Search Results
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Frey U - - 2001
Infant lung function testing is important in clinical research and recent standardisation efforts have enabled measurements to be made in infants in different laboratories throughout the world. Thus, the theoretical conditions are now fulfilled for use of these techniques in clinical practice. This review discusses the usefulness of various infant ...
Kim H S - - 2001
Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) and peroxiredoxin II (Prx II) are found in abundance in the cytoplasm of cells and catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide with the use of electrons provided by thioredoxin. Here we examined Prx I and Prx II expression in rat lung during perinatal development and in ...
Pandya H C - - 2001
Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is largely confined to preterm infants who require mechanical ventilation in the newborn period. Its development is associated with preterm labour and pulmonary inflammation secondary to oxidant stress, barotrauma of mechanical ventilation and antenatally--or postnatally--acquired respiratory tract infection. Pathological studies have shown that infants ...
Headley B M - - 2001
Five infants with giant omphalocele had persistent collapse of the left lung and required prolonged respiratory support. Narrowing of the left main bronchus, reversible with positive end-expiratory pressure, was identified radiographically in 3 infants, and we postulate that this relates to distortion of the bronchus within the constraints of the ...
McEvoy C - - 2001
Studies in preterm animal models have shown that antenatal corticosteroids enhance lung maturation by improving a variety of physiologic variables, including lung volumes. Changes in lung volume of preterm infants treated with a full course of antenatal steroids have not been investigated. We hypothesized that a full course of antenatal ...
Paridaens J - - 2001
Approximately 200 volume traps were retrieved from dwellings in various radon prone areas in Europe. They were analysed for the purpose of retrospective radon assessment. Emphasis is put on specific problems encountered when using field samples as opposed to laboratory exposed samples. It was seen that in very dusty circumstances, ...
Messineo A - - 2001
A male infant with a prenatal diagnosis (at 20 weeks' gestation) of cystic adenomatoid malformation was delivered after 38 weeks' gestation (birth weight, 3 kg) and admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. During the first few days of life, he developed mild respiratory distress; a chest radiograph and computed ...
Khalaf M N - - 2001
The objective of this study was to identify the most efficient and cost-effective nebulizer device for delivery of albuterol aerosol as a bronchodilator in ventilated preterm infants. Bronchodilators are frequently used as part of the therapeutic regimen of ventilated preterm infants. This can be delivered by different types of nebulizers ...
Hughes G M - - 2001
After a distinguished academic career Richard Pattle was well qualified as a Physicist and Physical Chemist. Following a brief spell in the army (REME) he was appointed as a biophysicist in the Chemical Defence Experimental Laboratory at Porton Down. Such centres here and in USA initiated work which led to ...
Schrod L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Chronic lung disease (CLD) in premature infants shows a variable clinical course with different radiological manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation between parameters of trans-membrane permeability [albumin/secretory component (SC)] and oxidative stress [malondialdehyde (MDA)/SC] in tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) and radiological findings with the effect of a 5-day course ...
Lin C H - - 2001
Activities of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are developmentally regulated and its presence at birth may play a role in the transition of cardiopulmonary circulation. Antenatal dexamethasone (Dex) therapy accelerates fetal lung maturation. We speculate that Dex therapy may enhance pulmonary eNOS protein expression in the newborn. This article examines ...
Pillow J J - - 2001
The aim of this study was to partition airway and parenchymal mechanics in newborn lambs at different gestations and following variable exposure to antenatal maternal betamethasone using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Pulmonary impedance data were collected in 37 sedated and intubated apneic lambs with the FOT between 0.5 and ...
Clark P W - - 2001
We set out to determine whether chest radiographs obtained in premature infants between 9-16 days of age are predictive for the development of chronic lung disease of the newborn (CLD). This was a prospective cohort study. The study included 40 babies who were enrolled in a randomized trial of corticosteroid ...
Frey U - - 2001
To facilitate international multicentre studies and quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society (ERS-ATS) working group for infant lung function testing aims to develop specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. However, a standardized test device is also needed to test whether ...
Reinmann B - - 2001
In order to facilitate international multicentre studies and improve the quality control of infant pulmonary function measurements, the European Respiratory Society-American Thoracic Society Task Force for infant lung function testing has recently developed specifications for standardized infant lung function equipment and software. A mechanical infant lung model analogue has been ...
Ramchandani R - - 2001
The scheme of Horsfield et al. for describing the pulmonary airway tree (J Appl Physiol 52: 21-26, 1982) catalogs each airway according to its order and the difference in order of its two daughters (denoted Delta). Although this scheme captures the natural asymmetry in the airway tree, it is still ...
Sargsyan A E - - 2001
Pneumothorax is commonly seen in trauma patients; the diagnosis is confirmed by radiography. The use of ultrasound where radiographic capabilities are absent, is being investigated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. We investigated the ability of ultrasound to assess the magnitude of pneumothorax in a porcine model. Sonography was ...
