Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1195
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Miller Leigh-Anne D - - 2004
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells of the embryonic lung in vivo. Deletion of Shh before embryonic day (E) 13.5 resulted in respiratory failure at birth. While lobulation was not perturbed, the lungs were hypoplastic, with reduced branching of peripheral lung tubules, evident from E13.5. Smooth ...
Choi Chang Won - - 2004
Dexamethasone has been widely used in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) weighing less than 1,500 g at birth for the prevention or treatment of chronic lung disease (CLD). Recently, however the use of dexamethasone is being reduced, as its association with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is known. On the other ...
Levison J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the range of pathogens isolated from a lung abscess in infants less than one year of age. To assess the role of direct culture from the abscess. METHODS: The two index cases were managed in 2002. An institution-based review was conducted of all infants up to one ...
Bendon Robert W - - 2004
Non-iatrogenic anatomical findings at autopsy provide insight into preterm infant physiology. The different patterns of lipid accumulation in the adrenal may correspond to long-term differences in stress response. Cardiac papillary muscle infarction occurs with asphyxia or shock and can explain myocardial dysfunction. Underdevelopment of preterm kidneys may correlate with susceptibility ...
Lum S - - 2004
Partial and "full" forced expiratory maneuvers are both used to assess airway function in infants. Despite the increasing use of the raised volume technique, there is little information regarding the influence of lung inflations as are necessary for the raised volume technique on other measurements of lung function in infants. ...
Tsukihara Ayumi - - 2004
A 29-year-old, primiparous woman was referred to our hospital at 21 weeks of gestation because of right pleural effusion in the fetus shown by routine ultrasonographic examination. Cytology revealed abundant lymphocytes, suggesting chylothorax. We removed the pleural effusion and injected OK-432 into the chest cavity at 24 and 25 weeks ...
Vento G - - 2004
The changes induced on respiratory mechanics and on tracheobronchial aspirate fluid (TAF) cytology by dexamethasone courses started at two different postnatal ages in preterm infants at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) were reported in this clinical trial designed in two phases. The first phase of the study included 20 ...
May C - - 2004
Chronic lung disease (CLD), defined as chronic oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, is increasing and associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and high health care utilisation at follow up. Many strategies, tested in randomised trials, have failed to reduce CLD. In contrast, corticosteroids if given systemically within the first ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2004
Chronic lung disease (CLD) is an inflammatory disorder; in patients with other inflammatory disorders exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels are elevated. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that prematurely born infants with CLD would have elevated exhaled NO levels compared to those without CLD and healthy ...
Adcock Kim G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA) concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 ...
Sicuranza G B - - 2004
Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital condition of unknown etiology. A 33-year-old nullipara with right lung agenesis and scoliosis was admitted to the hospital at 30 weeks of gestation because of oligohydramnios. At 32 weeks she was treated for an upper respiratory tract infection with azithromycin. She went into ...
Sweet D G - - 2004
AIM: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -9 and -2 degrade type-IV collagen, a major constituent of lung basement membrane, and may have a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). We determined factors influencing MMP levels in neonatal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid to establish whether an imbalance between MMP ...
Ekekezie Ikechukwu I - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of chronic lung disease (CLD) involves inflammation with proteolytic damage to lung extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that, acting in concert with their tissue inhibitors, tightly orchestrate extracellular matrix morphogenesis and repair after injury. Imbalances in their levels relative to that of their inhibitors ...
Miller D M - - 2004
Untested assumptions have been made with regard to functional dead space in facemasks, filters and breathing systems used in children for the administration of inhalation anaesthesia. Total functional dead space was measured in various combinations of this equipment applied to a spontaneous ventilation lung model with parameter settings appropriate for ...
Castile Robert G - - 2004
Two different methods for estimating trapped gas volume have been described in the literature. The purpose of this study was to use both of these methods to estimate and compare trapped gas volumes in normal infants and infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirty normal infants and 29 infants with CF, ...
Purdy Isabel B - - 2004
Postnatal corticosteroids are often administered during the neonatal intensive care unit stay to reduce the risk and severity of chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm infants. In 2002, the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Fetus and Newborn and the Canadian Paediatric Society Fetus and Newborn Committee jointly advised against ...
Odd D E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Dexamethasone has been widely used to reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease in preterm infants. However side-effects are common, and the ideal dose of dexamethasone has not been identified. We aimed to determine whether an individualized course of dexamethasone given to preterm babies at risk of chronic lung ...
Gitto Eloisa - - 2004
Improved survival from advances in neonatal care has resulted in an increased number of infants at risk for chronic lung disease (CLD). Recently, it was reported that inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-8 are present in higher concentrations in lung lavage from babies ...
