Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1182
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Agrons Geoffrey A - - 2005
Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity in preterm neonates, whose lungs are often physiologically and morphologically immature. Surfactant deficiency in immature lungs triggers a cascade of alveolar instability and collapse, capillary leak edema, and hyaline membrane formation. The term respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has come to represent ...
Muensterer Oliver J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Instilling perfluorooctyl bromide (PFOB) into the fetal lung may lead to alveolar distension. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety of PFOB instillation into fetal lungs and to determine the radiographic distribution and tissue concentration of PFOB in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS: Sibling fetuses ...
Subbarao Padmaja - - 2005
Electronic compensation to overcome thermal artifacts during plethysmographic estimations of airway resistance is now used routinely in adults and school-age children, and was shown to be a valuable means of discriminating airway function between preschool children with and without lung disease. A similar system is now commercially available for infants, ...
Bramson Robert T - - 2005
An understanding of the appearance of the infant chest radiograph requires an understanding of the anatomy and the physiologic, immunologic, and pathologic processes in the infant's chest. The authors describe the features of the infant chest that most influence the appearance of the chest radiograph in infants with cough and ...
O'Brodovich Hugh - - 2005
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the pathogenesis of pulmonary edema and describe recent discoveries related to the clearance of airspace fluid and potential new therapies for this life-threatening disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: It is clinically important to determine the mechanisms responsible for the clearance of fluid from the ...
Hedrick Holly L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Indications for the ex utero intrapartum therapy (EXIT) procedure have expanded to include any fetal anomaly in which resuscitation of the neonate may be compromised. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 9 patients after resection of lung lesions during the EXIT procedure. RESULTS: The mean gestational age at ...
Kim Young Don - - 2005
In our previous study, we have demonstrated that peak inspiratory pressure over birth weight (PIP/kg) and mean airway pressure over birth weight (MAP/kg) were more significant risk factors for the development of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) than PIP and MAP. We aimed to develop a scoring method using the ...
Ersch Jörg - - 2005
Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue consists of lymphoid follicles with or without a germinal center within the bronchial wall. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue is part of the integrated mucosal immune system and present in about 50% of healthy infants. We examined a series of 141 fetal and neonatal lungs and detected bronchus-associated lymphoid ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2005
Chronic clinically unapparent chorioamnionitis is a common antenatal exposure for very preterm infants, and these infants have variable degrees of lung maturation and a high risk of developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Exposure of fetal sheep to intra-amniotic endotoxin or IL-1alpha induces chorioamnionitis and lung injury (decreased alveolarization and microvascular injury), which ...
Harling A E - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common outcome of preterm birth. Experimental animal work has shown that initial ventilation strategies injure the immature lung and may lead to BPD. Studies with asphyxiated babies have shown that, if tidal ventilation at birth is preceded by sustained lung inflation, larger inflation volumes ...
Nishina Kahoru - - 2005
We conducted the current study to compare the efficacy of partial liquid ventilation (PLV), pulmonary surfactant (PSF), and their combination in ameliorating the acidified infant-formula-induced acute lung injury (ALI). In the Part I study, 42 rabbits receiving volume-controlled ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure 10 cm H(2)O were randomly divided into ...
Su Bai-Horng - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persistence of neutrophils in the tracheal fluid of premature infants is associated with chronic lung disease (CLD). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant. This study investigated whether IL-8 is increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of premature infants with different types of CLD. METHODS: Forty two ...
Mostyn Alison - - 2005
Epidemiological studies suggest that infants of low birth weight show poor neonatal growth and increased susceptibility to adult diseases such as diabetes and lung disease. Uncoupling protein 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) have been implicated in the development of such diseases; pigs provide an ideal model to examine the ...
Gross Steven J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal dexamethasone treatment of ventilator-dependent preterm infants results in rapid improvement in lung function and reduction in chronic lung disease. However, limited data are available on long-term outcomes after such therapy. We studied growth, neurodevelopmental, and pulmonary outcomes at adolescence in children who had participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled ...
Bentham J R - - 2005
Chronic lung disease is the most common adverse outcome in survivors of prematurity. These infants experience frequent hospitalisation because of respiratory-related illness in their first year, as well as persistent cough, wheeze and oxygen dependence. Although the severity of respiratory illness decreases and supplemental oxygen is needed less as their ...
Gaillard E A - - 2005
At birth the mammalian airway switches from liquid secretion to absorption, an important mechanism in lung liquid clearance. Airway ion transport was examined on the first postnatal day in 38 moderately preterm infants (29-36 weeks gestation). The absorptive airway ion transport capacity was well developed regardless of respiratory condition and ...
Mallol J - - 2005
Measuring forced expiratory flows from raised lung volume in infants represents a significant advance in the assessment of pulmonary function early in life. However, variability in the main parameters obtained with raised volume rapid thoracic compression (RVRTC), FVC, FEV(0.5), FEF(50), FEF(75), and FEF(25-75), has not been completely evaluated. This study ...