Banks B A - - 2001
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that preterm infants may have developmental immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and that decreased cortisol response to stress increases risk of chronic lung disease (CLD) secondary to inflammatory lung injury. METHODS: To investigate the relationship between endogenous corticosteroid and CLD, we measured plasma cortisol during ...
Braby J - - 2001
Management of congenital diaphragmatic hernia has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. Until the early 1980s, it was felt that the abdominal contents should be returned to the abdomen as soon as possible to allow the lungs to expand. It is now known that it is not the ...
Vyas J R - - 2001
Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) remains a common cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Oxygen toxicity remains a major risk factor for the development of CLD and as a consequence the antioxidant status of CLD babies is a major focus of interest. In the present study, we ...
Morris M G - - 2001
The functional residual capacity (FRC) is the most commonly measured static lung volume in infants. It is important for interpreting volume-dependent pulmonary mechanics, e.g. airway resistance, and defining normal lung growth. The bias flow nitrogen washout technique is widely used for measuring FRC because the dead space and circuit resistance ...
Hassan A - - 2001
Although the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex (HBIR) is active within tidal breathing range in the neonatal period, there is no information regarding whether a critical volume has to be exceeded before any effect can be observed. To explore this, effects of multiple airway occlusions on inspiratory and expiratory timing were measured ...
Takasaki J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: A high concentration of interleukin (IL)-8 has been observed in the tracheobronchial aspirate of infants with chronic lung disease (CLD), although the pattern varies depending on the type of CLD. Alveolar fluid from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) also contains an elevated level of IL-8. Recently, the ...
Van Marter L J - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Antenatal glucocorticoid treatment (AGT) is associated with a number of postnatal benefits to the preterm infant, including reduced risk of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, and necrotizing enterocolitis. OBJECTIVe: To evaluate the hypothesis that maternal AGT not only reduces the risk of surfactant deficiency but also ...
Stark A R - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Early administration of high doses of dexamethasone may reduce the risk of chronic lung disease in premature infants but can cause complications. Whether moderate doses would be as effective but safer is not known. METHODS: We randomly assigned 220 infants with a birth weight of 501 to 1000 g ...
Bancalari E - - 2001
With the increasing survival of extremely premature infants there is a large number of them who are developing chronic lung disease (CLD), but the severity of the lung damage is considerably less than that observed in the classic form of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Because many of these infants have only ...
Davis S - - 2001
SUMMARY. The detection of early airway disease in infants with cystic fibrosis (CF) may lead to earlier intervention and an improved prognosis. We hypothesized that the ratio of maximal expiratory flows while breathing a mixture of helium and oxygen (heliox) and air, referred to as density dependence (DD), would identify ...
Hoo A F - - 2001
SUMMARY. Recent introduction of the raised lung volume rapid thoraco-abdominal compression (RVRTC) technique for measuring forced expiratory maneuvers in infants provides the potential opportunity to assess respiratory mechanics simultaneously by using multiple linear regression (MLR) of the relaxed breaths preceding jacket inflation to force expiration. This study was undertaken to ...
Bührer C - - 2001
Ureaplasma urealyticum is frequently isolated from tracheal aspirates of very low birthweight infants who go on to develop chronic lung disease. The use of erythromycin has been advocated in ventilated very low birthweight infants who are colonised with U. urealyticum, although the association between U. urealyticum and chronic lung disease ...
Tepper R S - - 2001
We recorded static deflation pressure-volume (PV) curves from near TLC to FRC in 49 healthy, sedated, spontaneously breathing infants of 1 to 104 wk of age. Respiratory activity was transiently inhibited by inflating the respiratory system several times to a volume at an airway pressure of 30 cm H2O (V30). ...
Dani C - - 2001
We present the case of a full term infant affected by diffuse persistent interstitial pulmonary emphysema (PIPE), who was treated with partial liquid ventilation (PLV) after the failure of conventional management. PIPE is a lethal chronic lung disease of unclear pathogenesis. Clinical history, radiological and histological findings confirmed the diagnosis ...
Jobe A H - - 2001
Chorioamnionitis is frequently associated with preterm deliveries before 30 weeks gestation. Chorioamnionitis correlates both with an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and with a decreased risk of respiratory distress syndrome. Both interleukin-1alpha and endotoxin can induce inflammation in the fetal lungs and lung maturation after preterm birth when given by ...
Vas L - - 2001
The techniques for lung isolation in infants are, endobronchial intubation and bronchical blockade with Fogarty catheter or a univent tube. Unlike endobronchial intubation, bronchial blockade has the advantage that lung can be segregated at will. Endobronchial blocker is usually placed as a planned procedure just after induction of anaesthesia either ...
