L - - 2003
Many preterm babies who survive, having had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or not, go on to develop chronic lung disease (CLD). This is probably due to persistence of inflammation in the lung. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat established CLD. However it is unclear whether ...
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