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Results 351 - 400 of 820
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Ditsworth Dara - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), as used in infant heart surgery, carries a risk of brain injury. In a piglet DHCA model, neocortical neurons appear to undergo apoptotic death. Caspases, cytochrome c, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and Fas play a role in apoptosis in many ischemic models. This study ...
Buonocore Giuseppe - - 2003
Of the approximately 130 million births worldwide each year, four million infants will suffer from birth asphyxia and, of these, one million will die and a similar number will develop serious sequelae. Before being able to develop effective interventions, a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain injury ...
Peterson Bradley S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare regional brain volumes measured in term and preterm infants, and to correlate regional volumes with measures of neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: High-contrast, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 preterm and 14 term infants who were scanned near term. The cerebrum was segmented into cortical gray ...
Hunt R W - - 2003
Current clinical practice in the premature infant with posthaemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) includes drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This case study used advanced volumetric three dimensional magnetic resonance imaging to document the impact of CSF removal on the volume of regional brain tissues in a premature infant with PHVD. The ...
Jeffrey Iona J M - - 2003
In spite of great advances in imaging and biochemistry, histological examination of tissues remains a vital part of the multidisciplinary approach to the prevention of the onset, morbidity and mortality of preterm birth. There has been increasing interest in the role of infection and inflammatory cytokines in causation both of ...
Dimopoulou I - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the time course of serum protein S-100b in patients with traumatic brain injury deteriorating to brain death and to investigate the predictive value of initial S-100b levels in relation to clinical and radiologic measures of injury severity with regard to brain death. METHODS: Forty-seven patients who sustained ...
Cowan Frances - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The role of intrapartum asphyxia in neonatal encephalopathy and seizures in term infants is not clear, and antenatal factors are being implicated in the causal pathway for these disorders. However, there is no evidence that brain damage occurs before birth. We aimed to test the hypothesis that neonatal encephalopathy, ...
Scheepens Arjan - - 2003
Neurotrophic growth factors are strongly upregulated following brain injury in order to limit the amount of delayed apoptotic cell death. In particular, the neurotrophins NGF and BDNF are upregulated following injury and offer neuroprotection when administered after brain injury. Further, both growth factors are involved in the control of neural ...
Quartu Marina - - 2003
The immunohistochemical occurrence of the neurotrophin (NT) proteins nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is shown in the pre-term newborn, infant, and adult human post-mortem cerebellum. The NT-like immunoreactive structures were unevenly distributed and showed regional differences among cerebellar lobules and folia. NGF-, ...
Hershenov David - - 2003
Most definitions of death--whether cardiopulmonary, whole brain and brain stem, or just upper brain--include an irreversibility condition. Cessation of function is not enough to declare death. Irreversibility should be limited to an organism's ability to 'restart' itself after vital organs have ceased to function. However, this would mean that every ...
Nádasi Edit A - - 2003
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion affecting 4977 base pairs (mtDNA4977), the most common mtDNA mutation in humans, was analysed in brain specimens (frontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and hippocampus) and in other tissues (blood clot, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle) taken at autopsy of deceased neonates. mtDNA4977 deletion ...
Bittigau Petra - - 2003
Trauma to the developing brain constitutes a poorly explored field. Some recent studies attempting to model and study pediatric head trauma, the leading cause of death and disability in the pediatric population, revealed interesting aspects and potential targets for future research. Trauma triggers both excitotoxic and apoptotic neurodegeneration in the ...
Ohtaki H - - 2003
For the first time we set up a new model for global ischemia in the infant mice, and time-dependent changes of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and neuronal cell death were investigated in detail. Infant C57/B16 mice (postnatal 13 days) were anesthetized with inhalation of sevoflurane in N2O/O2 (70/30%) and ...
Castoldi Anna F - - 2003
Mercurials are global environmental pollutants deriving from natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Most human exposure to mercury occurs through the intake of fish, shellfish, and sea mammals contaminated with methylmercury. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated and biomagnified in the aquatic food chain and reaches its highest levels in top predatory fish. The ...
Dehaene-Lambertz Ghislaine - - 2002
Human infants begin to acquire their native language in the first months of life. To determine which brain regions support language processing at this young age, we measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain activity evoked by normal and reversed speech in awake and sleeping 3-month-old infants. Left-lateralized brain ...
Robertson Nicola J - - 2002
Experimental studies demonstrate an alkaline shift in brain intracellular pH (pH(i)) after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In infants with neonatal encephalopathy after HI, our aims were to assess (1) brain pH(i) during the first 2 weeks after birth in infants categorized according to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the first 2 weeks ...
Voudris Konstantinos A - - 2002
Two infants with congenital microcephaly associated with the factor V Leiden mutation are described. In both cases, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebral atrophy and porencephalic cystic lesions, which were probably attributable to prenatal cerebral vascular events. These findings suggest that assessment for this mutation is an important part ...
