Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 838
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Dammann Olaf - - 2005
Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, ...
Rosenberg J C - - 2005
From 1993 to 2003 there have been significant changes in the number and demographics of deceased donors referred to the organ procurement organization (OPO) in the state of Michigan (USA). It was the aim of this study to document the magnitude of these changes and attempt to explain them. There ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairments and academic failure are commonly reported in survivors of preterm birth. Recent studies suggest an important role for the cerebellum in the development of cognitive and social functions. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of prematurity itself, as well as prematurity-related brain injuries, ...
Kadhim Hazim - - 2005
Sudden infant death syndrome remains a leading cause of post-neonatal mortality in developed countries. Its etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. In this neuropathologic study, we noticed that the weights of the brains of infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome (n = 97) were invariably heavier in comparison with those ...
Bell J E - - 2005
Despite the clinical and medicolegal significance attached to perinatal asphyxia, the neuropathological basis of this condition remains obscure. There are very few studies in the literature which correlate the pathological findings in neonatal brains with detailed epidemiological data, and none which are population based. In a Scotland-wide study of neonatal ...
Vartzelis G - - 2005
Brain abscess is a rare complication of staphylococcal bacteremia in infants. Here we present a case of a premature infant who developed multiple brain abscesses 12 weeks following an episode of inadequately treated Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. The abscess developed in the absence of trauma, prior surgery, cyanotic heart disease, or ...
Schultz Seth J - - 2005
The role of complement in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is not known. Therefore, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem cerebral tissue were analyzed to determine whether complement is activated and complement component 9 (C9) is deposited on neurons in the central nervous systems (CNS) of newborn infants who developed moderate ...
Petreska, B.
Poster presented at the ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants, Maratea (Italy)
Gottstein B - - 2005
We addressed the question whether diaplacental transmission of Neospora caninum can be controlled by metaphylactic chemotherapy using toltrazuril or enrofloxacin. Female C57/BL6 mice, infected on day 10 of pregnancy, were medicated for 6 consecutive days p.i. with 52.5 mg toltrazuril or - as an out-group control medication--16.7 mg enrofloxacin per ...
Farragher Rachel A - - 2005
Brain death is a concept used in situations in which life-support equipment obscures the conventional cardiopulmonary criteria of death, and it is legally recognized in most countries worldwide. Brain death during pregnancy is an occasional and tragic occurrence. The mother and fetus are two distinct organisms, and the death of ...
Iannelli A - - 2005
Brain lesions due to dog bites are not frequent and mainly concern infants in the first years of their life because they are short in height, the size of the infant's head is relatively large compared to the body and the skull bones are thin. We report the case of ...
Aslin Richard N - - 2005
A recent workshop brought together a mix of researchers with expertise in optical physics, cerebral hemodynamics, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology to review the potential utility of near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) for studies of brain activity underlying cognitive processing in human infants. We summarize the key findings that emerged from this ...
Becher J-C - - 2005
The different alleles of the human apolipoprotein E polymorphism, ApoE epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4, have important implications for systemic lipid metabolism, immunological function and for the brain in maintenance and in response to injury. Few studies have focussed on their role in early life. The ApoE alleles and genotypes were ascertained ...
Hermanussen M - - 2005
AIM: To discuss a hypothesis regarding the impact and possible side effects of glutamate in paediatric parenteral nutrition. RESULTS: Published evidence suggests that the arcuate nucleus, which is a potent site of leptin action, is severely damaged by elevated glutamate levels. Early administration of glutamate (GLU) to the neonatal rat ...
Bracco L - - 2005
This study investigated the contribution that white matter changes (WMCs) make to clinical and cognitive features in Alzheimer's disease (AD), independently of possible confounders such as cortical atrophy and the apolipoprotein E genotype as well as their relationship to vascular risk factors. We semiquantitatively assessed the degree and location of ...
Lyon Vivian - - 2004
The study aims to compare the utility of unadjusted with customised weight standards in the identification of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) among unexplained stillborn infants undergoing postmortem examination. Unadjusted and customised birthweight centiles were determined for 51 unexplained stillborn infants undergoing perinatal autopsy. Unadjusted centiles were calculated from an ultrasonically ...
Wyatt John S - - 2005
Studies in encephalopathic infants have demonstrated a brief phase of normal cerebral energetics following hypoxia-ischaemia prior to development of delayed energy failure. In experimental models, mild hypothermia has shown a consistent neuroprotective action, although its efficacy is critically dependent on the severity of the primary insult, the delay in initiating ...
Ashwell K W S - - 2004
We have studied the distribution of the CD15 epitope in the developing brain of an Australian diprotodontid metatherian mammal, the tammar wallaby ( Macropus eugenii), using immunohistochemistry in conjunction with hematoxylin and eosin staining. At the time of birth (28 days after conception), CD15 immunoreactivity labeled somata in the primordial ...
