Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1189
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Van Meurs K - - 2006
The identification of the biologic properties of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the key scientific discoveries of the century, but its potential for treating human disease is yet to be fully realized. NO has a basic role in regulating vascular tone of the pulmonary circulation, and recent animal models ...
Koumbourlis Anastassios C - - 2006
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is initially characterized by severe restrictive lung defect and low lung compliance, but survivors have relatively few abnormalities later in life. We studied the changes in lung growth and function in infants after the repair of CDH. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of pulmonary function tests was ...
Palomar Lisanne M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the outcomes of lung transplantation for infants with surfactant protein-B (SP-B) deficiency are unique. STUDY DESIGN: From a prospective analysis to identify infants with genetic causes of surfactant deficiency, we identified 33 SP-B-deficient infants from 1993 to 2005, and, among those undergoing lung transplantation (n = ...
Kondo Tsutomu - - 2006
Traditionally, non-invasive monitoring of tidal volume in infants has been performed using impedance plethysmography analyzed using a one or two compartment model. We developed a new laser system for use in infants, which measures antero-posterior movement of the chest wall during quiet sleep. In 24 unsedated or sedated infants (11 ...
Mukhtar Ahmed M - - 2006
A small infant with congenital cystic adenomatoid was scheduled for thoracoscopic resection of the lung cyst. During carbon dioxide insufflation, there was a sharp rise of endtidal carbon dioxide which was followed by marked hypoxemia and bradycardia due to occlusion of the tracheal tube with blood. The plan changed to ...
Lobo Luisa - - 2006
Lung diseases represent one of the most life threatening conditions in the newborn. Important progresses in modern perinatal care has resulted in a significantly improved survival and decreased morbidity, in both term and preterm infants. Most of these improvements are directly related to the better management of neonatal lung conditions, ...
Koumoundouros Emmanuel - - 2006
The aim of this work was to characterize lung function and cellular responses in a large animal model for chronic asthma. All sheep were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) by subcutaneous injection of HDM before lung challenges. Groups of sheep were given weekly lung challenges with either HDM (n ...
Morris Shaun - - 2006
The improvement in survival in premature infants associated with the evolution of mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by an increase in ventilator induced lung injury. High frequency ventilation has been shown to reduce the incidence of ventilator induced lung injury and hence chronic lung disease in the very low birth ...
Cooke R W I - - 2006
Changing preterm population variables have masked improvements in neonatal survival over time. Increased use of antenatal steroids, caesarean section, and surfactant may have reduced the likelihood of mortality and periventricular haemorrhage by a third and doubled that of chronic lung disease, persistent duct, and septicaemia.
Janér Joakim - - 2006
RATIONALE: In mice, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) plays an important role in development of the lymphatic system and in pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation. Its role in development of the lymphatic system in human lung and in lung injury in newborns remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We studied the role of VEGF-C ...
Frappell P B - - 2006
Marsupials at birth are small and relatively undeveloped. At birth, the lung in some species is at the canalicular stage of development and though lung diffusion and metabolic rate are strongly correlated, the allometric exponent suggests that smaller newborns have relatively smaller diffusing capacity with respect to their demand for ...
Peralta C F A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the volume of the ipsilateral and contralateral lungs in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Left and right lung volumes were measured using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography in 42 fetuses with CDH at median 26 (range, 20-32) weeks of gestation. Each value was then expressed as a ...
Ventolini G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To compare the neonatal outcome of infants delivered before 39 weeks' gestation following documentation of fetal lung maturity before and after the lamellar body count (LBC) threshold was increased from 30,000 to 50,000 LB/ul. We discuss the algorithm employed for testing fetal lung maturity, the cost of testing and ...
Baldwin David N - - 2006
This paper is the fourth in a series of reviews that will summarize available data and critically discuss the potential role of lung-function testing in infants with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy. The current paper addresses information derived from tidal breathing measurements within the framework ...
Halvorsen Thomas - - 2006
AIMS: To assess whether lung function in late childhood had improved in subjects born extremely prematurely in the early 1990s compared to the early 1980s, and whether neonatal factors in the respective periods had different impact on long-term pulmonary outcome. DESIGN: Population-based, controlled cohort study. Lung function was determined in ...
Greenspan Jay S - - 2006
The clinical management of respiratory failure in the newborn often focuses on lung parenchymal stiffness due to immaturity, surfactant deficiency, infiltrates, and other causes. However, health care personnel should also consider the airway, which plays an important role in gas exchange and lung mechanics. The airway can be easily injured, ...
Donn S M - - 2006
Ventilator induced lung injury continues to occur at an unacceptably high rate, which is inversely related to gestational age. Although the "new BPD" may not be entirely avoidable in the extremely premature infant, recognition of risk factors and adoption of an appropriate ventilatory strategy, along with continuous real time monitoring, ...
