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Results 401 - 450 of 820
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Murphy D J - - 2001
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of single and repeated courses of antenatal corticosteroids on brain growth in very preterm babies. DESIGN: Retrospective study of 110 very preterm babies delivered at a single University Teaching Hospital between 1992 and 1999 who had a full necropsy including detailed examination of the brain. ...
Chevalier R L - - 2001
Over the past 25 years, our perception of the neonatal kidney has changed markedly from its being a "limited" organ compared with that of the adult to being extraordinarily well adapted in its role in maintaining homeostasis and making possible the rapid somatic growth necessary during this critical period of ...
Ruoss K - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To investigate fetal brain development in vivo using early postnatal cranial MRI in term and preterm newborn infants. STUDY DESIGN: 51 infants, 1.5-T whole-body system, extremity coil, spin-echo images obtained in all three planes (T1- and T2-weighted). Independent review by two neuroradiologists (blinded for gestational age and medical history) ...
Saliba E - - 2001
Based on clinical, epidemiologic, and experimental studies, the aetiology of white matter damage, specifically periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), is multifactorial and involves pre- and perinatal factors possibly including genetic factors, hypoxic-ischaemic insults, infection, excess cytokines, free radical production, increased excitatory amino acid release, and trophic factor deficiencies. The article summarizes research ...
Vannucci R C - - 2001
Hypoglycemia frequently occurs in newborn infants who previously have suffered asphyxia, who are offspring of diabetic mothers, or who are low birthweight for gestational age (IUGR). Many infants who are hypoglycemic do not exhibit clinical manifestations, while others are symptomatic and at risk for the occurrence of permanent brain damage. ...
Lazar N M - - 2001
Brain death is defined as the complete and irreversible absence of all brain function. It is diagnosed by means of rigorous testing at the bedside. The advent of neurologic or brain death criteria to establish the death of a person was a significant departure from the traditional way of defining ...
Auer D P - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: Subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and small cystic lesions are the radiologic hallmark of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), a hereditary angiopathy causing stroke in young adults. To further characterize the cerebral pathology in vivo we analyzed metabolite concentrations in normal and abnormal appearing ...
Astley S J - - 2001
The purpose of this report is to demonstrate how to measure the magnitude of expression of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) facial phenotype using the new 4-Digit Diagnostic Code and the previously developed D-score and to demonstrate how these two measures of the FAS facial phenotype correlate with brain function ...
Dammann O - - 2001
The accruing evidence that a fetal inflammatory response is the link between antenatal infection and white matter damage in the preterm newborn infant offers room for speculation how this harmful sequence could be interrupted. Enhancement of endogenous protection, response modification, and damage limitation downstream could be helpful strategies for intervention ...
Björkhem I - - 2001
Infants with the cholesterol synthesis defect Smith- Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLO) have reduced activity of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol-7-reductase and accumulate 7-dehydrocholesterol, with the highest concentration in the brain. As a result of the generally reduced content of cholesterol, plasma levels of oxysterols would be expected to be reduced. 24S-hydroxycholesterol is almost ...
Ulfig N - - 2001
Bleedings in the ganglionic eminence (GE) being a prominent domain of the telencephalic proliferative zone is a frequent complication of preterm infants. Such bleedings may induce cellular responses in the vicinity of the lesion. Using immunohistochemistry, this study demonstrates for the first time that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) belonging to ...
Yildiran A - - 2001
Abscess formation by Salmonella species is an uncommon but significant manifestation of salmonellosis, because this type of infection has high morbidity and mortality rates and is a potential nosocomial hazard. In infants, history of consumption of contaminated water should be especially quired. We report a case who had sepsis and ...
Bahi N - - 2001
Caffeine is frequently administered to human pre-term newborns although its neurological impact has not been fully evaluated. In the present study performed in mice, we examined the effects of caffeine administration on neonatal excitotoxic lesions of the periventricular white matter, which mimics several aspects of human periventricular leukomalacia. In this ...
Evrard P - - 2001
Brain damage in the premature or full-term fetus or newborn infant encompasses multiple patterns of injury, many considered to be anomalous in origin. However, there is increasing evidence that such congenital lesions arise as a consequence of hypoxia or ischemia (reperfusion failure). Animal models have been helpful in elucidating the ...
Peeters C - - 2001
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (PHI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A substantial part of PHI-related brain damage occurs upon reperfusion and reoxygenation by the excess production of excitatory amino acids, free (pro)radicals and the release of cytokines, triggering programmed cell death. In this respect, several neuroprotective agents have been ...
Greisen G - - 2001
Decrease in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) causes a reduction in cerebral blood flow in humans and in most animal species; in adults as well as in newborns and even in fetal life. Severely decreased PaCO(2) increases cerebral lactate production, modifies spontaneous electric brain activity, and may ...
Trevarthen C - - 2001
We review research evidence on the emergence and development of active "self-and-other" awareness in infancy, and examine the importance of its motives and emotions to mental health practice with children. This relates to how communication begins and develops in infancy, how it influences the individual subject's movement, perception, and learning, ...
