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Bose Carl - - 2009
Improvement in survival of extremely premature infants over the past several decades has resulted in an increase in the number of infants with chronic lung disease (CLD). Historical neonatal exposures associated with CLD now less frequently precede the disease. There is now increasing interest in exposures and events before delivery ...
De Matteo Robert - - 2009
Children born before term often have reduced lung function, but the effects of preterm birth alone are difficult to determine owing to iatrogenic factors such as mechanical ventilation. Our objective was to determine the effects of preterm birth alone on airway resistance, airway reactivity, and ventilatory heterogeneity as an index ...
Chandran-Mahaldar Divya - - 2009
Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) characterized by over distension and air-trapping in the affected lobe is one of the causes of infantile respiratory distress requiring surgical resection of affected lobe. At induction, positive pressure ventilation can expand the emphysematous lobe compressing the normal lung resulting in severe cardiovascular compromise. We report ...
Benders Manon J N L - - 2009
Previous studies reported impaired cerebral cortical gray matter development and neurodevelopmental impairment following neonatal dexamethasone treatment for chronic lung disease in preterm newborns. No long-term effects on neurocognitive outcome have yet been shown for hydrocortisone treatment. A prospective study was performed to evaluate brain growth at term in preterm infants ...
Roehr Charles Christoph - - 2009
PURPOSE: In infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), somatic growth and pulmonary development are key issues beyond the time of intensive care treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the somatic growth and pulmonary function after discharge and to compare CDH patients with a group of matched controls. ...
Peterson Steven W - - 2009
Human lung development begins around day 26 postconception and continues throughout early childhood. Many crucial events can affect this delicate tissue as it develops, leading to altered and abnormal growth and development of the lungs, thereby yielding a variety of morbidities and sometimes even mortality. Understanding the pathophysiology of lung ...
Morris Mohy G - - 2009
The dynamic functional residual capacity (FRC(dyn)), the lung volume most routinely measured in infants, is an unreliable volume landmark. In addition to the FRC(dyn), we measured the (passive) static FRC (FRC(st)) by inducing a brief post-hyperventilation apnea (PHA) in 33 healthy infants aged 7.4-127.2 weeks. A commercial system for nitrogen ...
Anjari Mustafa M Division of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College London and MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, London, United - - 2009
Preterm infants have a high incidence of neurodevelopmental impairment associated with diffuse cerebral white matter abnormalities and also a high incidence of serious respiratory disease. However, it is unclear if lung disease and brain injury are related, and previous research has been impeded by confounding effects, including prematurity and infection. ...
Jones Marcus - - 2009
Obstructive lung diseases remain as important complications of preterm birth, usually attributed to a combination of lung immaturity, oxygen therapy and ventilator support. This is particularly true for low birth weight infants with severe respiratory neonatal disease; however, preterm infants that did not initially demonstrate significant respiratory neonatal disease also ...
de Waal Koert - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of lung recruitment on pulmonary, systemic, and ductal blood flow in preterm infants treated with primary high-frequency ventilation (HFV). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four infants (median gestational age, 28 weeks) were included in this prospective cohort study. Changes in oxygenation in response to stepwise changes in the ...
Lahra Monica M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE To determine the impact of intrauterine inflammation of maternal (chorioamnionitis) and fetal (umbilical vasculitis) origin and neonatal sepsis on the development of neonatal chronic lung disease in preterm infants. METHODS: This study was conducted at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in Sydney, Australia. All infants born at <30 weeks' gestation, ...
Viscardi Rose Marie - - 2009
The contribution of Ureaplasma respiratory tract colonization to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants has been debated for over 20 y. We review the current understanding of the role of inflammation in altered developmental signaling in the preterm lung and the evidence from human studies and experimental models ...
Bäckström Erica - - 2010
Little is known about the influence of maternal inflammation on neonatal outcome. Production of IL-1beta in the lungs of newborn infants is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Using bitransgenic (bi-TG) mice in which human (h) IL-1beta is expressed with a doxycycline-inducible system controlled by the Clara cell secretory protein promoter, we ...
Jiang Ze D - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To examine neuronal function of the auditory brainstem in neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD) and detect any differences from perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: Infants with CLD and infants after perinatal asphyxia were studied at term (37-42 weeks postconceptional age). Wave amplitudes of maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response (MLS ...
Elizur A - - 2009
In a retrospective, single-center cohort study, outcomes of infants and toddlers undergoing lung transplant at St. Louis Children's Hospital between 1990 and 2004 were compared to older children. Patients with cystic fibrosis (exclusively older children) and those who underwent heart-lung, liver-lung, single lung or a second transplantation were excluded from ...
Bonanno Clarissa - - 2009
In 1972, Drs Liggins and Howie published a landmark article demonstrating that antenatal corticosteroids significantly reduced the frequency of respiratory distress syndrome and neonatal mortality. A single course of antenatal corticosteroids has become standard of care for pregnant women at risk for preterm birth. Recent studies have suggested weekly courses ...
