Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 821
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Dubois J - - 2006
The human infant is particularly immature at birth and brain maturation, with the myelination of white matter fibers, is protracted until adulthood. Diffusion tensor imaging offers the possibility to describe non invasively the fascicles spatial organization at an early stage and to follow the cerebral maturation with quantitative parameters that ...
Guan Yabo - - 2006
The purpose of this study was to develop an automating meshing method for patient-specific modeling. Three-dimensional geometries of two six-month-old infant heads were reconstructed from the CT data. Finite element meshes including cranial bone of skull, brain, and suture were generated. Both static and dynamic analyses were performed to verify ...
Souza João P - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Medical literature has increasingly reported cases of maternal brain death during pregnancy. This is a rare situation which demands the decision and, depending on the gestational age, the implementation of a set of measures to prolong the homeostasis of the human body after brain death for the purpose of ...
Hirst Jonathan J - - 2006
Neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone are potent agonists at the GABA(A) receptor and suppress the fetal CNS activity. These steroids are synthesized in the fetal brain either from cholesterol or from circulating precursors derived from the placenta. The concentrations of allopregnanolone are remarkably high in the fetal brain and rise further ...
Kreyling Wolfgang G - - 2006
Epidemiological studies continue to indicate associations between exposure to increased concentrations of ambient fine and ultrafine particles and adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. The ultrafine particle fraction in the ambient atmosphere seems to play a specific role. Yet, the dosimetry (including deposition patterns in the respiratory tract and, particularly, ...
Baier Ronald John - - 2006
Due to developmental immaturity of the central nervous system, effects of an adverse intrauterine environment and need for intensive care postnatally, preterm infants are at high risk of sustaining brain injury in the perinatal period. Infants who suffer brain injury in the perinatal period are at risk for long-term neurodevelopmental ...
de Graaf-Peters Victorine B - - 2006
The present paper reviews current data on the structural development of the human nervous system. Focus is on the timing of ontogenetic events in the telencephalon. Neuronal proliferation and migration especially occur during the first half of gestation; the second half of gestation is the period of the existence of ...
Lee John - - 2006
Both 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) isoforms are abundantly expressed in myelinating cells. CNP2 differs from CNP1 by a 20 amino acid N-terminal extension and is also expressed at much lower levels in non-myelinating tissues. The functional role of CNP2, apart from CNP1, and the significance for CNP2 expression in non-myelinating tissues ...
Azoulay Robin - - 2006
BACKGROUND: There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. OBJECTIVE: To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain ...
Chan Julie Y H - - 2005
As much as brain stem death is currently the clinical definition of death in many countries and is a phenomenon of paramount medical importance, there is a dearth of information on its mechanistic underpinnings. A majority of the clinical studies are concerned only with methods to determine brain stem death. ...
Horsch Sandra - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Intraventricular haemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia are associated with poor outcome of very preterm infants, while the role of more subtle cerebral alterations, as detected by cranial ultrasound, is less clear. AIM: In this study, we related periventricular echodensities and signs of brain atrophy to neurodevelopmental outcome at 3 y ...
Grossmann Tobias - - 2005
In the current study, we examined 7-month-old infants' processing of emotional prosody using event-related brain potentials. Infants heard semantically neutral words that were spoken with either a happy, angry, or neutral voice. The event-related brain potential data revealed that angry prosody elicited a more negative response in infants' event-related potentials ...
Manjarrez Gabriel - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the free fraction of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and the N1/P2 component of the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are associated with impaired brain serotonin neurotransmission in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). STUDY DESIGN: We measured free, bound, and total plasma L-Trp and recorded the N1/P2 component of ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2005
This study investigates the expression of some neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, and nerve growth factor) in the cerebrospinal fluid of infants suffering from idiopathic congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and determines their correlations with this syndrome. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from three infants suffering from idiopathic ...
Das Asha - - 2005
In this report the authors describe the clinical features of a rare neonatal anaplastic astrocytoma in the setting of in vitro fertilization (IVF). The infant had been conceived using IVF and was born full term to a 29-year-old prima gravida mother. At birth, the baby boy was irritable and demonstrated ...
Moriceau Stephanie - - 2005
A strong attachment to the caregiver is critical for survival in altricial species, including humans. While some behavioral aspects of attachment have been characterized, its neurobiology has only recently received attention. Using a mammalian imprinting model, we are assessing the neural circuitry that enables infant rats to attach quickly to ...
Kinney Hannah C - - 2005
Cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease is performed increasingly earlier in infancy, including in the neonatal period. With increased survival of infants, there is growing concern about the long-term neurological sequelae of hypoxic-ischemic injury due to congenital heart disease itself prior to surgery, corrective surgery with the use of low-flow ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Advanced neuroimaging techniques have brought increasing recognition of cerebellar injury among premature infants. The developmental relationship between early brain injury and effects on the cerebrum and cerebellum remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether cerebral parenchymal brain lesions among preterm infants are associated with subsequent decreases in cerebellar volume and, ...
