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Results 251 - 300 of 836
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Zacharia A - - 2006
PURPOSE: We evaluated the impact of premature extrauterine life on brain maturation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve neonates underwent MR imaging at 40 (39.64 +/- 0.98) weeks (full term). Fifteen premature infants underwent 2 MR imaging examinations, after birth (preterm at birth) and at 40 weeks (41.03 +/- 1.33) (preterm at ...
El-Khoury Nadine - - 2006
Astrocyte end-feet ensheathe blood vessels in the brain and are believed to provide structural integrity to the cerebral vasculature. We sought to determine in developing infants whether the coverage of blood vessels by astrocyte end-feet is decreased in germinal matrix (GM) compared with cerebral cortex and white matter (WM), which ...
Slotkin Theodore A - - 2006
Glucocorticoid administration to preterm infants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We treated developing rats with dexamethasone (Dex) at 0.05, 0.2, or 0.8 mg/kg, doses below or spanning the range in clinical use, testing the effects of administration during three different stages: gestational days 17-19, postnatal days 1-3 or postnatal days ...
Korsten Alex - - 2006
The development of cerebellar folia of third-trimester preterms has not been described with ultrasound before. We set out to determine normal development of the pons and cerebellar folia for future measurements of hypoplasia and atrophy. Study sonograms were made in preterms admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with postmenstrual ...
Tint G S GS Research Service, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, East Orange, NJ 07018, USA. - - 2006
Mice with a targeted mutation of 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase (Dhcr7) that cannot convert 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol were used to identify the origin of fetal sterols. Because their heterozygous mothers synthesize cholesterol normally, virtually all sterols found in a Dhcr7 knockout fetus having a Delta(7) or a Delta(8) double bond must have ...
Abels Lyanne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. ...
Fuchs Hans - - 2006
Invasive aspergillosis is a rare condition in term and preterm infants. We present here the fatal case of a 28-week gestational age preterm baby who developed pulmonary, hepatic and central nervous system aspergillosis during the first days of life. A hyperechogenic lesion adjacent to the lateral ventricle was diagnosed by ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2006
We previously suggested that antenatal pestivirus infection might play a role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain white matter damage (WMD) in preterm infants. We have now examined 22 brains from stillborns and deceased newborns (both preterm and term) for the presence of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen. The ...
Badr Zahr Lina Kurdahi - - 2006
Although neonatal brain injury occurs most frequently after a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult, recently studies have noted that variable causes such as metabolic and reperfusion events can result in, or aggravate, a brain insult. Current data suggest that about 2 to 5 of 1,000 live births in the United States and ...
Kinney Hannah C - - 2006
Historically the major focus in neonatal neurology has been on brain injury in premature infants born less than 30 gestational weeks. This focus reflects the urgent need to improve the widely recognized poor neurological outcomes that occur in these infants. The most common underlying substrate of cerebral palsy in these ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2006
Antenatal intrauterine infection and the fetal inflammatory response appear to be important pathogenetic factors in preterm birth and subsequent neonatal disorders of the lung and brain. In this paper, we expand this concept to include visual dysfunction. Although present data tend to support our notion, we suggest that more experimental ...
Dorman David C - - 2006
There is increased interest within the scientific community concerning the neurotoxicity of manganese owing in part to the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a gasoline fuel additive and an enhanced awareness that this essential metal may play a role in hepatic encephalopathy and other neurologic diseases. Neurotoxicity generally ...
Benders M J N L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether postnatal allopurinol would reduce free radical induced reperfusion/reoxygenation injury of the brain in severely asphyxiated neonates. METHOD: In an interim analysis of a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study, 32 severely asphyxiated infants were given allopurinol or a vehicle within four hours of birth. RESULTS: The ...
Dubois J - - 2006
The human infant is particularly immature at birth and brain maturation, with the myelination of white matter fibers, is protracted until adulthood. Diffusion tensor imaging offers the possibility to describe non invasively the fascicles spatial organization at an early stage and to follow the cerebral maturation with quantitative parameters that ...
Guan Yabo - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to develop an automating meshing method for patient-specific modeling. Three-dimensional geometries of two six-month-old infant heads were reconstructed from the CT data. Finite element meshes including cranial bone of skull, brain, and suture were generated. Both static and dynamic analyses were performed to verify ...