Dinger J - - 2001
Positive end expiratory pressure is routinely used when ventilating preterm infants. Elevation of PEEP increases lung volume, as does surfactant treatment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various levels of PEEP within the range of 0.2 to 0.4 kPa on lung volume, compliance and gas ...
Gappa M - - 2001
The aim of this position paper is to define quality control and acceptance criteria for measuring passive respiratory mechanics in infants using the occlusion techniques to ensure that valid results are obtained. These guidelines cover numerous aspects including: 1) terminology and definitions; 2) equipment; 3) data acquisition; 4) data handling ...
Brion L P - - 2001
Lung disease in preterm infants is often complicated with lung edema. The aim of this review is to assess the risks and benefits of aerosolized diuretic administration in preterm infants with or developing chronic lung disease (CLD). Primary objectives are to assess effects on short term outcome (changes in need ...
Halliday H L - - 2001
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a major problem in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation in the lungs is the most likely underlying pathogenesis. Corticosteroids have been used to either prevent or treat CLD because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. To determine if postnatal corticosteroid treatment is of benefit in ...
Halliday H L - - 2001
Many preterm babies who survive, having had respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or not, go on to develop chronic lung disease (CLD). This is probably due to persistence of inflammation in the lung. Corticosteroids have powerful anti-inflammatory effects and have been used to treat established CLD. However it is unclear whether ...
Thibeault D W - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Infants <30 weeks' gestation have difficulty maintaining adequate functional residual capacity after the first week of life without positive end-expiratory pressure. We hypothesized that this is caused, in part, by increased lung elastic recoil. Our aims were to quantitate parenchymal elastic tissue during normal fetal development and in infants ...
Greenspan J S - - 2000
Liquid breathing has been proposed as a means of improving gas exchange in infants with acute respiratory failure since the 1970s. In addition, there are potential clinical applications of perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids that span many specialties in medicine. The ability to lower surface tension directed the initial clinical focus on ...
Delaney K - - 2000
Infant lung samples were obtained prospectively at autopsy by medical examiner pathologists in five areas of the United States and regardless of the cause of death. Four sections were examined for each case and were taken from the anterior and posterior aspects of the right and left upper lung lobes. ...
Greenough A - - 2000
Antenatal lung growth is adversely affected in conditions where there is intra-or extrathoracic compression, impaired fetal breathing movements and/or reduction in amniotic fluid volume. Postnatally, factors in infancy most commonly associated with abnormal lung function are passive smoking and premature delivery, its associated complications and management. Many conditions affecting lung ...
Bates J H - - 2000
The aim of this position paper is to provide recommendations pertaining to software and equipment requirements when analysing tidal breathing measurements in infants. These guidelines cover numerous aspects including terminology and definitions, equipment, data acquisition and analysis, and reporting of results, and highlight areas in which further research is needed ...
Jónsson B - - 2000
Chronic lung disease of prematurity (CLD) is associated with an inflammatory response in the preterm lung and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid (TAF). We investigated TAF levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokines possibly important in downregulating the proinflammatory ...
Frey U - - 2000
The aim of this present paper is to define minimal performance criteria for the separate items comprising signal processing and data handling used to measure respiratory function in infants. These guidelines cover numerous aspects including: signal processing, data handling and subsequent analysis, reporting of results, demographics and handling of reference ...
Hall G L - - 2000
Low-frequency respiratory impedance (Zrs) was measured by applying a forcing signal, between 0.5 and 21 Hz at a transrespiratory pressure of 20 cm H(2)O, in a cross-sectional study of 37 normal infants. A model containing an airway resistance (Raw) and inertance (Iaw) and a tissue damping (G) and elastance (H) ...
Toder D S - - 2000
Patients with developmental disorders, including adolescents, comprise a large and heterogeneous group of individuals who vary in underlying diagnosis and degree of disability. The largest numbers of patients are those with cerebral palsy and with traumatic brain injury. While these conditions themselves do not directly cause airway or parenchymal lung ...
Smith L M - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Transient hypothyroxinemia in premature newborns has been linked with poor neonatal outcomes. We designed this study to evaluate the effects of early thyroxine (T4) administration in the premature infant. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 49 newborns less than 32 weeks' gestation, were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Within ...
André P - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefits and the medium-term side effects of methylprednisolone in very preterm infants at risk of chronic lung disease. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive preterm infants (< 30 weeks' gestation) at risk of chronic lung disease were treated at a mean postnatal age of 16 days with a ...
Frey U - - 2000
The aim of this position paper is to define minimal performance criteria for the separate items comprising equipment used to measure respiratory function in infants together with overall performance criteria for the assembled pieces of such equipment. These guidelines cover numerous aspects including: 1) safety, 2) documentation and maintenance of ...
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