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Results 201 - 250 of 820
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Tessmer Chiara Scaglioni - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although the term brain death has been clinically and legally accepted as a death criterion, few data are published about public attitudes and beliefs concerning this topic. OBJECTIVES: To examine public understanding of brain death and how the term brain death affects decisions about organ donation. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional ...
Kahila H - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug ...
Whitehead N E - - 2007
The maternal immune hypothesis (MIH) argues same sex attraction (SSA) results from maternal immune attack on fetal male-specific brain structures and involves the previous biological influence of elder brothers. One of the surveys supporting this is shown to be based on an unsuitable sample and to contain some strong contrary ...
Whetstine Leslie M - - 2007
This review explores the legitimacy of the whole brain death (WBD) criterion. I argue that it does not fulfill the traditional biologic definition of death and is, therefore, an unsound clinical and philosophical criterion for death. I dispute whether the clinical tests used to diagnose WBD are sufficient to prove ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2007
The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause ...
Jan James E - - 2007
Pineal melatonin regulates circadian rhythms and influences sleep. Melatonin also has protective actions against tissue damage from free-radicals and other toxins. Evidence is presented that this indoleamine is involved in pre- and postnatal brain (and ocular) development and intrauterine growth. In the absence of maternal melatonin, short gestation infants have ...
Karmiloff-Smith Annette - - 2007
It is becoming increasingly clear that little in development is predetermined or permanently fixed. Rather, gene expression is activity dependent, and epigenesis is probabilistic. So, the study of genetic disorders needs to change from the still widely held view that developmental disorders can be accounted for in terms of intact ...
Johnson Mark H - - 2007
A new account of human postnatal functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), is introduced and applied to one important domain of human development: the social brain. Behavioural, ERP and fMRI evidence from newborns, infants and children in face processing tasks is briefly reviewed, and is shown to be consistent with ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2007
A recent commentary defends 1) the concept of 'brain arrest' to explain what brain death is, and 2) the concept that death occurs at 2-5 minutes after absent circulation. I suggest that both these claims are flawed. Brain arrest is said to threaten life, and lead to death by causing ...
Counsell Serena J SJ Robert Steiner MR Unit, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, DuCane Road, London, W12 0HS, UK. - - 2007
Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of studying white matter tracts and connections between the thalamus and the cortex in 2-year-old infants who were born preterm by probabilistic magnetic resonance (MR) tractography. Using this approach, we were able to visualize and quantify connectivity distributions in a number of white ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2006
There is very limited information about the developmental outcome of the late preterm infant. The developing brain is vulnerable to injury during this very active and important stage of fetal brain development; therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the neurologic outcome of these infants. This article discusses gestational brain ...
Hammer Maxim D - - 2006
The definition of death has evolved to include the concept of brain death. The brainstem is an indispensable central integrative unit for all vital functions. The clinical criteria for brain death consist of the demonstration of the absence of function of the brainstem. Confirmatory testing, which mostly evaluates higher clinical ...
Jensen Frances E - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the unique pattern of developmentally regulated factors that govern the susceptibility of the brain during the preterm and term windows of development. RECENT FINDINGS: The neonatal brain shows unique regional differences in susceptibility to injury. In response to the common insult of hypoxia/ischemia, the preterm ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes for the pediatrician the current understanding of normal cerebellar and brainstem development, and then discusses selected malformations to highlight advances in the area. The impact of prematurity on cerebellar growth and development is then examined. The important insights provided by recent neuroimaging and genetic ...
Cheney Frederick W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The authors used the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Project database to determine changes in the proportion of claims for death or permanent brain damage over a 26-yr period and to identify factors associated with the observed changes. METHODS: The Closed Claims Project is a structured evaluation of ...
Malamitsi-Puchner Ariadne - - 2006
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is failure of the fetus to achieve his or her intrinsic growth potential, due to anatomical/functional diseases or disorders in the feto-placental-maternal unit. Growth restriction successfully balances reduced oxygen delivery and consumption; however, chronic hypoxia is responsible for fetal blood flow redistribution to cardinal organs (brain, ...
Byne William - - 2006
When a baby is born, the first medical pronouncement is usually, "It's a boy," or "It's a girl." In most cases, this pronouncement is based simply upon the appearance of the child's external genitalia. Due to variations in the process of sexual differentiation, sometimes the gender that should be assigned ...
