Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 821
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Lyon Vivian - - 2004
The study aims to compare the utility of unadjusted with customised weight standards in the identification of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among unexplained stillborn infants undergoing postmortem examination. Unadjusted and customised birthweight centiles were determined for 51 unexplained stillborn infants undergoing perinatal autopsy. Unadjusted centiles were calculated from an ultrasonically ...
Wyatt John S - - 2005
Studies in encephalopathic infants have demonstrated a brief phase of normal cerebral energetics following hypoxia-ischaemia prior to development of delayed energy failure. In experimental models, mild hypothermia has shown a consistent neuroprotective action, although its efficacy is critically dependent on the severity of the primary insult, the delay in initiating ...
Ashwell K W S - - 2004
We have studied the distribution of the CD15 epitope in the developing brain of an Australian diprotodontid metatherian mammal, the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii), using immunohistochemistry in conjunction with hematoxylin and eosin staining. At the time of birth (28 days after conception), CD15 immunoreactivity labeled somata in the primordial ...
Cheour Marie - - 2004
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) detects the brain's magnetic fields as generated by neuronal electric currents arising from synaptic ion flow. It is noninvasive, has excellent temporal resolution, and it can localize neuronal activity with good precision. For these reasons, many scientists interested in the localization of brain functions have turned to MEG. ...
Ruiz Ramon L - - 2004
Contemporary surgical management of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis requires the combined expertise of a pediatric craniofacial surgeon and pediatric neurosurgeon. The goals of surgical intervention are the release of the affected suture, which allows for unrestricted development of the visceral components (eg, brain, eyes) and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skeletal components, which ...
Mori H - - 2004
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), a unique magnetic resonance technique for analysis of diffusion-anisotropy of the brain, can identify subtle white matter changes in vivo. To investigate changes of truncated neurofibers, DTI was conducted prior to and following functional hemispherectomy in a female infant for refractory epilepsy associated with hemimegalencephaly. Anisotropy of ...
Geddes J F - - 2004
In this article we reply to the recent critique by Punt et al. in Pediatric Rehabilitation. Our hypothesis about the pathogenesis of intracranial bleeding in infants has three important implications. First, in the case of an infant with a swollen brain, subdural and retinal haemorrhage but no objective evidence of ...
Coqueugniot H - - 2004
Humans differ from other primates in their significantly lengthened growth period. The persistence of a fetal pattern of brain growth after birth is another important feature of human development. Here we present the results of an analysis of the 1.8-million-year-old Mojokerto child (Perning 1, Java), the only well preserved skull ...
Friedman Smadar - - 2004
In recent years, scientific evidence has accumulated on the potential neuro-toxic effects of perinatal steroid therapy on the incompletely developed brain; therefore, much effort has been directed toward finding the optimal regimen that may reduce lung disease without incurring significant brain injury in fetuses and preterm infants. Current recommendations of ...
Becher J C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A proportion of neonatal deaths from asphyxia have been shown to be associated with pre-existing brain injury. OBJECTIVES: (a) To compare the epidemiology of infants displaying signs of birth asphyxia with those not showing signs; (b) to examine the neuropathology and determine if possible the timing of brain insult ...
Spinillo Arsenio - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of persistent (>7 days) increases in brain parenchymal echogenicity in preterm infants and their association with known obstetric risk factors. DESIGN: Case-control study of prospectively collected data. SETTING: A University hospital in Northern Italy. POPULATION: Eighty-five singleton infants between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation ...
Lin Henry C - - 2004
CONTEXT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects 11% to 14% of the population, is a puzzling condition with multiple models of pathophysiology including altered motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation. Although no conceptual framework accounts for all the symptoms and observations in IBS, a unifying ...
Surendran Sankar - - 2004
Aspartoacylase (ASPA)-deficient patients [Canavan disease (CD)] reportedly have increased urinary excretion of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide abundant in the brain. Whether elevated excretion of urinary NAAG is due to ASPA deficiency, resulting in an abnormal level of brain NAAG, is examined using ASPA-deficient mouse brain. The level of NAAG in ...
Fearon Paul - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To establish whether adults who were born very low birth weight (VLBW) show altered volumes of certain brain structures. METHODS: Unmatched case-control study was conducted of 33 individuals from a cohort of VLBW (<1500 g) infants who were born between 1966 and 1977 and 18 of their normal birth ...
de Graaf Marieke T - - 2004
Postural control, which is important for the development of all movement, balance, and locomotion, depends a great deal on the vestibulospinal component of vestibular function in early childhood. Vestibulospinal input is important for muscle power regulation, which, in turn, influences postural control. The aim of this study was to focus ...