Kassim Zainab - - 2009
The aims of this study were to determine whether caffeine administration increased respiratory muscle function and if this was associated with lung function improvement in prematurely born infants being weaned from mechanical ventilation. Respiratory muscle function was assessed by measurement of the maximum pressures generated during occlusions at end inspiration ...
Ferner Kirsten - - 2009
The reproductive strategies and the extent of development of neonates differ markedly between the three extant mammalian groups: the Monotremata, Marsupialia, and Eutheria. Monotremes and marsupials produce highly altricial offspring whereas the neonates of eutherian mammals range from altricial to precocial. The ability of the newborn mammal to leave the ...
McCurnin Donald C - - 2009
Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in lung development and perinatal lung function, and pulmonary NO synthases (NOS) are decreased in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) following preterm birth. Fetal estradiol levels increase during late gestation and estradiol up-regulates NOS, suggesting that after preterm birth estradiol deprivation causes attenuated lung NOS ...
Birenbaum Howard J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to reduce the incidence of chronic lung disease by introducing potentially better practices in our delivery room and NICU. METHODS: We compared the incidences of chronic lung disease in infants with birth weights of 501 to 1500 g in 2002 and 2005, after implementation of the ...
Honda Rie - - 2009
AIM: To evaluate the effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (oscillation) on preterm infants with chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: Ten infants with CLD who received inhaled corticosteroid therapy were enrolled. Week 1 was defined as the first week of therapy. The concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, tumour ...
Trias Elman L - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Increased respiratory rate (tachypnea) is frequently observed as a clinical sign of influenza pneumonia in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital. We previously demonstrated that influenza infection of adult cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) also results in tachypnea and wanted to establish whether this clinical sign was observed in infected ...
Bauer Jacqueline - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that the use of inhaled budesonide (BUD) would alter somatic growth by increasing energy expenditure (EE) in premature infants with chronic lung disease (CLD). METHODS: A prospective study was conducted of the effect of BUD on EE, growth and salivary cortisol excretion in infants with CLD who ...
Been Jasper V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are highly susceptible to lung injury. While both chorioamnionitis and antenatal steroids induce lung maturation, chorioamnionitis is also associated with adverse lung development. We investigated the ability of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from ventilated preterm infants to restore alveolar epithelial integrity after injury in vitro, depending on ...
Halliday Henry L HL Perinatal Room, Royal-Jubilee Maternity Service, Royal Maternity Hospital, Grosvenor Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK, BT12 6BA. - - 2009
Many preterm infants who survive go on to develop chronic lung disease (CLD). This is true in infants who have had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and in infants without RDS. This is probably due to persistence of inflammation in the lung. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used ...
Dellon Elisabeth P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Inhaled hypertonic saline (HS) improves lung function and decreases pulmonary exacerbations in older patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Initiating therapies in young patients has potential to preserve lung function. Before conducting a therapeutic trial of HS in this population, its safety must be evaluated and protocols for monitoring response ...
Hilgendorff Anne - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Morbidity and mortality in preterm infants is significantly determined by the development of pulmonary complications. We thus investigated the impact of obstructive ventilatory disorders on lung function in very preterm infants with a history of respiratory distress syndrome and/or bronchopulmonary dysplasia using repeated body plethysmographic measurements before and after ...
Tullio Vivian V Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Turin, Turin, Italy. - - 2008
We report a case of bronchopneumonia due to Schizophyllum commune in an immunocompromised patient. While this fungus rarely causes disease in humans, it has been reported in association with several clinical entities and lung disorders. A 59-year-old white man with a gastric carcinoma was admitted to S. Giovanni Battista Hospital ...
Amirav Israel - - 2008
Infants and toddlers are a unique subpopulation with regard to aerosol therapy. There are various anatomical, physiological and emotional factors peculiar to this age group that present significant difficulties and challenges for aerosol delivery. Most studies on the factors determining lung deposition of therapeutic aerosols are based on data from ...
Piirilä Päivi - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Disorders of pulmonary tissue and pleura are visualized by findings in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and the impairment caused by these findings is assessed by pulmonary function tests. Our aim was to determine how some commonly used spirometric variables are related to certain HRCT signs, in order to find ...
Linnane Barry M - - 2008
RATIONALE: Progressive lung damage in cystic fibrosis (CF) starts in infancy, and early detection may aid preventative strategies. OBJECTIVES: To measure lung function in infants with CF diagnosed by newborn screening and describe its association with pulmonary infection and inflammation. METHODS: Infants with CF (n = 68, 6 weeks to ...
Schulzke S M - - 2008
The large dead space associated with face masks might impede the accuracy and feasibility of multiple-breath washout (MBW) measurements in small infants. We asked if a low dead space nasal mask would provide measurements of resting lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity comparable to those obtained with a face mask, when ...
McPhail Gary L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare lung function and nutritional outcomes in cystic fibrosis (CF) for 2 birth cohorts in our CF center. STUDY DESIGN: Patients with CF born between 1985 and 2000 treated in our CF center before age 5 years were included. The patients were divided into 2 equal birth cohorts ...