Berman Jeffrey I - - 2005
Diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) fiber tracking is the first non-invasive and in vivo technique for the delineation and quantitation of specific white matter pathways. In this study, quantitative fiber tracking was used to assess the structural development of the motor tract and somatosensory radiation in premature human newborns. These pathways ...
Rutherford Mary A - - 2005
Hypothermia induced by whole-body cooling (WBC) and selective head cooling (SHC) both reduce brain injury after hypoxia-ischemia in newborn animals, but it is not known how these treatments affect the incidence or pattern of brain injury in human newborns. To assess this, 14 term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2005
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries in childhood are associated with poor neurological outcome. Unfortunately, no new therapeutic approaches have been proposed. Recently, animal studies show that nerve growth factor (NGF) can reduce neurological deficits following hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the therapeutic effects ...
Fonseca Duane B - - 2005
We present the results of the first quantitative, whole-lifespan study of the relationship between age-specific neurolipofuscin concentration and natural mortality rate in any organism. In a convenient laboratory animal, the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria, we find an unusual delayed-onset neurolipofuscin accumulation pattern that is highly correlated with exponentially accelerating ...
Messerschmidt Agnes - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infants with very low birth weight are at high risk for cerebral lesions. Although supratentorial brain damage is a common radiologic finding, posterior fossa pathologies are rare. We studied the morphology of cerebellar involvement in a large series of 28 premature infants born before the 30th week ...
Kornreich Liora - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thiamine deficiency is extremely rare in infants in developed countries. To our knowledge, its MR findings in the brain have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the brain MR findings in infants with encephalopathy due to thiamine deficiency. METHODS: The study group ...
Weinstein Michael - - 2005
We describe the second case of congenital disorder of glycosylation type IL (CDG-IL) caused by deficiency of the ALG9 a1,2 mannosyltransferase enzyme. The female infant's features included psychomotor retardation, seizures, hypotonia, diffuse brain atrophy with delayed myelination, failure to thrive, pericardial effusion, cystic renal disease, hepatosplenomegaly, esotropia, and inverted nipples. ...
Curley James P - - 2005
Recent studies of monogamous species have revealed the role of the neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin in activating reward mechanisms of the brain that are involved in establishing partner recognition and selective 'bonding'. The evolutionary history of these findings resides, at a mechanistic level, in the reciprocal bonding between mother and ...
Elleder M - - 2005
An infant presented with multifocal myoclonus and cyanotic hypoxemia immediately after birth, and severe feeding problems, a protein-losing enteropathy, massive ascites and grand-mal epilepsy marked his rapid downhill course, with death at 17 weeks. At 2 weeks, brain MRI revealed grey matter heterotopias in the parieto-occipital regions suggestive of a ...
Cross Fiona R - - 2005
Simple heuristics may help explain how even a spider, despite its minute brain, can be disturbingly intelligent. Hutchinson and Gigerenzer suggest that the generalist-specialist distinction (or more accurately the predictability-unpredictability distinction) may be related to a species' level of reliance on simple heuristics, and spider behaviour may present some especially ...
Chang Yun Sil - - 2005
Neonatal stroke is a condition that leads to disability in later life, and as yet there is no effective treatment. Recently, erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to be cytoprotective following brain injury and may promote neurogenesis. However, the effect of EPO on functional outcome and on morphologic changes in neonatal ...
El-Watidy Sherif - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To document the outcome of bifrontal decompressive craniotomy (BDC) in an infant who developed refractory intracranial hypertension (IH) and massive brain infarction following severe head injury. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 6-month-old girl sustained a severe closed head injury in a car accident. Her Glasgow coma score dropped from 10 to ...
Roth Tania L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: While children form an attachment to their abusive caregiver, they are susceptible to mental illness and brain abnormalities. To understand this important clinical issue, we have developed a rat animal model of abusive attachment where odor paired with shock paradoxically produces an odor preference. Here, we extend this model ...
Falk Dean - - 2005
The brain of Homo floresiensis was assessed by comparing a virtual endocast from the type specimen (LB1) with endocasts from great apes, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, a human pygmy, a human microcephalic, specimen number Sts 5 (Australopithecus africanus), and specimen number WT 17000 (Paranthropus aethiopicus). Morphometric, allometric, and shape data ...
de Laveaucoupet Jocelyne - - 2005
We report two cases in the same family of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood--Alpers syndrome--with prenatal MRI findings in one case. The first infant presented at birth with severe microcephaly, then rapidly evolved to progressive encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy, leading to death at 10 months. Biochemical investigations including liver function ...