Correa Flavia - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sonographic brain studies are classically performed through the anterior fontanelle, but visualization of posterior supratentorial and infratentorial structures is poor with this approach. Posterior fontanelle sonography is recommended for better assessment of these structures. Our purpose was 1) to determine whether sonography of the brain through the ...
Courchesne Eric - - 2004
We discuss evidence of brain maldevelopment in the first years of life in autism and new neuroanatomical and functional evidence from later ages of development. Head circumference, an accurate indicator of brain size in children, was reported to jump from normal or below normal size in the first postnatal months ...
Squier Waney - - 2004
Autopsy is invaluable in identifying the causes of severe depression and very low Apgar score after birth and in assessing contributory conditions. Brain scans are increasingly used in the care of neonates who fail to respond to resuscitation at birth but their interpretation depends on the information gained from sound ...
Strunk T - - 2004
There is a high incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and intraventricular haemorrhage in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Many die during the newborn period or suffer permanent neurodevelopmental handicaps. Hypoxic brain injury develops over several hours and could potentially be influenced by intervention. At present, no drug exists that ...
Roelants-van Rijn Ariadne M - - 2004
In the present study, we compared brain development and metabolism of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth retardation caused by placental insufficiency is associated with changes in cerebral metabolism and is followed by an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome ...
Filosto Massimiliano - - 2004
Focal spongy degeneration of the white matter and Purkinje cell loss were the neuropathological hallmarks in an infant with hepato-cerebral syndrome and a 4-bp GATT duplication (nucleotides 763-766) in exon 6 of the dGK gene. Liver disease became manifest in the first months of life and was followed by progressive ...
Lane Alan - - 2004
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a pregnant woman who experienced a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis resulting in brain death at 13 weeks gestation. We discuss the management of the mother and foetus following this tragic event. We also discuss the complex medical, legal and ethical issues that arose ...
Wang L W - - 2004
Major congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the brain, with significant prognostic implications have rarely been emphasised in apparently normal infants. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and types of major brain lesions in clinically normal term neonates using sonography. From January 1999 to December 2001, we examined 2309 ...
Als Heidelise - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of early experience on brain function and structure. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial tested the neurodevelopmental effectiveness of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Thirty preterm infants, 28 to 33 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and free of known developmental risk ...
Sundin-Huard Deborah - - 2004
The diagnosis of brain death as 'death' and organ transplantation have been closely historically linked since the mid twentieth century. It will be argued in this article that the development of a neurological definition of death was introduced to justify the removal of fresh viable organs for transplantation. Brain death ...
Yager Jerome Y - - 2004
Controversy continues over which animal model to use as a reflection of human disease states. With respect to perinatal brain disorders, scientists must contend with a disease in evolution. In that regard, the perinatal brain is at risk during a time of extremely rapid development and maturation, involving processes that ...
Lema Sean C - - 2004
Pupfishes in the Death Valley region of California and Nevada comprise a monophyletic group of populations that became isolated in remote streams and springs over the past 20,000 years. These aquatic habitats show considerable ecological diversity, and allopatric populations have evolved differences in morphology and behavior. Here we investigated whether ...
Dorff Elliot N - - 2004
Jewish law allows removal of life-support systems that are impeding the natural process of dying in a terminally ill patient, but it forbids hastening that process. The tradition measures death primarily in terms of cessation of respiration and, for some, cessation of heartbeat as well. Nevertheless, most, but not all, ...
Schmidt-Sidor Bogna - - 2004
During embryogenesis, about 40% of genes are involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). The same genes support the integrity and function of brain cells in humans. Birth defects cause different changes in genetic material during embryogenesis. They may also be responsible for precocious death of cells ...
Saugstad Letten F - - 2004
With optimal pregnancy conditions (natural, enriched diet which includes fish) African (Digo) infants are 3-4 weeks ahead of European/American infants in sensorimotor terms at birth, and during the first year. Infants of semi-aquatic sea-gypsies swim before they walk, and have superior visual acuity compared with us. With adverse pregnancy behaviour ...
Vorstman E B A - - 2003
Most intracranial haemorrhages in infants after the neonatal period are secondary to non-accidental injury. Occasionally brain haemorrhages in non-mobile infants are due to an inherited coagulopathy. This may often be diagnosed with a coagulation screen on admission. Little is known about the neurological outcome of infants in the latter group. ...
Nuñez Joseph L - - 2003
Premature infants are at an exceptionally high risk for brain injury, with damage resulting in permanent behavioral deficits. A contributing factor to the severity of brain injury is gender, with males more sensitive to insult than females. The role of gender and early hormonal environment in addressed in our novel ...
Ahuja S R - - 2003
A case of multiple giant congenital melanocytic naevi in whom central nervous system melanosis was detected at 6 weeks of age is described. The infant was asymptomatic, but presence of risk factors such as multiple naevi, giant naevi and naevi on scalp and posterior axial location prompted a magnetic resonance ...