Billiards Saraid S - - 2002
Infection has been identified as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Synthesis of allopregnanolone, a neuroactive steroid with potent sedative properties, is increased in response to stress. In this study, we investigated the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations and behavior in ...
Kreis R - - 2002
Biochemical maturation of the brain can be studied noninvasively by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in human infants. Detailed time courses of cerebral tissue contents are known for the most abundant metabolites only, and whether or not premature birth affects biochemical maturation of the brain is disputed. Hence, the last ...
Willoughby Rodney E RE - - 2002
The limited available evidence supports a strong association of chorioamnionitis with neonatal encephalopathy and CP in the term infant. The association of chorioamnionitis with depressed Apgar scores or neonatal seizures and with CP is equivocal in the preterm infant. Different study results may be related to differences in study populations, ...
Schlotzhauer Anna V - - 2002
Understanding the legal definition of whole-brain death is imperative for hematologists and oncologists who deal with end-of-life patients on a regular basis. At present, only whole-brain death in which there is no function of the upper brain or brain stem is legally recognized as legal death. Those advocating expansion of ...
Braissant Olivier - - 2002
Hyperammonemia in neonates and infants affects brain development and causes mental retardation. We report that ammonium impaired cholinergic axonal growth and altered localization and phosphorylation of intermediate neurofilament protein in rat reaggregated brain cell primary cultures. This effect was restricted to the phase of early maturation but did not occur ...
de Kretser D M - - 2002
The regulation of reproductive processes involves a complex network of communication systems between the brain, endocrine organs, the gonads and other reproductive tissues. Classically, our understanding has focused on the role of endocrine hormones, but more recently interest has also dwelt on the paracrine and autocrine regulation of these cell ...
Kelley Richard I - - 2002
A new metabolic disorder characterized by severe congenital microcephaly, death within the first year, and severe 2-ketoglutaric aciduria has been found among the Old-Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Amish lethal microcephaly segregates as an autosomal recessive disorder and has an unusually high incidence of at least 1 in 500 ...
Matthews S G - - 2002
Approximately 10% of women in North America are treated with synthetic glucocorticoid (sGC) between 24 and 32 weeks of pregnancy (term approximately 40 weeks), to promote lung maturation in fetuses at risk of preterm delivery. Such therapy is highly effective in reducing the frequency of respiratory complications, and as a ...
Koch R - - 2002
During 1967-1983, the Maternal and Child Health Division of the Public Health Services funded a collaborative study of 211 newborn infants identified on newborn screening as having phenylketonuria (PKU). Subsequently, financial support was provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). The infants were treated with ...
Distefano G - - 2002
In the last years new diagnostic technologies were developed to assess brain development and to identify early brain injury. Some of them are very attractive methods but invasive, expensive, and time-consuming. The availability of clinically useful serum markers of risk for perinatal brain damage will easily permit the development of ...
Rosa Neto Pedro - - 2002
Perinatal anoxia/ischemia or premature birth increases the risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain imaging studies of idopathic ADHD reveal elevated dopamine transporter density in striatum of patients, predicting abnormal response to a challenge with methylphenidate in this population. We hypothesized that the severity of attention deficit in adolescents ...
Cornette L G - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of punctate brain lesions in neonates (number, appearance, distribution, and association with other brain abnormalities) and to relate them to neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of 110 MRI brain scans from 92 infants admitted in 1998 to the ...
Relf Bronwyn L - - 2002
In situ hybridization (ISH) is used to examine the spatiotemporal distribution of gene expression in a range of tissues. Neuroscience research in human brain tissue requires techniques that can be used in formalin fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue rather than frozen tissue which is recommended, but difficult to obtain. This study ...
Prange Michael T - - 2002
The large strain mechanical properties of adult porcine gray and white matter brain tissues were measured in shear and confirmed in compression. Consistent with local neuroarchitecture, gray matter showed the least amount of anisotropy, and corpus callosum exhibited the greatest degree of anisotropy. Mean regional properties were significantly distinct, demonstrating ...
Persson Ingmar - - 2002
This paper presents a simple argument against definitions of the death of a human being in terms of death, or the cessation of functioning, of its brain: a human being is alive, and is capable of dying, before it acquires a brain. Although a more accurate definition is sketched, it ...
Schore Allan N - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This review integrates recent advances in attachment theory, affective neuroscience, developmental stress research, and infant psychiatry in order to delineate the developmental precursors of posttraumatic stress disorder. METHOD: Existing attachment, stress physiology, trauma, and neuroscience literatures were collected using Index Medicus/Medline and Psychological Abstracts. This converging interdisciplinary data was ...
Zhang Li Xin - - 2002
Prolonged separation from the mother can interfere with normal growth and development and is a significant risk factor for adult psychopathology. In rodents, separation of a pup from its mother increases the behavioral and endocrine responses to stress for the lifetime of the animal. Here we investigated whether maternal deprivation ...