Kinsella John P - - 2006
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease that affects premature babies and contributes to their morbidity and mortality. Improved survival of very immature infants has led to increased numbers of infants with this disorder. This increase puts a heavy burden on health resources since these infants need frequent re-admission to ...
Cotton Robert B - - 2006
Animal studies have shown that induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the lung by oxygen exposure may result in the release of free radical oxidants and arachidonic acid metabolites, which can cause lung injury that is reduced by treatment with cimetidine, a CYP inhibitor. To determine whether cimetidine would reduce ...
Gappa Monika - - 2006
This is the fifth paper in a review series that summarizes available data and critically discusses the potential role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI). This review focuses on respiratory mechanics, including chest-wall and tissue ...
Freysdottir Drifa - - 2006
Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a form of air block most frequently seen in ventilated preterm infants with severe lung disease; it is rarely reported in spontaneously breathing term infants. We report on an infant previously diagnosed with laryngomalacia and congestive heart failure and with evidence of antenatal stroke before ...
de Mello Rosane Reis - - 2006
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There have been dramatic increases in very low birth weight infant survival. However, respiratory morbidity remains problematic. The aim here was to verify associations between pulmonary mechanics, pulmonary structural abnormalities and respiratory morbidity during the first year of life. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective cohort study at Instituto ...
Loland Lotte - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence on the preferred methods for evaluating lung function in infancy. The objective of this study was to compare sensitivity and repeatability of indexes of lung function in young infants during induced airway obstruction. METHODS: The study population consisted of 402 infants (median age, 6 weeks). ...
Finer Neil N - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Postnatal steroids (PNSs) are used frequently to prevent or treat chronic lung disease (CLD) in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant, and their use continues despite concerns regarding an increased incidence of longer-term neurodevelopmental abnormalities in such infants. More recently, there has been a suggestion that corticosteroids may ...
Viscardi Rose - - 2006
Respiratory colonization of preterm infants with Ureaplasma urealyticum is a significant risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic lung disease characterized by arrest of alveolar development, variable interstitial fibrosis, and disordered elastic fibers in the distal airspaces. As indicated in previous studies, moderate to severe fibrosis is a hallmark of ...
Gnanalingham M G - - 2006
Glucocorticoid action has a major role in regulating fetal and postnatal lung development, although its impact on mitochondrial development is less well understood. Critically, the consequences of any change in glucocorticoid action and mitochondrial function in early life may not be limited to the postnatal period, but may extend into ...
Lum Sooky - - 2006
This fourth paper in a review series on the role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI) addresses measurements of forced expiration using rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RTC) techniques and the forced deflation technique. Following orientation of the ...
Kallapur S G - - 2006
Inflammation interferes with lung development in model systems and is present chronically in the lungs of preterm infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Antenatal inflammation is very commonly associated with preterm deliveries, but there is generally minimal information about the duration, intensity, or organisms associated with chorioamnionitis. In preterm lamb ...
Tatti Kathleen M - - 2006
Formalin-fixed lung or trachea tissue specimens from four infants and one adolescent who died of respiratory illness were tested for Bordetella pertussis by conventional and real-time PCR assays. B. pertussis was confirmed in all cases. PCR can be an invaluable retrospective diagnostic tool for evaluating archival tissues from patients with ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2006
This review considers measurement of global and regional ventilation inhomogeneity (VI) in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy (CLDI). We focus primarily on multiple-breath inert gas washout (MBW) and electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The literature is critically reviewed and the relevant ...
Bastien John L - - 2006
PURPOSE: Attaining lung isolation in the infant undergoing thoracic anesthesia can be challenging for the anesthesiologist. We describe a novel approach to performing lung isolation in an infant undergoing thoracotomy for lobectomy using an Arndt pediatric endobronchial blocker via an extraluminal technique. CLINICAL FEATURES: Lung isolation in an infant was ...
Thomas M R - - 2006
To test the hypothesis that male compared with female prematurely born infants would have worse lung function at follow up. Prospective follow up study. Tertiary neonatal intensive care units Seventy six infants, mean (SD) gestational age 26.4 (1.5) weeks, from the United Kingdom oscillation study. Lung function measurements at a ...
Capoluongo E - - 2006
Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is involved in regulating the Th-1/Th-2 balance, favoring the development of the Th-2 compartment which enhances fibrosis, one of the main characteristics of Chronic Lung Disease (CLD) in premature newborns. Limited data is available concerning a possible association between early epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations of ...
Lassus P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an epithelial cell mitogen, has been shown to participate in normal lung development and in regeneration after lung injury. In human preterm infants, lower pulmonary HGF has been associated with more severe respiratory disease. OBJECTIVES: We studied the protein expression of HGF and its receptor ...