Guzzetta F - - 2000
Ischemia is the most frequent pathogenetic mechanism of brain lesions in infancy. The authors give a brief report on the recent advances achieved in knowledge of the underlying neuropathology, clinical manifestations, strategies of management and outcome of ischemic brain lesions in the newborn. A better knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms is ...
Vio K K Instituto de Histología y Patología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, - - 2000
Stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct seems to be a key event for the development of congenital hydrocephalus. The causes of such a stenosis are not well known. Overholser et al. in 1954 (Anat Rec 120:917-933) proposed the hypothesis that a dysfunction of the subcommissural organ (SCO) leads to aqueductal stenosis ...
Vaal J J Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Amsterdam/Nijmegen, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. - - 2000
The main question asked in the present study was whether support could be found for the notion that supraspinal influences on the generation of spontaneous kicking movements become increasingly apparent in the first half-year after birth. In comparing groups of infants with and without damage in tracts connected with the ...
Kohlhauser C - - 2000
Perinatal asphyxia remains a major cause of acute mortality and of permanent neurodevelopmental disability in infants and children. However, the pathophysiologic features of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are still incompletely understood. Animal studies have been focussing on grey matter pathology but information on white matter lesions is limited. The aim of the ...
Mandelbaum D E - - 2000
AIM: To demonstrate that quantitative EEG (qEEG) can be used as a non-invasive measure of brain injury by establishing normative data in term infants and contrasting it with other modalities of brain imaging. DESIGN: qEEG during quiet sleep was performed on 13 healthy full-term infants comprising a normal group and ...
Chatterjee N K - - 2000
This report describes a fatal case of cerebral edema caused by adenovirus in a previously healthy 18-month-old infant who developed skin rash, pulmonary congestion, and fever and who died 6 days later. Adenovirus hexon gene sequences were detected in brain tissue and brain tissue cultures. The virus was typed as ...
Pearsall I A - - 2000
The phenology of damage by the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on nectarines was investigated using sticky cards and direct sampling of buds between 1993 and 1995 in the interior of British Columbia, the most susceptible period for damage by western flower thrips to nectarines. The life stage responsible ...
McAbee G N - - 2000
Infants with hydranencephaly are presumed to have a reduced life expectancy, with a survival of several weeks to months. Rarely, patients with prolonged survival have been reported, but these infants may have had other neurologic conditions that mimicked hydranencephaly, such as massive hydrocephalus or holoprosencephaly. We report two infants with ...
Sie L T - - 2000
The relationship between MR patterns of brain damage and type or timing of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia was studied. MR images of 104 children with evidence of bilateral posthypoxic-ischemic brain damage and neonatal records were reviewed. Three different MR patterns were found. Periventricular leukomalacia occurred in 73 children, in 82% after a ...
Tanner S F - - 2000
OBJECTIVE: Quantitative measurements of mean water diffusivity (D(av)) were made in human neonates, infants, and adults to assess changes in brain tissue that occur with maturation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Values of D(av) were obtained by calculating the average of the diffusion measurements made with diffusion-sensitizing gradients placed along three orthogonal ...
Korkmaz A - - 2000
Severe neonatal hypernatraemia is a life-threatening electrolyte disorder because of its neurological complications. These are brain oedema, intracranial haemorrhages, haemorrhagic infarcts and thromboses. There are few reports concerning the radiological findings in the central nervous system in severe neonatal hypernatraemia. Cranial MRI findings in hypernatraemia have been reported in an ...
Mayer A M - - 2000
Amnesic shellfish poisoning, one of the shellfish poisoning syndromes, is caused by the marine diatom toxin domoic acid (DOM). While in adult rats, mice, monkeys and humans DOM poorly penetrates the blood-brain barrier, DOM has been shown to be very toxic to fetal in newborn mice, because the blood-brain barrier ...
Robinson S R - - 2000
Spontaneous motor activity (SMA) is a ubiquitous feature of fetal and infant behavior. Although SMA appears random, successive limb movements often occur in bouts. Bout organization was evident at all ages in fetal (embryonic day [E] 17-21) and infant (postnatal day [P] 1-9) rats, with nearly all bouts comprising 1-4 ...
Berridge K C - - 2000
The hedonic impact of taste is reflected in affective facial reactions made by human infants, other primates, and even rats. Originally studied in human infants, affective reactions to taste have also been used by affective neuroscience to identify hedonic brain systems in studies of animals (via application of neural stimulation, ...
Pellis S M - - 2000
Whether it is that animals are young so that they can play, or whether it is that they play because they are young, play should be more prevalent in species that have a greater degree of postnatal development. This hypothesis is tested by comparative analyses within two mammalian orders (primates ...
Valkama A M - - 2000
In order to evaluate the value of neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for predicting neuromotor outcome in very low birthweight (VLBW) preterm infants, 51 such infants with gestational age <34 wk underwent brain MRI at term age. Myelination, parenchymal lesions (haemorrhage, leukomalacia, infarction, reduction of white matter), parenchymal lesions ...