Choi Chang Won - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recently, the incidence of atypical presentation of chronic lung disease (CLD) that develops in infants without a history of preceding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is increasing. Therefore, the clinical characteristics of CLD without RDS in comparison with CLD with RDS were assessed. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis was done from ...
Helve Otto - - 2005
To study the relation between sodium transport in airway epithelium and postnatal pulmonary adaptation, we measured nasal potential difference at 1 to 4 hours and lung compliance at 21 to 48 hours after birth in 20 healthy infants. Sodium transport correlated with lung compliance ( r 2 = 0.40, P ...
Onal E Esra - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms responsible for lung liquid clearance during the neonatal period result in switching of the lung epithelium from net secretion to net absorption following birth and driven by active Na(+) absorption. Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is known as the most common consequence of inadequate neonatal lung ...
Palomino Maria Angélica - - 2005
Despite advances in the prevention and management of respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm babies in Chile. Its incidence varies from 10% to 60% in different regions of Chile. Since 1998, the management of CLD after discharge ...
Kornecki Alik - - 2005
RATIONALE: Ventilator-induced lung injury has been predominantly studied in adults. OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of age and lung development on susceptibility to such injury. METHODS: Ex vivo isolated nonperfused rat lungs (infant, juvenile, and adult) were mechanically ventilated where VT was based on milliliters per kilogram of body weight ...
Tambunting Francis - - 2005
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) regulate the formation of normal lung architecture. Extremely premature infants exposed to hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation often develop lung inflammation and injury. We hypothesized that an imbalance between MMPs and their tissue inhibitors plays a key role. Our hypothesis was tested to: 1) examine the ontogeny of ...
Pridham Karen - - 2005
Variation in energy expended by preterm infants may be due to infant maturity and history of resolved acute lung disease (respiratory distress syndrome [RDS]) as well as growth, caloric intake, and activity. Indirect calorimetry was used in this exploratory, short-term longitudinal study to estimate energy expenditure (EE) from measures of ...
Sweet David G - - 2005
Neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) is the major long-term pulmonary complication of preterm birth affecting about 20% of infants who need mechanical ventilation. CLD is the result of abnormal repair processes following inflammatory lung injury that lead to remodeling of the lung. Inflammation may be initiated by a variety of ...
Parvin Curtis A - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to design a predictive model for assessing the risk of developing respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by using gestational age (GA) and results from a quantitative fluorescence polarization-based fetal lung maturity assay (TDx FLM II). STUDY DESIGN: The study populations from the 3 largest published studies ...
Schüepp Karen G - - 2005
We investigated the in vitro influence of breathing patterns on lung dose (LD) and particle size distribution in an infant upper airway cast model in order to determine the optimal particle size for nebulized aerosol delivery to infants. Budesol (nebulizer solution of budesonide) delivery from a perforated vibrating membrane nebulizer ...
Schmalisch G - - 2005
The diagnostic value of tidal breathing (TB) measurements in infants is controversially discussed. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the breathing pattern of sleeping infants with chronic lung diseases (CLD) differ from healthy controls with the same postconceptional age and to assess the predictive value ...
Carlson Susan J - - 2004
Preterm infants with lung disease present nutrition challenges to health care providers. Malnutrition is common, develops shortly after birth, and may continue into early childhood. Although there are many studies identifying the nutrient deficiencies in infants with chronic lung disease, few randomized trials have explored the effects of nutrition support ...
Vitali Sally H - - 2005
As in the adult with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lung-protective ventilation has improved outcomes for neonatal lung diseases. Animal models of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and congenital diaphragmatic hernia have provided evidence that 'gentle ventilation' with low tidal volumes and 'open-lung' strategies of ...
Castile Robert - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Voluntarily performed pulmonary function tests are used in adults and older children to assess lung dysfunction and changes in function that occur during disease progression and treatment. However, because infants are unable to comply with voluntary respiratory maneuvers, alternate testing methods are needed to allow similar progress in the ...
Beardsmore Caroline S - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Studies into the effects of salbutamol in the treatment of wheeze in infancy have been conflicting, possibly due to differences in outcome variables. We aimed to assess the response to salbutamol using indices derived from passive and forced expiration. METHODS: We recruited 39 infants who had a history of ...
Mosca F - - 2004
The preterm surfactant-deficient lung is highly susceptible to tissue injury with the initiation of ventilation. The respiratory management of preterm infants in the delivery room may be the key to minimizing acute lung injury and its sequelae, including chronic lung disease. Volume-targeted ventilation, optimization of the alveolar recruitment with positive ...
Greenough A - - 2004
The aim of the study was to determine if prematurely born children who had suffered intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) had more severe lung function abnormalities than those born an appropriate weight for gestational age (AGA). Analysis of the lung function results of 119 infants (median (range) gestational age of 30 ...