Ramani Ramachandran - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinicians are actively looking for an effective brain protection technique. With pharmacologic agents, several phase III trials in stroke, severe traumatic brain injury, and post-cardiac arrest survivors have failed. Hence there is renewed interest in mild to moderate hypothermia for brain protection. Phase III clinical trials with ...
Thompson Deanne K - - 2007
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between perinatal risk ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2007
The present study examined infants' brain activity in response to upright and inverted faces using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can non-invasively record hemodynamic changes of the brain. NIRS is particularly useful for recording in infants, since recordings can be made, even while the infants are awake, without fixing their ...
Monteiro Louisa M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate therapy or hypothermia precludes proper diagnosis of brain death either clinically or by EEG. Specific intracranial flow patterns indicating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA) can be visualized by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of TCD in confirming brain death. DESIGN: ...
Opdam Helen I - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential for organ donation in 12 Victorian hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective audit of all deaths in 12 major public hospitals in the state of Victoria between January 2002 and October 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of organ donors and potential organ donors (patients with brain ...
Bersani Thomas A - - 2006
An 11-day-old infant was referred for a large, fleshy swelling at the right medial canthus, which was noticed at birth. CT of the skull showed protrusion of brain tissue within the mass, from which a diagnosis of meningoencephalocele was made. The mass was subsequently resected by a team of physicians ...
Saito Y - - 2007
To examine the auditory perception of maternal utterances by neonates using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty full-term, healthy neonates were included in this study. The neonates were tested in their cribs while they slept in a silent room. First, two probe holders were placed on the left and right sides of ...
Berger Andrea - - 2006
A current debate is whether increased looking time in infancy is related to violation of expectations. In this study, 6- to 9-month-old infants' brain activity was analyzed during presentation of correct and incorrect solutions to simple arithmetic equations [(e.g., presentation of 1 + 1; one doll on a TV monitor, ...
Shah Divyen K - - 2006
PURPOSE: Premature infants are at increased risk of impaired visual performance related to both cortical and subcortical pathways for oculomotor control. The hypothesis for the current study was that preterm infants with impaired saccades, smooth pursuit, and binocular eye alignment at age 2 years would have smaller occipital brain volumes ...
Kapellou Olga O Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United - - 2006
We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent ...
Wu Chia-Lu - - 2006
Brain abscess is rarely encountered in neonates and carries a high morbidity and mortality. Here we report a premature infant who developed systemic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection resulting in multiple brain abscesses with intraventricular rupture at 3 months postnatal age. He was treated successfully with a combination of surgical ...
Mewes Andrea U J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: MRI studies have shown that preterm infants with brain injury have altered brain tissue volumes. Investigation of preterm infants without brain injury offers the opportunity to define the influence of early birth on brain development and provide normative data to assess effects of adverse conditions on the preterm brain. ...
Giménez Mónica - - 2006
Very preterm birth (VPTB) is an important risk factor for white matter (WM) damage. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional WM brain abnormalities in 50 adolescents with antecedents of very preterm birth (VPTB) without evidence of WM damage on T2-weighted MRI. This group was compared with a group ...
Zhou Ming - - 2006
BRD7 is a potential nuclear transcription regulation factor related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). BRD2, a putative BRD7-interacting protein, has been screened from human fetal brain cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system. This study was to further identify the interaction between BRD7 and BRD2 in mammalian cells, and to investigate the ...
da Graca Ralph L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine age-related concentrations of brain-type natriuretic peptide in preterm infants using bedside Triage brain-type natriuretic peptide test and correlate it to the presence or absence of the patent ductus arteriosus and ventilatory support. METHODS: Serum brain-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured in infants who were born at <32 ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The relationship between infection, the inflammatory response and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants is slowly being elucidated. The developing brain, particularly the periventricular white matter, is vulnerable to cytotoxic and hypoxic/ischemic injury, which places these infants at increased risk for abnormal cognitive and motor functioning. This ...
Robinson Shenandoah - - 2006
Perinatal brain injury leads to chronic neurological deficits in children. Damage to the premature brain produces white matter lesions (WMLs), but the impact on cortical development is less well defined. Gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)ergic neurons destined for the cerebral cortex migrate through the developing white matter and form the subplate during late ...
Triulzi Fabio - - 2006
Patterns of damage in the mature neonatal brain can be subdivided into focal, multifocal and diffuse. The main cause of diffuse brain damage in the term newborn is hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE is still the major recognized perinatal cause of neurological morbidity in full-term newborns. MRI offers today the highest ...