Souza João P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Medical literature has increasingly reported cases of maternal brain death during pregnancy. This is a rare situation which demands the decision and, depending on the gestational age, the implementation of a set of measures to prolong the homeostasis of the human body after brain death for the purpose of ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2006
Neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone are potent agonists at the GABA(A) receptor and suppress the fetal CNS activity. These steroids are synthesized in the fetal brain either from cholesterol or from circulating precursors derived from the placenta. The concentrations of allopregnanolone are remarkably high in the fetal brain and rise further ...
Kreyling Wolfgang G - - 2006
Epidemiological studies continue to indicate associations between exposure to increased concentrations of ambient fine and ultrafine particles and adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. The ultrafine particle fraction in the ambient atmosphere seems to play a specific role. Yet, the dosimetry (including deposition patterns in the respiratory tract and, particularly, ...
Baier Ronald John - - 2006
Due to developmental immaturity of the central nervous system, effects of an adverse intrauterine environment and need for intensive care postnatally, preterm infants are at high risk of sustaining brain injury in the perinatal period. Infants who suffer brain injury in the perinatal period are at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental ...
de Graaf-Peters Victorine B - - 2006
The present paper reviews current data on the structural development of the human nervous system. Focus is on the timing of ontogenetic events in the telencephalon. Neuronal proliferation and migration especially occur during the first half of gestation; the second half of gestation is the period of the existence of ...
Lee John - - 2006
Both 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) isoforms are abundantly expressed in myelinating cells. CNP2 differs from CNP1 by a 20 amino acid N-terminal extension and is also expressed at much lower levels in non-myelinating tissues. The functional role of CNP2, apart from CNP1, and the significance for CNP2 expression in non-myelinating tissues ...
Azoulay Robin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. OBJECTIVE: To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain ...
Chan Julie Y H - - 2005
As much as brain stem death is currently the clinical definition of death in many countries and is a phenomenon of paramount medical importance, there is a dearth of information on its mechanistic underpinnings. A majority of the clinical studies are concerned only with methods to determine brain stem death. ...
Horsch Sandra - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia are associated with poor outcome of very preterm infants, while the role of more subtle cerebral alterations, as detected by cranial ultrasound, is less clear. AIM: In this study, we related periventricular echodensities and signs of brain atrophy to neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 y ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2005
In the current study, we examined 7-month-old infants' processing of emotional prosody using event-related brain potentials. Infants heard semantically neutral words that were spoken with either a happy, angry, or neutral voice. The event-related brain potential data revealed that angry prosody elicited a more negative response in infants' event-related potentials ...
Manjarrez Gabriel - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the free fraction of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and the N1/P2 component of the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are associated with impaired brain serotonin neurotransmission in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: We measured free, bound, and total plasma L-Trp and recorded the N1/P2 component of ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2005
This study investigates the expression of some neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor) in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants suffering from idiopathic congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and determines their correlations with this syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from three infants suffering from idiopathic ...
Das Asha - - 2005
In this report the authors describe the clinical features of a rare neonatal anaplastic astrocytoma in the setting of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The infant had been conceived using IVF and was born full term to a 29-year-old prima gravida mother. At birth, the baby boy was irritable and demonstrated ...
Moriceau Stephanie S Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, 73019, - - 2005
A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to ...
Kinney Hannah C - - 2005
Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease is performed increasingly earlier in infancy, including in the neonatal period. With increased survival of infants, there is growing concern about the long-term neurological sequelae of hypoxic-ischemic injury due to congenital heart disease itself prior to surgery, corrective surgery with the use of low-flow ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Advanced neuroimaging techniques have brought increasing recognition of cerebellar injury among premature infants. The developmental relationship between early brain injury and effects on the cerebrum and cerebellum remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether cerebral parenchymal brain lesions among preterm infants are associated with subsequent decreases in cerebellar volume and, ...
Berman Jeffrey I - - 2005
Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) fiber tracking is the first non-invasive and in vivo technique for the delineation and quantitation of specific white matter pathways. In this study, quantitative fiber tracking was used to assess the structural development of the motor tract and somatosensory radiation in premature human newborns. These pathways ...
Rutherford Mary A - - 2005
Hypothermia induced by whole-body cooling (WBC) and selective head cooling (SHC) both reduce brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn animals, but it is not known how these treatments affect the incidence or pattern of brain injury in human newborns. To assess this, 14 term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2005
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries in childhood are associated with poor neurological outcome. Unfortunately, no new therapeutic approaches have been proposed. Recently, animal studies show that nerve growth factor (NGF) can reduce neurological deficits following hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the therapeutic effects ...
