Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 838
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Taga Gentaro - - 2007
One of the practical problems in neuroimaging using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is to choose an appropriate source-detector distance to maximize the sensitivity to cerebral blood oxygenation and to improve the spatial resolution for mapping cortical activation. While NIRS has attracted increasing attention in neuroimaging in infants, there has been ...
Larson Susan G - - 2007
The holotype of Homo floresiensis, diminutive hominins with tiny brains living until 12,000 years ago on the island of Flores, is a partial skeleton (LB1) that includes a partial clavicle (LB1/5) and a nearly complete right humerus (LB1/50). Although the humerus appears fairly modern in most regards, it is remarkable ...
Walton Raquel M - - 2007
Lysosomal storage disorders constitute a large group of genetic diseases, many of which are characterized by mental retardation and other neurologic symptoms. The mechanisms of neural dysfunction remain poorly understood. Because neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are fundamentally important to normal brain development and function, we investigated NPC properties in a ...
Auvichayapat Narong - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical manifestation, predisposing factor location of abscess, causative organism, treatment, and outcome of brain abscess. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective study. SETTING: Srinagarind Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and seven infants and children with brain ...
Eswaran Hari - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Utilizing a MEG-based device specifically designed to study the fetus, we investigated the presence of salient patterns in spontaneous fetal brain activity. METHODS: We performed 91 MEG recordings from 30 fetuses at various gestational ages. The tracings were evaluated and compared to the well-established electroencephalographic (EEG) features in premature ...
Gibson Alan T - - 2007
Preterm birth currently occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies and appears to be increasing despite improvements in obstetric care. Improvements in neonatal care have led to increased survival, particularly at extreme prematurity, but survival may be associated with significant morbidity. This may be acute, reflecting the difficulties in supporting an ...
Horsch Sandra - - 2007
AIMS: Brain abnormalities are common in preterm infants and can be reliably detected by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term equivalent age. The aim of the present study was to acquire population based data on brain abnormalities in extremely low gestational age (ELGA) infants from the Stockholm region and to ...
Jurkiewicz Elzbieta - - 2007
Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare disease of de novo purine synthesis. The main symptoms are psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, autistic features, occasionally associated with muscular hypotonia. Diagnosis is made by detection of abnormal purine metabolites (succinyladenosine - S-Ado and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside - SAICAr) in body fluids. The severity ...
Hebden Jeremy C - - 2007
A new method of assessing neurological function and pathology in the newborn infant is being developed based on the transmission of near-infrared light across the brain. Absorption by blood over a range of wavelengths reveals a strong dependency on oxygenation status, and measurements of transmitted light enable the spatial variation ...
Franceschini Maria Angela MA Athinoula A. Martinos Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA. - - 2007
This is the first report to demonstrate quantitative monitoring of infant brain development with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS). Regionally specific increases in blood volume and oxygen consumption were measured in healthy infants during their first year. The results agree with prior PET and SPECT reports; but, unlike these methods, FD-NIRS ...
Rees Sandra M SM Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, 3010, Australia. - - 2007
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) enhances ventilation in very preterm infants, but the effects on the brain remain uncertain. We evaluated the impact of iNO on brain growth and cerebral injury in a premature baboon model. Baboons were delivered at 125 d of gestation (term 185 d of gestation) and ventilated ...
Mewes Andrea U J AU Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2007
Regional investigations of newborn MRI are important to understand the appearance and consequences of early brain injury. Previously, regionalization in neonates has been achieved with a Talairach parcellation, using internal landmarks of the brain. Non-synostotic dolichocephaly defines a bi-temporal narrowing of the preterm infant's head caused by pressure on the ...
Cai Jeff - - 2007
The mechanisms underlying astrocyte heterogeneity in the developing mouse brain are poorly understood. The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is essential for motoneuron and oligodendrocyte formation; however, its role in astrocyte development remains obscure. During cortical development, Olig2 is transiently expressed in immature developing astrocytes at neonatal stages and is progressively ...
Jayawant Sandeep - - 2007
Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100,000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the ...