Pillow J J - - 2004
Accurate, reproducible and portable bedside monitoring of lung volume could potentially facilitate the early recognition of both under and overinflation of the lungs in ventilated and nonventilated subjects. This study asked whether a prototype portable ultrasonic flow meter provided valid and reliable measurements of functional residual capacity (FRCUS) when compared ...
Koumbourlis Anastassios C - - 2004
We compared three methods of reporting maximal expiratory flow (V'maxFRC) measured in partial expiratory flow-volume curves (PEFVCs) at the point of functional residual capacity (FRC). PEFVCs were obtained with the rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique (RTC) on a total of 446 occasions in 281 HIV-negative, asymptomatic infants (4.8-28.1 months old). Three ...
Lorenz John M - - 2004
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate the role of fluid and electrolyte therapy in the pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. RECENT FINDINGS: There have been no new studies since 2000, and there are minimal data addressing this issue specifically in infants at highest risk of chronic lung disease (ie, extremely low ...
Ingimarsson Jónas - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether preceding surfactant instillation prevents the harmful effect of large lung inflations at birth in immature lambs, and, if not, to find out for how long the immature lung remains sensitive to large inflations. DESIGN: In an exploratory study, 12 preterm lambs given surfactant at birth were ...
Parikh Nehal A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) is one of the most severely disabling conditions of extremely low-birth-weight infants. Systemic corticosteroids are effective but cause many adverse effects. Targeted therapy with inhaled corticosteroids may be an effective and less toxic alternative. STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the additive effect of inhaled corticosteroids on ...
Tyler W - - 2004
There is no consensus of opinion regarding the appropriate use of volume expansion in the sick preterm infant. Recent evidence suggests that excessive volume expansion may increase mortality in this group. We determined the use of volume expansion in non-surgical preterm infants (<30 weeks gestation) among neonatal consultants in the ...
Asikainen Tiina M - - 2004
Preterm neonates with respiratory distress are exposed not only to the relative hyperoxia ex utero, but also to life-saving mechanical ventilation with high inspired oxygen (O2) concentrations, which is considered a major risk factor for the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, also referred to as chronic lung disease of infancy. O2 ...
Lambert Rodney K - - 2004
Early measurements of autopsied lungs from infants, children, and adults suggested that the ratio of peripheral to central airway resistance was higher in infants than older children and adults. Recent measurements of forced expiration suggest that infants have high flows relative to lung volume. We employed a computational model of ...
Sandberg Kenneth - - 2004
Oxygen toxicity is thought to be an important factor involved in development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in the very preterm infant. Glutathione (GSH) plays a major role in the antioxidant defense system in the preterm lung and there are theoretical implications that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) treatment could improve its function. The ...
Thibeault Donald W - - 2004
Microvascular development is critical for normal lung maturation. The aims of this study were (1) to quantitatively and qualitatively assess lung microvascular growth in the human fetus, from 22 to 40 weeks' gestation, and (2) to compare development in these infants to those with mild, moderate and severe chronic lung ...
Halliday Henry L - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Chronic lung disease (CLD) represents a condition of persistent inflammation within the airways which may have its origin either in utero or after birth. Corticosteroids, because of their anti- inflammatory actions, have been used to modify the course of CLD. There have been almost 40 randomised controlled trials of ...
Panickar Jayachandran - - 2004
An atypical pattern of chronic lung disease (CLD) has been described in preterm infants and a potential association with intrauterine inflammation has been proposed. We aimed to describe patterns of CLD, to determine the incidence of atypical CLD, and to compare the distribution of various perinatal factors in infants with ...
Sebire N J - - 2004
Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) is a category used to represent the largest single group of infant deaths. Although there are several theories, the cause of SUDI remains unknown and the mechanism of co-sleeping associated deaths are also undetermined. We investigate a possible biomechanical mechanism which may be common ...
Ersch Jörg - - 2004
AIMS: To document, and explain, the pulmonary paradox whereby despite relative lung immaturity, preterm infants exposed to amniotic infection (AI) have better postnatal pulmonary function than those exposed to preeclampsia (PE). METHODS: Lung maturation was characterized in 65 preterm perinatal deaths [AI (n=40) and PE (n=25)] and postnatal respiratory function ...
Meister Joan - - 2004
Maldistribution of exogenous surfactant may preclude any clinical response in acute lung injury associated with surfactant dysfunction. Our previous studies have shown the effectiveness of surfactant lavage after homogenous lung injury. The present study utilizes a histologically confirmed non-homogeneous lung injury model induced by saline lung-lavage followed by meconium injected ...
Yamane Masayuki - - 2004
The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of serum KL-6 (sKL-6) level as a clinical marker, in terms of pulmonary function, for infantile chronic lung disease (CLD). The study population comprised 23 infants less than 31 weeks of gestational age admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit ...