Cheour Marie - - 2004
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) detects the brain's magnetic fields as generated by neuronal electric currents arising from synaptic ion flow. It is noninvasive, has excellent temporal resolution, and it can localize neuronal activity with good precision. For these reasons, many scientists interested in the localization of brain functions have turned to MEG. ...
Ruiz Ramon L - - 2004
Contemporary surgical management of nonsyndromic craniosynostosis requires the combined expertise of a pediatric craniofacial surgeon and pediatric neurosurgeon. The goals of surgical intervention are the release of the affected suture, which allows for unrestricted development of the visceral components (eg, brain, eyes) and three-dimensional reconstruction of the skeletal components, which ...
Mori H - - 2004
Diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI), a unique magnetic resonance technique for analysis of diffusion-anisotropy of the brain, can identify subtle white matter changes in vivo. To investigate changes of truncated neurofibers, DTI was conducted prior to and following functional hemispherectomy in a female infant for refractory epilepsy associated with hemimegalencephaly. Anisotropy of ...
Geddes J F - - 2004
In this article we reply to the recent critique by Punt et al. in Pediatric Rehabilitation. Our hypothesis about the pathogenesis of intracranial bleeding in infants has three important implications. First, in the case of an infant with a swollen brain, subdural and retinal haemorrhage but no objective evidence of ...
Coqueugniot H - - 2004
Humans differ from other primates in their significantly lengthened growth period. The persistence of a fetal pattern of brain growth after birth is another important feature of human development. Here we present the results of an analysis of the 1.8-million-year-old Mojokerto child (Perning 1, Java), the only well preserved skull ...
Friedman Smadar - - 2004
In recent years, scientific evidence has accumulated on the potential neuro-toxic effects of perinatal steroid therapy on the incompletely developed brain; therefore, much effort has been directed toward finding the optimal regimen that may reduce lung disease without incurring significant brain injury in fetuses and preterm infants. Current recommendations of ...
Becher J C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: A proportion of neonatal deaths from asphyxia have been shown to be associated with pre-existing brain injury. OBJECTIVES: (a) To compare the epidemiology of infants displaying signs of birth asphyxia with those not showing signs; (b) to examine the neuropathology and determine if possible the timing of brain insult ...
Spinillo Arsenio - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of persistent (>7 days) increases in brain parenchymal echogenicity in preterm infants and their association with known obstetric risk factors. DESIGN: Case-control study of prospectively collected data. SETTING: A University hospital in Northern Italy. POPULATION: Eighty-five singleton infants between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation ...
Lin Henry C HC Division of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles 90033, USA. - - 2004
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which affects 11% to 14% of the population, is a puzzling condition with multiple models of pathophysiology including altered motility, visceral hypersensitivity, abnormal brain-gut interaction, autonomic dysfunction, and immune activation. Although no conceptual framework accounts for all the symptoms and observations in IBS, a unifying explanation ...
Surendran Sankar - - 2004
Aspartoacylase (ASPA)-deficient patients [Canavan disease (CD)] reportedly have increased urinary excretion of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide abundant in the brain. Whether elevated excretion of urinary NAAG is due to ASPA deficiency, resulting in an abnormal level of brain NAAG, is examined using ASPA-deficient mouse brain. The level of NAAG in ...
Fearon Paul - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To establish whether adults who were born very low birth weight (VLBW) show altered volumes of certain brain structures. METHODS: Unmatched case-control study was conducted of 33 individuals from a cohort of VLBW (<1500 g) infants who were born between 1966 and 1977 and 18 of their normal birth ...
de Graaf Marieke T - - 2004
Postural control, which is important for the development of all movement, balance, and locomotion, depends a great deal on the vestibulospinal component of vestibular function in early childhood. Vestibulospinal input is important for muscle power regulation, which, in turn, influences postural control. The aim of this study was to focus ...
Correa Flavia - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Sonographic brain studies are classically performed through the anterior fontanelle, but visualization of posterior supratentorial and infratentorial structures is poor with this approach. Posterior fontanelle sonography is recommended for better assessment of these structures. Our purpose was 1) to determine whether sonography of the brain through the ...
Courchesne Eric - - 2004
We discuss evidence of brain maldevelopment in the first years of life in autism and new neuroanatomical and functional evidence from later ages of development. Head circumference, an accurate indicator of brain size in children, was reported to jump from normal or below normal size in the first postnatal months ...
Squier Waney - - 2004
Autopsy is invaluable in identifying the causes of severe depression and very low Apgar score after birth and in assessing contributory conditions. Brain scans are increasingly used in the care of neonates who fail to respond to resuscitation at birth but their interpretation depends on the information gained from sound ...