Davies Philip L - - 2006
CLD is a significant cause of infant morbidity and mortality. The lung injury is multifactorial in origin with supplemental oxygen and ventilatory damage being only part of the picture. Antenatal and postnatal infection and inflammation are also important in the development of CLD, although their precise role has still to ...
Girosi Donata - - 2006
Because of the common embryologic origin, alteration of the many factors modulating the development of the alimentary and the respiratory tract often results in structural abnormalities involving the two systems. Indeed, some of the most common embryologic disorders of the airways are frequently associated with anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. ...
Hülskamp Georg - - 2006
This is the second paper in a review series that will summarize available data and discuss the potential role of lung function testing in infants and young children with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy. The current paper addresses the expansive subject of measurements of lung ...
Brion L P - - 2006
Lung disease in preterm infants is often complicated with lung edema. The aim of this review is to assess the risks and benefits of aerosolized diuretic administration in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives are to assess effects on short term outcome (changes in need ...
Ballard Philip L - - 2006
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or chronic lung disease (CLD), of premature infants involves injury from hyperoxia and mechanical ventilation to an immature lung. We examined surfactant and nitric oxide (NO), which are developmentally deficient in premature infants, in the baboon model of developing CLD. Fetuses were delivered at 125 d gestation and ...
Choudhry Dinesh K - - 2005
Single-lung ventilation is requested for an increasing spectrum of surgical procedures in infants and children. A clear understanding of the physiology of single-lung ventilation, the techniques of lung separation, and the technical skill necessary to apply these techniques are essential for an anesthesiologist practicing thoracic anesthesia. This article focuses on ...
Pillow J Jane - - 2005
The recent trend toward development of noninvasive methods that can accurately evaluate the lung periphery has particular relevance for the predominantly parenchymal nature of neonatal respiratory disease. Concerns regarding the safety of sedating newborn (especially preterm) infants have also stimulated a drive toward measurements obtained during natural sleep. This study ...
Friedrich Luciana - - 2006
RATIONALE: Preterm delivery has been associated with a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity even in infants that do not have significant respiratory disease during the neonatal period. Reduced flows have been reported in children and adolescents born prematurely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess lung function in ...
van der Wiel Els C - - 2005
Airway malacia is present in a small proportion of wheezing infants. The usefulness of infant lung-function testing (ILFT) in ruling out malacia in wheezy infants is unknown. We assessed the predictive value of ILFT parameters for airway malacia diagnosed by flexible bronchoscopy. Thirty-two term infants (mean (SD) age, 11.0 (4.6) ...
Figueras-Aloy José - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of antenatal glucocorticoid therapy (AGT) on mortality and chronic lung disease (CLD) in surviving preterm infants 23 to 28 weeks gestational age (WGA). This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study. A total of 2448 infants 23 to 28 WGA were ...
Modl Manfred - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relation between age and bronchodilator responsiveness in infants with bronchiolitis. STUDY DESIGN: In 41 infants (age, 2 to 18 months) with bronchiolitis, lung function was measured with the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique before and after salbutamol inhalation. Lung function was quantified in terms of ...
Sánchez Ignacio - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Lung sounds analysis has been used for clinical care. Our objectives were to characterize the spectral pattern of lung sounds and their relation to bronchodilator effects in acute bronchiolitis (AB). We hypothesized that patients with sinusoidal wheezes (SW) would show a more significant bronchodilator response. METHODOLOGY: We studied 22 ...
Wakabayashi Takashi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with perfluorochemical (PFC) has been advocated as a new therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome in both clinical and animal studies, meconium aspiration syndrome, and RDS. PFC is referred to as liquid PEEP because it gets distributed to the most gravity-dependent regions of the lung ...
Onland W - - 2005
We present the clinical, radiological, and pathological findings of open lung biopsies from monozygotic prematurely born male twins with respiratory distress at ages 6 and 8 weeks postnatally. Radiological examination showed a reticular nodular interstitial pattern on chest radiography. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) revealed ground-glass opacification and thickened interstitial septae ...
Gitto Eloisa - - 2005
Improved survival because of advances in neonatal care has resulted in an increased number of infants at risk for chronic lung disease. Even though the etiology of lung injury is multifactorial, recent animal and clinical data indicate that pulmonary damage depends in large part on the ventilatory strategies used. Ventilator-associated ...
Cock Megan - - 2005
Our objective was to determine whether postnatal respiratory function, lung growth, and lung structure are affected by preterm birth which did not require neonatal respiratory support. Two groups of preterm (P) lambs were delivered 2 weeks before term, at 133 days of gestational age (GA). Tissue was collected at term ...
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