Jarskog L F - - 2000
Apoptosis is essential for normal human neurodevelopment and is increasingly recognized for its role in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Bcl-2 is a 26 kDa membrane-associated protein known to protect neurons against apoptosis. Interestingly, Bcl-2 protein levels are altered in certain neurodegenerative disorders that reveal increased ...
Gibson A - - 2000
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) could allow the early diagnosis of infant brain injury following birth asphyxia. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of variations in skull, scalp or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resistivity, as these vary in clinical conditions and could degrade image quality. These factors were ...
van Landeghem F K - - 2000
Aqueductal stenosis is a common cause of hydrocephalus during infancy. We report on an infant born with aplasia cutis congenita at the scalp vertex and hypoplastic left heart syndrome developing systemic aspergillosis after cardiac surgery. The infant died at the age of 76 days despite systemic antimycotic therapy with a ...
- - 2000
Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hypermetabolic syndrome triggered in genetically susceptible individuals when certain potent inhalation anesthetics or succinylcholine are administered. The signs of MH include a greatly increased body metabolism, muscle rigidity and eventual hyperthermia that may exceed 110 degrees F. Death can result from cardiac arrest, brain damage, ...
Beaumont A - - 2000
The contribution of blood brain barrier opening to traumatic brain edema is not known. This study compares the course of traumatic BBB disruption and edema formation, with the hypothesis that they are not obligately related. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Group A (n = 47)--Impact Acceleration (IAM); Group ...
Johnson M H - - 2000
One future direction for cognitive development research involves a closer integration with our knowledge about the developing brain. I present a framework for analyzing and interpreting postnatal functional brain development in human infants. Three specific hypotheses contribute to this framework, within which a variety of phenomena associated with the neural ...
Buonocore G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The prognostic value of the nucleated red blood cell count at birth with respect to perinatal brain damage and neonatal outcome was assessed in infants at high risk of having neurologic damage. STUDY DESIGN: The nucleated red blood cell count at birth, pulsed Doppler ultrasonography in the cerebral arteries, ...
Thoresen M - - 1999
Recent research using newborn animal models of hypoxia-ischaemia has shown that cooling the subject from 3 to 6 degrees C starting after the insult and lasting up to 72 h offers long-lasting neuroprotection. One concern is that additional stress during hypothermia seems to reduce the beneficial effect. Phase 1 studies ...
Hawdon J M - - 1999
There has been much controversy and confusion regarding potential damage caused to the neonatal brain by low blood glucose levels. Previous studies of outcome after neonatal hypoglycaemia are flawed by many factors including retrospective data collection and inability to control for co-existing clinical complications. There is no doubt that hypoglycaemic ...
Handy T C - - 1999
Several researchers in the 1950's proposed that hypernatremia causes water to leave brain cells, shrinking the brain, thus tearing the bridging veins and resulting in subdural hematomas. Although the old literature suggests mechanisms linking the two in a cause and effect relationship, there is controversy as to whether hypernatremia leads ...
MaroszyƄska I - - 1999
Hypoxia-ischemia produces brain damage by processes that continue for many hours after reoxygenation/reperfusion. This provides a window of opportunity for therapy aimed at preventing further loss of brain cells. Sulfate magnesium can prevent posthypoxic brain injury by blocking glutamate receptors within the calcium (Ca++) ion channel. We used sulfate magnesium ...
Kellie S J - - 1999
The development of curative strategies for infants and children with central nervous system tumours or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia involve similar clinical research principles. Both areas of paediatric oncology research focus on cancers with a broad range of sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation therapy, together with concerns about the neurodevelopmental, neuroendocrine ...
Porto L - - 1999
Acute necrotising encephalopathy of childhood (ANE) is an uncommon disease which predominantly affects infants and young children living in Japan and Taiwan. A multifocal encephalopathy with symmetrical lesions in the thalamus, tegmentum of the brain stem, cerebral periventricular white matter and cerebellar medulla is characteristic. We present the imaging features ...
Dammann O - - 1999
We present a two-component model of brain white matter damage in preterm neonates. The insult component comprises infection and hypoxia-ischemia, which are both associated with inflammation-related abnormalities in the white matter. The developmental component comprises at least three factors, ie, immaturity of the ependymal/endothelial, oligodendroglial, and endogenous protection systems. All ...
Lindley A A - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine if the frontal-occipital head circumference correlates with brain volume on CT and to investigate correlations between the volumes of different brain subdivisions in live neonates. METHODS: Records were studied from 27 neonates with anatomically normal head CT-scans which were ordered for clinical reasons, and which were performed ...
Cooke R W - - 1999
AIM: To determine whether neurological deficits are associated with structural anomalies of the brain in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants with subsequent learning disorders but without cerebral palsy, or whether other factors, such as poor early growth, are responsible. METHODS: Eighty seven VLBW infants and eight term controls who had ...
Maalouf E F - - 1999
To define magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the brain in extremely preterm infants between birth and term, a sequential cohort of infants born at a gestational age <30 weeks was studied with a dedicated neonatal magnetic resonance scanner. Images of infants (n = 41) with a median gestational age ...
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