Bouwmeester Hans - - 2002
Recently, an animal model for neurodevelopmental disorders has been developed. In this model, the effects of an early neonatal (postnatal day 7 [Pd 7]) basolateral amygdala lesion are compared with the effects of a lesion later in life (Pd 21). The reported data indicate that amygdala damage at a specific ...
Wijdicks Eelco F M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To survey brain death criteria throughout the world. BACKGROUND: The clinical diagnosis of brain death allows organ donation or withdrawal of support. Declaration of brain death follows a certain set of examinations. The code of practice throughout the world has not been systematically investigated. METHODS: Brain death guidelines in ...
Shalak Lina F - - 2002
Recent evidence points to an association between intrauterine infection and cerebral palsy (CP) in the preterm as well as the term infant. The mechanisms that link these two conditions are unclear. Chorioamnionitis is a common clinical problem complicating 5-10% of pregnancies, whereas the incidence of CP attributed to intrapartum asphyxia ...
Steiner I - - 2002
A male infant developed progressive neuromuscular disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and brain atrophy since the birth. Increased level of lactate with increased lactate/pyruvate ratio suggested a disturbance in the mitochondrial energy metabolism. The activities of respiratory chain complexes III, IV and II + III, of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and of citrate ...
Linnell Zenos M - - 2002
This paper presents details of the development of recursive thought from early infancy to early childhood. During this period the child is said to face the task of developing a "representational theory of mind." In earlier writings I have suggested eight developmental stages of modeling of mind emerging from brain ...
Thal D R - - 2002
The formation of amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid plaques and vascular amyloid deposits in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) consist of the beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) in association with other proteins. These Abeta-deposits can be visualized by thioflavin S, Congo red staining, silver staining methods and immunohistochemistry. ...
Gorski Roger A - - 2002
The results of more than four decades of research on different mammalian species have established that the brain, like the rest of the reproductive system, is esentially basically female. For the male to develop structural and functional characteristics typical of his species, his brain must be exposed to testicular hormones ...
Robertson N J - - 2001
Our aim was to assess brain myo-inositol/creatine plus phosphocreatine (Cr) in the first week in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy using localized short echo time proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and to relate this to measures of brain injury, specifically lactate/Cr in the first week, basal ganglia changes on magnetic resonance ...
Kanamori K - - 2001
[5-(13)C,(15)N]Glutamine, with (1)J((13)C-(15)N) of 16 Hz, was observed in vivo in the brain of spontaneously breathing rats by (13)C MRS at 4.7 T. The brain [5-(13)C]glutamine peak consisted of the doublet from [5-(13)C,(15)N]glutamine and the center [5-(13)C,(14)N]glutamine peak, resulting in an apparent triplet with a separation of 8 Hz. The ...
Modi N - - 2001
Antenatal glucocorticoid (GC) therapy improves infant outcome following preterm birth. As approximately 50% of women given a first course of antenatal GCs remain undelivered 7-14 d later, many clinicians administer further courses. GCs are known to be neurotoxic and there is concern that exposure during early development may have adverse ...
Choi C G - - 2001
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is a rare metabolic brain disease caused by deficient activity of the glycine cleavage system. Localized proton MR spectroscopy (echo-time 166 msec), performed in an infant with the typical clinical and biochemical features of neonatal NKH, showed a markedly increased peak intensity at 3.55 ppm, which was ...
Okumura A - - 2001
Abstract. The aim of this study is to clarify the timing of brain injuries in preterm infants who later developed West syndrome. We assessed the timing of brain insults with serial EEG recordings beginning immediately after birth in preterm infants less than 33 weeks of gestational age. The timing of ...
Dagi F T - - 2001
Definitions of death are based on subjective standards, priorities, and social conventions rather than on objective facts about the state of human physiology. It is the meaning assigned to the facts that determines when someone may be deemed to have died, not the facts themselves. Even though subjective standards for ...
Edwards H E - - 2001
Infants are subjected to both endogenous and exogenous corticosteroids in the pre- and postnatal periods. Stress to the mother before birth, or to the child postpartum, can give rise to high, chronic endogenous corticosteroid levels caused by activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Physician-administered exogenous corticosteroids are also used in ...
Wang Z J - - 2001
Brain edema may occur in infants with galactosemia and has been associated with accumulation of galactitol. Proton magnetic resonance spectra were obtained from 12 patients (four newly diagnosed neonates and eight patients on galactose-restricted diets, age range 1.7-47 years) and control subjects to measure brain galactitol levels in vivo and ...
Motooka Y - - 2001
The present study assessed the role of the cholinergic systems on the expression of perforant path long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal slices from the infant and adult brain. To denervate the cholinergic systems, 192 IgG--saporin was injected into the lateral ventricle of the infant (2-weeks-old) and adult (6-weeks-old) rat ...
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