Saitoh Makiko - - 2007
The lipid composition and molecular species of phospholipids were examined in the brain of a patient with Zellweger syndrome (ZS), and were compared with those of control infants. In the cerebral gray matter of the ZS patient, the amounts of ceramide monohexoside and cholesterol ester were larger than those of ...
Walhovd Kristine B - - 2007
Information processing speed is a central concept in cognitive psychology and neuropsychology. Previous studies have mostly focused on mean reaction time (RT), and largely ignored intra-individual differences (the standard deviation of the RT: sdRT). Still, intra-individual inconsistency across trials has been shown to correlate with age, neurological disorders, intelligence, and ...
Tessmer Chiara Scaglioni - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Although the term brain death has been clinically and legally accepted as a death criterion, few data are published about public attitudes and beliefs concerning this topic. OBJECTIVES: To examine public understanding of brain death and how the term brain death affects decisions about organ donation. METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional ...
Kahila H - - 2007
PURPOSE: To evaluate the brains of newborns exposed to buprenorphine prenatally. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven neonates followed up antenatally in connection with their mothers' buprenorphine replacement therapy underwent 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain before the age of 2 months. The infants were born to heavy drug ...
Whitehead N E - - 2007
The maternal immune hypothesis (MIH) argues same sex attraction (SSA) results from maternal immune attack on fetal male-specific brain structures and involves the previous biological influence of elder brothers. One of the surveys supporting this is shown to be based on an unsuitable sample and to contain some strong contrary ...
Whetstine Leslie M - - 2007
This review explores the legitimacy of the whole brain death (WBD) criterion. I argue that it does not fulfill the traditional biologic definition of death and is, therefore, an unsound clinical and philosophical criterion for death. I dispute whether the clinical tests used to diagnose WBD are sufficient to prove ...
Dammann Olaf - - 2007
The search for causes of perinatal brain damage needs a solid theoretical foundation. Current theory apparently does not offer a unanimously accepted view of what constitutes a cause, and how it can be identified. We discuss nine potential theoretical misconceptions: (1) too narrow a view of what is a cause ...
Jan James E - - 2007
Pineal melatonin regulates circadian rhythms and influences sleep. Melatonin also has protective actions against tissue damage from free-radicals and other toxins. Evidence is presented that this indoleamine is involved in pre- and postnatal brain (and ocular) development and intrauterine growth. In the absence of maternal melatonin, short gestation infants have ...
Karmiloff-Smith Annette - - 2007
It is becoming increasingly clear that little in development is predetermined or permanently fixed. Rather, gene expression is activity dependent, and epigenesis is probabilistic. So, the study of genetic disorders needs to change from the still widely held view that developmental disorders can be accounted for in terms of intact ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2007
A recent commentary defends 1) the concept of 'brain arrest' to explain what brain death is, and 2) the concept that death occurs at 2-5 minutes after absent circulation. I suggest that both these claims are flawed. Brain arrest is said to threaten life, and lead to death by causing ...
Johnson Mark H MH Birkbeck, University of London, London, WC1E 7HX, UK. - - 2007
A new account of human postnatal functional brain development, interactive specialization (IS), is introduced and applied to one important domain of human development: the social brain. Behavioural, ERP and fMRI evidence from newborns, infants and children in face processing tasks is briefly reviewed, and is shown to be consistent with ...
Counsell Serena J SJ Robert Steiner MR Unit, Imaging Sciences Department, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, DuCane Road, London, W12 0HS, UK. - - 2007
Our aim was to investigate the feasibility of studying white matter tracts and connections between the thalamus and the cortex in 2-year-old infants who were born preterm by probabilistic magnetic resonance (MR) tractography. Using this approach, we were able to visualize and quantify connectivity distributions in a number of white ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2006
There is very limited information about the developmental outcome of the late preterm infant. The developing brain is vulnerable to injury during this very active and important stage of fetal brain development; therefore, it is important to carefully monitor the neurologic outcome of these infants. This article discusses gestational brain ...
Hammer Maxim D - - 2006
The definition of death has evolved to include the concept of brain death. The brainstem is an indispensable central integrative unit for all vital functions. The clinical criteria for brain death consist of the demonstration of the absence of function of the brainstem. Confirmatory testing, which mostly evaluates higher clinical ...