Hamdan A H - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether short-term complications of prematurity are affected by intrauterine myelomeningocele repair. METHODS: Medical records of the first 100 infants undergoing intrauterine myelomeningocele repair (IUMR) at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed. Infants born at <34 weeks' gestation were identified. Two controls were identified for each IUMR ...
Saiman Lisa - - 2004
Recent bronchoscopy studies using assays to measure inflammation and molecular typing techniques have facilitated an increased understanding of the early events that occur within the lungs of young children with cystic fibrosis and provided additional insights into the natural history of lung disease in children. In 2000, the US CF ...
Thibeault Donald W - - 2003
Because echocardiographic studies on infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) suggest that pulmonary hypertension (PH) may contribute to its severity, we studied acinar arterial walls in the following surfactant-era infants: controls (n=38): 22-41 weeks of gestational age (GA), exposed briefly to oxygen and positive pressure ventilation, died within 48 hr ...
Schreiber Michael D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide improves gas exchange, decreases pulmonary vascular lability, and reduces pulmonary inflammation. We hypothesized that the use of inhaled nitric oxide would decrease the incidence of chronic lung disease and death in premature infants with the respiratory distress syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study ...
Maritz Gert S - - 2004
We have previously shown that fetal growth restriction (FGR) during late gestation in sheep affects lung development in the near-term fetus and at 8 wk after birth. In the present study, our aim was to determine the effects of FGR on the structure of the lungs at 2 y after ...
Jaarsma Anneke S - - 2004
Recently we have shown that activation of inflammatory reaction and clotting can be found immediately after delivery in preterm lambs ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). To investigate whether antenatal glucocorticoids would attenuate postnatal activation of the inflammatory reaction and clotting, we studied ventilated preterm lambs delivered by cesarean section, ...
Greenough Anne - - 2004
Our aim was to determine whether the chest radiograph appearance at 7 days predicted chronic lung disease development (oxygen dependency at 36 weeks post-menstrual age) or death before discharge and if it was a better predictor than readily available clinical data. Two consecutive studies were performed. In both, chest radiographs ...
Dotzler Susan A - - 2004
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) has previously been identified in extrahypothalamic tissues and may act in a paracrine fashion within these tissues. To date, CRH production and its role in the fetus and newborn have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and ontogeny of ...
Vayrynen Outi - - 2004
Spontaneous preterm birth due to intrauterine infection is associated with increased concentrations of cytokines in amniotic fluid and in the airways at birth. Intra-amniotic IL-1 induces fetal lung maturity, consistent with the decrease in the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in intrauterine inflammation. On the other hand, antenatal corticosteroid ...
Kotecha Sailesh - - 2004
Previously, we have reported marked pulmonary inflammation in infants who develop chronic lung disease of prematurity. We revisited these infants who did not have clinical or laboratory evidence of infection and searched for Ureaplasma urealyticum, group B streptococci, and other microbes by reverse transcription-PCR performed on RNA extracted from 93 ...
Saad Aly G - - 2003
Neuroendocrine cells (NEC) are abundant in fetal and neonatal lungs, but reduced in infants with hyaline membrane disease. Perinatal neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (NCH) has been reported in the hypoplastic lung in diaphragmatic hernia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and Wilson-Mikity syndrome. Since we are unaware of any reports on NCH in fetal inflammatory ...
Kotecha S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The persistent airway neutrophilia observed in chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) may reflect inappropriate suppression of neutrophil apoptosis. METHODS: 134 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were obtained from 32 infants requiring mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS): 13 infants (median gestation 26 weeks, range 23 to 28) subsequently ...
Ranganathan S C - - 2003
Simple methods are needed to assess lung function in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study determined the relationship between simple measurements obtained from tidal breathing with those from more complicated forced expiratory manoeuvres. Healthy infants and infants with CF were recruited from two maternity units and five specialist CF ...
Mhanna Maroun J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if treatment of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu), found at the time of an acute respiratory deterioration, decreases the incidence of chronic lung disease (CLD) in very low birth weight infants (VLBW). STUDY DESIGN: Between 1996 and 1999, medical records of all mechanically ventilated VLBW infants, who had an ...
Courtney Sherry E - - 2003
Variable flow nasal continuous positive airway pressure (VF-NCPAP) recruits lung volume more effectively and reduces work of breathing (WOB) compared to constant-flow NCPAP (CF-NCPAP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Because different VF-NCPAP devices have somewhat different flow patterns, whether different VF-NCPAP devices function similarly is unknown. We compared ...
Shinwell E S - - 2003
Two historical cohorts (1993-1994 and 2001) of preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome were compared. Dexamethasone administration fell from 22% to 6%. Chronic lung disease in survivors rose slightly from 13% to 17%, and mortality fell from 21% to 15% (other causes). The effect of restriction of dexamethasone use ...
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