Ankermann Tobias - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in young infants is linked with a pulmonary inflammatory response part of which are increased interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) into lung tissue. A topical application of an antibody against IL-8 might therefore decrease PMNL migration and improve lung function. ...
Moeller Alexander - - 2004
We examined the effect of inhaled fluticasone diproprionate (FDP) on symptoms, lung function (FEV(0.5)), and exhaled nitric oxide (Fe(NO)) in infants with recurrent wheeze and raised Fe(NO). Thirty-one infants aged 6-19 months (mean, 12.7 months; 12 girls) completed the study. All infants had a history of recurrent wheeze and a ...
Midulla Fabio - - 2004
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Laryngomalacia is the most common congenital laryngeal anomaly and the most frequent cause of stridor in infants. Infants with laryngomalacia may have associated respiratory symptoms other than stridor. In this study, we evaluated whether infants with laryngomalacia have episodes of microaspiration by calculating the amount of lipids present in ...
Miller Leigh-Anne D - - 2004
Sonic hedgehog (Shh) was conditionally deleted in respiratory epithelial cells of the embryonic lung in vivo. Deletion of Shh before embryonic day (E) 13.5 resulted in respiratory failure at birth. While lobulation was not perturbed, the lungs were hypoplastic, with reduced branching of peripheral lung tubules, evident from E13.5. Smooth ...
Choi Chang Won - - 2004
Dexamethasone has been widely used in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) weighing less than 1,500 g at birth for the prevention or treatment of chronic lung disease (CLD). Recently, however the use of dexamethasone is being reduced, as its association with abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome is known. On the other ...
Levison J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the range of pathogens isolated from a lung abscess in infants less than one year of age. To assess the role of direct culture from the abscess. METHODS: The two index cases were managed in 2002. An institution-based review was conducted of all infants up to one ...
Bendon Robert W - - 2004
Non-iatrogenic anatomical findings at autopsy provide insight into preterm infant physiology. The different patterns of lipid accumulation in the adrenal may correspond to long-term differences in stress response. Cardiac papillary muscle infarction occurs with asphyxia or shock and can explain myocardial dysfunction. Underdevelopment of preterm kidneys may correlate with susceptibility ...
Lum S - - 2004
Partial and "full" forced expiratory maneuvers are both used to assess airway function in infants. Despite the increasing use of the raised volume technique, there is little information regarding the influence of lung inflations as are necessary for the raised volume technique on other measurements of lung function in infants. ...
Tsukihara Ayumi - - 2004
A 29-year-old, primiparous woman was referred to our hospital at 21 weeks of gestation because of right pleural effusion in the fetus shown by routine ultrasonographic examination. Cytology revealed abundant lymphocytes, suggesting chylothorax. We removed the pleural effusion and injected OK-432 into the chest cavity at 24 and 25 weeks ...
Vento G - - 2004
The changes induced on respiratory mechanics and on tracheobronchial aspirate fluid (TAF) cytology by dexamethasone courses started at two different postnatal ages in preterm infants at risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) were reported in this clinical trial designed in two phases. The first phase of the study included 20 ...
May C - - 2004
Chronic lung disease (CLD), defined as chronic oxygen dependency at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, is increasing and associated with chronic respiratory morbidity and high health care utilisation at follow up. Many strategies, tested in randomised trials, have failed to reduce CLD. In contrast, corticosteroids if given systemically within the first ...
Leipälä Jaana A - - 2004
Chronic lung disease (CLD) is an inflammatory disorder; in patients with other inflammatory disorders exhaled nitric oxide (NO) levels are elevated. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that prematurely born infants with CLD would have elevated exhaled NO levels compared to those without CLD and healthy ...
Adcock Kim G - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) in the preterm newborn is associated with inflammation and fibrosis. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), a potent chemotactic growth factor, may mediate the fibrotic component of CLD. The objectives of this study were to determine if tracheal aspirate (TA) concentrations of PDGF-BB increase the first 2 ...
Sicuranza G B - - 2004
Unilateral lung agenesis is a rare congenital condition of unknown etiology. A 33-year-old nullipara with right lung agenesis and scoliosis was admitted to the hospital at 30 weeks of gestation because of oligohydramnios. At 32 weeks she was treated for an upper respiratory tract infection with azithromycin. She went into ...
Sweet D G - - 2004
AIM: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -9 and -2 degrade type-IV collagen, a major constituent of lung basement membrane, and may have a role in the pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD). We determined factors influencing MMP levels in neonatal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid to establish whether an imbalance between MMP ...
Ekekezie Ikechukwu I - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: The pathogenesis of chronic lung disease (CLD) involves inflammation with proteolytic damage to lung extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that, acting in concert with their tissue inhibitors, tightly orchestrate extracellular matrix morphogenesis and repair after injury. Imbalances in their levels relative to that of their inhibitors ...
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