Thoresen Marianne - - 2005
This review examines recent findings from experimental models and clinical trials of induced hypothermia as treatment after cerebral hypoxia-ischaemia in term newborn infants. Experimental hypothermia inhibits many steps in the biochemical cascade that produces severe brain injury after hypoxia-ischaemia. This is in contrast to pharmacological agents, which tend to target ...
Fonseca-Aten Monica - - 2005
Cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection was recognized at 19 days of age in a 1415-g female infant born at 31 weeks of gestation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HSV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was negative, and MRI of the brain was normal. After a 14-day course of high-dose intravenous ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2005
Compared with those born at term, preterm newborns are at an increased risk of short term disorders of the lung (bronchopulmonary dysplasia; BPD) and the brain (white matter damage; WMD), and of long term developmental and pulmonary dysfunctions. Although all of these adverse outcomes are associated with low gestational age, ...
Rosenberg J C - - 2005
From 1993 to 2003 there have been significant changes in the number and demographics of deceased donors referred to the organ procurement organization (OPO) in the state of Michigan (USA). It was the aim of this study to document the magnitude of these changes and attempt to explain them. There ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairments and academic failure are commonly reported in survivors of preterm birth. Recent studies suggest an important role for the cerebellum in the development of cognitive and social functions. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of prematurity itself, as well as prematurity-related brain injuries, ...
Kadhim Hazim - - 2005
Sudden infant death syndrome remains a leading cause of post-neonatal mortality in developed countries. Its etiopathogenic mechanisms are unknown. In this neuropathologic study, we noticed that the weights of the brains of infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome (n = 97) were invariably heavier in comparison with those ...
Bell J E - - 2005
Despite the clinical and medicolegal significance attached to perinatal asphyxia, the neuropathological basis of this condition remains obscure. There are very few studies in the literature which correlate the pathological findings in neonatal brains with detailed epidemiological data, and none which are population based. In a Scotland-wide study of neonatal ...
Vartzelis G - - 2005
Brain abscess is a rare complication of staphylococcal bacteremia in infants. Here we present a case of a premature infant who developed multiple brain abscesses 12 weeks following an episode of inadequately treated Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. The abscess developed in the absence of trauma, prior surgery, cyanotic heart disease, or ...
Schultz Seth J - - 2005
The role of complement in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is not known. Therefore, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and post-mortem cerebral tissue were analyzed to determine whether complement is activated and complement component 9 (C9) is deposited on neurons in the central nervous systems (CNS) of newborn infants who developed moderate ...
Petreska, B.
Poster presented at the ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants, Maratea (Italy)
Gottstein B - - 2005
We addressed the question whether diaplacental transmission of Neospora caninum can be controlled by metaphylactic chemotherapy using toltrazuril or enrofloxacin. Female C57/BL6 mice, infected on day 10 of pregnancy, were medicated for 6 consecutive days p.i. with 52.5 mg toltrazuril or - as an out-group control medication--16.7 mg enrofloxacin per ...
Farragher Rachel A - - 2005
Brain death is a concept used in situations in which life-support equipment obscures the conventional cardiopulmonary criteria of death, and it is legally recognized in most countries worldwide. Brain death during pregnancy is an occasional and tragic occurrence. The mother and fetus are two distinct organisms, and the death of ...
Iannelli A - - 2005
Brain lesions due to dog bites are not frequent and mainly concern infants in the first years of their life because they are short in height, the size of the infant's head is relatively large compared to the body and the skull bones are thin. We report the case of ...
Aslin Richard N - - 2005
A recent workshop brought together a mix of researchers with expertise in optical physics, cerebral hemodynamics, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology to review the potential utility of near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) for studies of brain activity underlying cognitive processing in human infants. We summarize the key findings that emerged from this ...
Becher J-C - - 2005
The different alleles of the human apolipoprotein E polymorphism, ApoE epsilon2, epsilon3, epsilon4, have important implications for systemic lipid metabolism, immunological function and for the brain in maintenance and in response to injury. Few studies have focussed on their role in early life. The ApoE alleles and genotypes were ascertained ...
Hermanussen M - - 2005
AIM: To discuss a hypothesis regarding the impact and possible side effects of glutamate in paediatric parenteral nutrition. RESULTS: Published evidence suggests that the arcuate nucleus, which is a potent site of leptin action, is severely damaged by elevated glutamate levels. Early administration of glutamate (GLU) to the neonatal rat ...
Bracco L - - 2005
This study investigated the contribution that white matter changes (WMCs) make to clinical and cognitive features in Alzheimer's disease (AD), independently of possible confounders such as cortical atrophy and the apolipoprotein E genotype as well as their relationship to vascular risk factors. We semiquantitatively assessed the degree and location of ...
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