Fonseca Duane B - - 2005
We present the results of the first quantitative, whole-lifespan study of the relationship between age-specific neurolipofuscin concentration and natural mortality rate in any organism. In a convenient laboratory animal, the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we find an unusual delayed-onset neurolipofuscin accumulation pattern that is highly correlated with exponentially accelerating ...
Messerschmidt Agnes - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infants with very low birth weight are at high risk for cerebral lesions. Although supratentorial brain damage is a common radiologic finding, posterior fossa pathologies are rare. We studied the morphology of cerebellar involvement in a large series of 28 premature infants born before the 30th week ...
Kornreich Liora - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thiamine deficiency is extremely rare in infants in developed countries. To our knowledge, its MR findings in the brain have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain MR findings in infants with encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency. METHODS: The study group ...
Weinstein Michael - - 2005
We describe the second case of congenital disorder of glycosylation type IL (CDG-IL) caused by deficiency of the ALG9 a1,2 mannosyltransferase enzyme. The female infant's features included psychomotor retardation, seizures, hypotonia, diffuse brain atrophy with delayed myelination, failure to thrive, pericardial effusion, cystic renal disease, hepatosplenomegaly, esotropia, and inverted nipples. ...
Curley James P - - 2005
Recent studies of monogamous species have revealed the role of the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in activating reward mechanisms of the brain that are involved in establishing partner recognition and selective 'bonding'. The evolutionary history of these findings resides, at a mechanistic level, in the reciprocal bonding between mother and ...
Elleder M - - 2005
An infant presented with multifocal myoclonus and cyanotic hypoxemia immediately after birth, and severe feeding problems, a protein-losing enteropathy, massive ascites and grand-mal epilepsy marked his rapid downhill course, with death at 17 weeks. At 2 weeks, brain MRI revealed grey matter heterotopias in the parieto-occipital regions suggestive of a ...
Cross Fiona R - - 2005
Simple heuristics may help explain how even a spider, despite its minute brain, can be disturbingly intelligent. Hutchinson and Gigerenzer suggest that the generalist-specialist distinction (or more accurately the predictability-unpredictability distinction) may be related to a species' level of reliance on simple heuristics, and spider behaviour may present some especially ...
Chang Yun Sil - - 2005
Neonatal stroke is a condition that leads to disability in later life, and as yet there is no effective treatment. Recently, erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be cytoprotective following brain injury and may promote neurogenesis. However, the effect of EPO on functional outcome and on morphologic changes in neonatal ...
El-Watidy Sherif - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To document the outcome of bifrontal decompressive craniotomy (BDC) in an infant who developed refractory intracranial hypertension (IH) and massive brain infarction following severe head injury. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old girl sustained a severe closed head injury in a car accident. Her Glasgow coma score dropped from 10 to ...
Roth Tania L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: While children form an attachment to their abusive caregiver, they are susceptible to mental illness and brain abnormalities. To understand this important clinical issue, we have developed a rat animal model of abusive attachment where odor paired with shock paradoxically produces an odor preference. Here, we extend this model ...
Falk Dean - - 2005
The brain of Homo floresiensis was assessed by comparing a virtual endocast from the type specimen (LB1) with endocasts from great apes, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, a human pygmy, a human microcephalic, specimen number Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus), and specimen number WT 17000 (Paranthropus aethiopicus). Morphometric, allometric, and shape data ...
de Laveaucoupet Jocelyne - - 2005
We report two cases in the same family of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood--Alpers syndrome--with prenatal MRI findings in one case. The first infant presented at birth with severe microcephaly, then rapidly evolved to progressive encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy, leading to death at 10 months. Biochemical investigations including liver function ...
Thoresen Marianne - - 2005
This review examines recent findings from experimental models and clinical trials of induced hypothermia as treatment after cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia in term newborn infants. Experimental hypothermia inhibits many steps in the biochemical cascade that produces severe brain injury after hypoxia-ischaemia. This is in contrast to pharmacological agents, which tend to target ...
Fonseca-Aten Monica - - 2005
Cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was recognized at 19 days of age in a 1415-g female infant born at 31 weeks of gestation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative, and MRI of the brain was normal. After a 14-day course of high-dose intravenous ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2005
Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, ...
Rosenberg J C - - 2005
From 1993 to 2003 there have been significant changes in the number and demographics of deceased donors referred to the organ procurement organization (OPO) in the state of Michigan (USA). It was the aim of this study to document the magnitude of these changes and attempt to explain them. There ...
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