Veyrac Corinne - - 2006
Brain ultrasonography plays a central role in the detection and management of neonatal disease in the preterm infant. Although morphological study, using high-frequency transducers, remains the cornerstone of imaging, pulsed and colour Doppler scans provide additional information and improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of ultrasonography. Particular features of normal ...
Zacharia A - - 2006
PURPOSE: We evaluated the impact of premature extrauterine life on brain maturation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve neonates underwent MR imaging at 40 (39.64 +/- 0.98) weeks (full term). Fifteen premature infants underwent 2 MR imaging examinations, after birth (preterm at birth) and at 40 weeks (41.03 +/- 1.33) (preterm at ...
El-Khoury Nadine - - 2006
Astrocyte end-feet ensheathe blood vessels in the brain and are believed to provide structural integrity to the cerebral vasculature. We sought to determine in developing infants whether the coverage of blood vessels by astrocyte end-feet is decreased in germinal matrix (GM) compared with cerebral cortex and white matter (WM), which ...
Slotkin Theodore A - - 2006
Glucocorticoid administration to preterm infants is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. We treated developing rats with dexamethasone (Dex) at 0.05, 0.2, or 0.8 mg/kg, doses below or spanning the range in clinical use, testing the effects of administration during three different stages: gestational days 17-19, postnatal days 1-3 or postnatal days ...
Korsten Alex - - 2006
The development of cerebellar folia of third-trimester preterms has not been described with ultrasound before. We set out to determine normal development of the pons and cerebellar folia for future measurements of hypoplasia and atrophy. Study sonograms were made in preterms admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit with postmenstrual ...
Tint G S - - 2006
Mice with a targeted mutation of 3beta-hydroxysterol Delta(7)-reductase (Dhcr7) that cannot convert 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol were used to identify the origin of fetal sterols. Because their heterozygous mothers synthesize cholesterol normally, virtually all sterols found in a Dhcr7 knockout fetus having a Delta(7) or a Delta(8) double bond must have ...
Abels Lyanne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Many paediatric strokes occur in the perinatal period. Improvement in neuroimaging has increased detection in newborns with neurological symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To define sonographic templates of neonatal stroke in the territory of perforators of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) and the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA) and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries. ...
Fuchs Hans - - 2006
Invasive aspergillosis is a rare condition in term and preterm infants. We present here the fatal case of a 28-week gestational age preterm baby who developed pulmonary, hepatic and central nervous system aspergillosis during the first days of life. A hyperechogenic lesion adjacent to the lateral ventricle was diagnosed by ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2006
We previously suggested that antenatal pestivirus infection might play a role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain white matter damage (WMD) in preterm infants. We have now examined 22 brains from stillborns and deceased newborns (both preterm and term) for the presence of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) antigen. The ...
Badr Zahr Lina Kurdahi - - 2006
Although neonatal brain injury occurs most frequently after a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult, recently studies have noted that variable causes such as metabolic and reperfusion events can result in, or aggravate, a brain insult. Current data suggest that about 2 to 5 of 1,000 live births in the United States and ...
Kinney Hannah C - - 2006
Historically the major focus in neonatal neurology has been on brain injury in premature infants born less than 30 gestational weeks. This focus reflects the urgent need to improve the widely recognized poor neurological outcomes that occur in these infants. The most common underlying substrate of cerebral palsy in these ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2006
Antenatal intrauterine infection and the fetal inflammatory response appear to be important pathogenetic factors in preterm birth and subsequent neonatal disorders of the lung and brain. In this paper, we expand this concept to include visual dysfunction. Although present data tend to support our notion, we suggest that more experimental ...
Dorman David C - - 2006
There is increased interest within the scientific community concerning the neurotoxicity of manganese owing in part to the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as a gasoline fuel additive and an enhanced awareness that this essential metal may play a role in hepatic encephalopathy and other neurologic diseases. Neurotoxicity generally ...
Benders M J N L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether postnatal allopurinol would reduce free radical induced reperfusion/reoxygenation injury of the brain in severely asphyxiated neonates. METHOD: In an interim analysis of a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study, 32 severely asphyxiated infants were given allopurinol or a vehicle within four hours of birth. RESULTS: The ...
Dubois J - - 2006
The human infant is particularly immature at birth and brain maturation, with the myelination of white matter fibers, is protracted until adulthood. Diffusion tensor imaging offers the possibility to describe non invasively the fascicles spatial organization at an early stage and to follow the cerebral maturation with quantitative parameters that ...
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