Bush Melissa C - - 2003
Severe maternal neurologic injury during pregnancy has the potential for fetal demise without advanced critical care support to the mother. Brain death is the unequivocal and irreversible loss of total brain function, whereas patients in a vegetative state, by contrast, have preserved brain stem function but lack cerebral function. They ...
Wijdicks Eelco F M - - 2003
The Harvard ad hoc committee to examine the definition of brain death, chaired by anesthesiologist Beecher, published their report in 1968. Throughout the years, the committee has been a target of criticism. However, the workings of the ad hoc committee have not been carefully evaluated, and could provide insight into ...
Debillon T - - 2003
Although the fetal inflammatory response syndrome seems crucial to the association between intrauterine infection and white matter disease in human preterm infants, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using our previously described rabbit model of cerebral cell death in the white matter and hippocampus induced by intrauterine Escherichia coli infection, we ...
Hogan R Edward - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The authors review John Hughlings-Jackson's writings on the "dreamy state" and his subsequent derivation of degrees of consciousness. METHOD: They reviewed the publications of Hughlings-Jackson from his initial description of the "dreamy state" in 1876 until his writing about the "uncinate group of fits" in 1899. They then examined ...
Ha Jong Su - - 2004
Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter ...
Taga Gentaro - - 2003
Studies of young infants are critical to understand perceptual, motor, and cognitive processing in humans. However, brain mechanisms involved are poorly understood, because the use of brain-imaging methods such as functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake infants is difficult. In the present study we show functional brain imaging of awake ...
Counsell Serena J - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging is increasingly used to assess maturation and disease in the preterm brain. Knowledge of the changes in T2 values with increasing postmenstrual age (PMA) will aid image interpretation and help in the objective assessment of maturation and disease of the brain in infants. The aim ...
Sethi N K - - 2003
Brainstem death and brain death although practically same with regards to the concept of organ donation, remain technically different. Brain death mandates irreversible cessation of all the functions of the entire brain and brainstem while brainstem death signifies irreversible damage to the brainstem. As per the Indian law, brainstem death ...
Takamiya Masataka - - 2003
We encountered a case of acute gasoline intoxication at the scene of washing the inner wall of a petrol tank. The decedent was a 50-year-old male, who was the supervisor. Two young workers wearing mask respirators began to wash the inner wall of the gasoline tank under poor ventilation. About ...
Uauy Ricardo - - 2003
Dietary lipids have traditionally been considered as solely part of the exchangeable energy supply. The main consideration in infant nutrition has been the amount of fat that can be tolerated and digested by infants and young children. The significance of the composition of dietary fat has received little attention. Presently, ...
Vanhatalo Sampsa - - 2003
Recent postmortem studies have suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) might involve an underlying, gradual brain stem injury caused by repeated episodes of transiently compromised brain stem circulation. Autopsy studies have also reported that vertebral artery occlusion due to head rotations, such as occurs, e.g. during prone sleeping, would ...
Pfefferkorn Thomas - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) can be beneficial in ischemic stroke despite an increased risk of hemorrhage and potential neurotoxic effects. We hypothesized that rtPA-mediated adverse effects depend on the timing of reperfusion and injury to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). METHODS: Male Wistar rats had middle ...
Counsell Serena J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The most common finding on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in preterm infants at term-equivalent age is diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) in the white matter. It is unclear whether DEHSI represents a biological abnormality. This study used diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to compare apparent diffusion coefficient ...
Hebden Jeremy C - - 2003
New methods of imaging the oxygenation, hemodynamics, and metabolism of the newborn infant brain are being developed, based on illumination of the head with near-infrared light. Techniques known as optical topography and optical tomography have the potential to provide valuable information about the function of the normal brain, and about ...
Akisu Mete - - 2003
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains one of the most important neurologic complications in the newborn. Several experimental and clinical studies have shown that hypothermia is the most effective means known for protecting the brain against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Furthermore, recent data have suggested that platelet-activating factor (PAF) could play a pathophysiologically ...
Sargon M F - - 2003
In this study, the myelinated axons of the rostrum, genu, truncus and splenium parts of the corpus callosum and of the anterior, posterior and habenular commissures were counted in the rat brain by using a camera lucida. The numerical densities of these axons were compared with each other by means ...
Horstmann M - - 2003
A remarkable, intermittent sudden-onset vigilance and movement disorder in an exclusively breast-fed infant is reported, which was caused by cobalamin depletion due to maternal vitamin B12 malabsorption. The lack of cobalamin caused a severe encephalopathy in the infant, whose brain displayed a striking loss of volume and a delay of ...
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