Matthews Iren Lindbak - - 2008
AIM: To compare the difference in lung function development of healthy controls and patients with univentricular hearts from birth prior to surgery and during the first year of life when cardiac shunt procedures and the cavopulmonary connection are required. METHODS: Tidal flow-volume measurements and single-occlusion tests were performed from birth ...
Llapur C J - - 2009
Infants with recurrent wheeze have repeated episodes of airways obstruction; however, relatively little is known about the structure and function of their lungs when not symptomatic. The current authors evaluated whether infants with recurrent wheeze have smaller airway lumens or thickened airway walls, as well as decreased airway function. High-resolution ...
Wells Sandra M - - 2009
Increasing evidence suggests that lung mechanics and structure are maintained in part by an intimate balance between the L-arginine-metabolizing enzymes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and arginase. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive endogenous inhibitor of NOS. The role of ADMA in the regulation of NOS and arginase in the airways ...
Gras-Le Guen C - - 2008
Clinical and experimental studies indicate an association between chorioamnionitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. The present authors hypothesised that, in the rabbit, antenatal infection may impair lung development after birth, despite effective maternal antibiotic therapy. Pregnant rabbits received an intra-uterine inoculation of 10(3) Escherichia coli colony forming units or ...
Dördelmann M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) represents a severe complication of respiratory distress syndrome and can dramatically impair the ventilation of premature infants. OBJECTIVES: We report three mechanically ventilated premature infants with severe diffuse, unilateral PIE not responding to conventional treatment, whose clinical condition improved dramatically following an ipsilateral pneumothorax. RESULTS: ...
Landolfo Francesca - - 2008
To investigate the effect of position on the strength of the Hering-Breuer reflex in prematurely born infants and determine whether any differences seen were related to differences in lung or tidal volume between positions. Position related differences in the strength of the Hering-Breuer reflex relate to differences in lung or ...
Minocchieri Stefan - - 2008
Clinical efficacy of aerosol therapy in premature newborns depends on the efficiency of delivery of aerosolized drug to the bronchial tree. To study the influence of various anatomical, physical, and physiological factors on aerosol delivery in preterm newborns, it is crucial to have appropriate in vitro models, which are currently ...
Stick Stephen M - - 2008
Despite the wide implementation of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis there have been few clinical trials aimed at reducing the burden of lung disease in screened infants. Emerging tools such as infant lung function and low-dose computed tomography (CT) provide early indicators of lung disease and could be effective outcome ...
Ruano Rodrigo - - 2008
Macrocystic adenomatoid malformation of the lung can cause severe mediastinal shift, hydrops and polyhydramnios, thereby increasing the risk of perinatal deaths. After 33 weeks of gestation, repeated puncturing of the cyst is recommended. We present a case in which a cyst-amniotic shunt was placed instead of performing this procedure. A ...
Barresi Valeria - - 2008
Endoglin is a 180 KDa glycoprotein mainly expressed on endothelial cells of newly formed vessels. Its expression is increased by the hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a potent stimulator of VEGF expression. The relative hypoxic environment in which foetal lung develops favours HIF-1 dependent gene expression, including the endoglin and ...
Klein M Inés - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The protective role of breastfeeding against severe acute lung disease in infants is well established, but its mechanism is unclear. Most hypotheses assume that breastfeeding confers similar passive protection to every infant; however, a few observations have suggested that the benefits of breast milk against severe lung disease may ...
Gallot Denis - - 2008
Maternal retinoid administration has beneficial effects on lung development in the nitrofen rodent toxic model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (DH). We wanted to investigate the effects in a surgical model, where the retinoid signaling pathway is not primarily disrupted by the toxic agent. We created DH in fetal rabbits at ...
Ruano Rodrigo - - 2008
PURPOSE: To use 3-dimensional sonography (3DUS) to measure contralateral lung volume and evaluate the potential of this measurement to predict neonatal outcome in isolated congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). METHODS: Between January 2002 and December 2004, the contralateral lung volumes of 39 fetuses with isolated CDH were measured via 3DUS using ...
Ren Clement L - - 2008
Chronic airway infection and inflammation are the hallmarks of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. As these events occur early in life, it is critical to develop techniques for the assessment and monitoring of early-CF lung disease in infants and young children. In the last several years, there have been major ...
Qiu Wanshan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Ischemia-reperfusion causes lung damage to patients with congenital heart disease who undergo open surgery under total cardiopulmonary bypass. The aim of the present study was to compare ischemia-reperfusion-induced lung damage between adults and infants. METHODS: Both infant (15 to 21-day-old) and adult (5 to 6-month-old) rabbits were subjected to ...
Sankar M Jeeva - - 2008
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a simple, inexpensive and gentle mode of respiratory support in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. It helps by preventing the alveolar collapse and increasing the functional residual capacity of the lungs. Since it results in less ventilator induced lung injury than mechanical ...
Yeh Tsu F - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Budesonide is an inhaled steroid with a strong topical effect but with minimal systemic effects; it has been effectively delivered to animal lungs using surfactant as a vehicle. The purposes of this study were to determine whether early intratracheal instillation of budesonide using surfactant as a vehicle would improve ...
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