Strunk T - - 2004
There is a high incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury and intraventricular haemorrhage in newborn infants, particularly those born preterm. Many die during the newborn period or suffer permanent neurodevelopmental handicaps. Hypoxic brain injury develops over several hours and could potentially be influenced by intervention. At present, no drug exists that ...
Roelants-van Rijn Ariadne M - - 2004
In the present study, we compared brain development and metabolism of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). We tested the hypothesis that intrauterine growth retardation caused by placental insufficiency is associated with changes in cerebral metabolism and is followed by an adverse neurodevelopmental outcome ...
Filosto Massimiliano - - 2004
Focal spongy degeneration of the white matter and Purkinje cell loss were the neuropathological hallmarks in an infant with hepato-cerebral syndrome and a 4-bp GATT duplication (nucleotides 763-766) in exon 6 of the dGK gene. Liver disease became manifest in the first months of life and was followed by progressive ...
Lane Alan - - 2004
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a pregnant woman who experienced a cerebral venous sinus thrombosis resulting in brain death at 13 weeks gestation. We discuss the management of the mother and foetus following this tragic event. We also discuss the complex medical, legal and ethical issues that arose ...
Wang L W - - 2004
Major congenital or acquired structural abnormalities of the brain, with significant prognostic implications have rarely been emphasised in apparently normal infants. Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence and types of major brain lesions in clinically normal term neonates using sonography. From January 1999 to December 2001, we examined 2309 ...
Als Heidelise - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of early experience on brain function and structure. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial tested the neurodevelopmental effectiveness of the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP). Thirty preterm infants, 28 to 33 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and free of known developmental risk ...
Sundin-Huard Deborah - - 2004
The diagnosis of brain death as 'death' and organ transplantation have been closely historically linked since the mid twentieth century. It will be argued in this article that the development of a neurological definition of death was introduced to justify the removal of fresh viable organs for transplantation. Brain death ...
Yager Jerome Y - - 2004
Controversy continues over which animal model to use as a reflection of human disease states. With respect to perinatal brain disorders, scientists must contend with a disease in evolution. In that regard, the perinatal brain is at risk during a time of extremely rapid development and maturation, involving processes that ...
Lema Sean C - - 2004
Pupfishes in the Death Valley region of California and Nevada comprise a monophyletic group of populations that became isolated in remote streams and springs over the past 20,000 years. These aquatic habitats show considerable ecological diversity, and allopatric populations have evolved differences in morphology and behavior. Here we investigated whether ...
Dorff Elliot N - - 2004
Jewish law allows removal of life-support systems that are impeding the natural process of dying in a terminally ill patient, but it forbids hastening that process. The tradition measures death primarily in terms of cessation of respiration and, for some, cessation of heartbeat as well. Nevertheless, most, but not all, ...
Schmidt-Sidor Bogna - - 2004
During embryogenesis, about 40% of genes are involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). The same genes support the integrity and function of brain cells in humans. Birth defects cause different changes in genetic material during embryogenesis. They may also be responsible for precocious death of cells ...
Saugstad Letten F - - 2004
With optimal pregnancy conditions (natural, enriched diet which includes fish) African (Digo) infants are 3-4 weeks ahead of European/American infants in sensorimotor terms at birth, and during the first year. Infants of semi-aquatic sea-gypsies swim before they walk, and have superior visual acuity compared with us. With adverse pregnancy behaviour ...
Vorstman E B A - - 2003
Most intracranial haemorrhages in infants after the neonatal period are secondary to non-accidental injury. Occasionally brain haemorrhages in non-mobile infants are due to an inherited coagulopathy. This may often be diagnosed with a coagulation screen on admission. Little is known about the neurological outcome of infants in the latter group. ...
Nuñez Joseph L - - 2003
Premature infants are at an exceptionally high risk for brain injury, with damage resulting in permanent behavioral deficits. A contributing factor to the severity of brain injury is gender, with males more sensitive to insult than females. The role of gender and early hormonal environment in addressed in our novel ...
Ahuja S R - - 2003
A case of multiple giant congenital melanocytic naevi in whom central nervous system melanosis was detected at 6 weeks of age is described. The infant was asymptomatic, but presence of risk factors such as multiple naevi, giant naevi and naevi on scalp and posterior axial location prompted a magnetic resonance ...
Bush Melissa C - - 2003
Severe maternal neurologic injury during pregnancy has the potential for fetal demise without advanced critical care support to the mother. Brain death is the unequivocal and irreversible loss of total brain function, whereas patients in a vegetative state, by contrast, have preserved brain stem function but lack cerebral function. They ...
Wijdicks Eelco F M - - 2003
The Harvard ad hoc committee to examine the definition of brain death, chaired by anesthesiologist Beecher, published their report in 1968. Throughout the years, the committee has been a target of criticism. However, the workings of the ad hoc committee have not been carefully evaluated, and could provide insight into ...
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