Jensen Frances E - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the unique pattern of developmentally regulated factors that govern the susceptibility of the brain during the preterm and term windows of development. RECENT FINDINGS: The neonatal brain shows unique regional differences in susceptibility to injury. In response to the common insult of hypoxia/ischemia, the preterm ...
Limperopoulos Catherine - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes for the pediatrician the current understanding of normal cerebellar and brainstem development, and then discusses selected malformations to highlight advances in the area. The impact of prematurity on cerebellar growth and development is then examined. The important insights provided by recent neuroimaging and genetic ...
Cheney Frederick W - - 2006
BACKGROUND: The authors used the American Society of Anesthesiologists Closed Claims Project database to determine changes in the proportion of claims for death or permanent brain damage over a 26-yr period and to identify factors associated with the observed changes. METHODS: The Closed Claims Project is a structured evaluation of ...
Malamitsi-Puchner Ariadne - - 2006
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is failure of the fetus to achieve his or her intrinsic growth potential, due to anatomical/functional diseases or disorders in the feto-placental-maternal unit. Growth restriction successfully balances reduced oxygen delivery and consumption; however, chronic hypoxia is responsible for fetal blood flow redistribution to cardinal organs (brain, ...
Byne William - - 2006
When a baby is born, the first medical pronouncement is usually, "It's a boy," or "It's a girl." In most cases, this pronouncement is based simply upon the appearance of the child's external genitalia. Due to variations in the process of sexual differentiation, sometimes the gender that should be assigned ...
Ramani Ramachandran - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clinicians are actively looking for an effective brain protection technique. With pharmacologic agents, several phase III trials in stroke, severe traumatic brain injury, and post-cardiac arrest survivors have failed. Hence there is renewed interest in mild to moderate hypothermia for brain protection. Phase III clinical trials with ...
Thompson Deanne K - - 2007
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between perinatal risk ...
Otsuka Yumiko - - 2007
The present study examined infants' brain activity in response to upright and inverted faces using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can non-invasively record hemodynamic changes of the brain. NIRS is particularly useful for recording in infants, since recordings can be made, even while the infants are awake, without fixing their ...
Monteiro Louisa M - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Barbiturate therapy or hypothermia precludes proper diagnosis of brain death either clinically or by EEG. Specific intracranial flow patterns indicating cerebral circulatory arrest (CCA) can be visualized by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). The aim of this study was to assess the validity of TCD in confirming brain death. DESIGN: ...
Opdam Helen I - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential for organ donation in 12 Victorian hospitals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective audit of all deaths in 12 major public hospitals in the state of Victoria between January 2002 and October 2004. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of organ donors and potential organ donors (patients with brain ...
Bersani Thomas A - - 2006
An 11-day-old infant was referred for a large, fleshy swelling at the right medial canthus, which was noticed at birth. CT of the skull showed protrusion of brain tissue within the mass, from which a diagnosis of meningoencephalocele was made. The mass was subsequently resected by a team of physicians ...
Saito Y - - 2007
To examine the auditory perception of maternal utterances by neonates using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Twenty full-term, healthy neonates were included in this study. The neonates were tested in their cribs while they slept in a silent room. First, two probe holders were placed on the left and right sides of ...
Berger Andrea - - 2006
A current debate is whether increased looking time in infancy is related to violation of expectations. In this study, 6- to 9-month-old infants' brain activity was analyzed during presentation of correct and incorrect solutions to simple arithmetic equations [(e.g., presentation of 1 + 1; one doll on a TV monitor, ...
Shah Divyen K - - 2006
PURPOSE: Premature infants are at increased risk of impaired visual performance related to both cortical and subcortical pathways for oculomotor control. The hypothesis for the current study was that preterm infants with impaired saccades, smooth pursuit, and binocular eye alignment at age 2 years would have smaller occipital brain volumes ...
Kapellou Olga O Department of Paediatrics, Imperial College, Hammersmith Hospital, London, United - - 2006
We postulated that during ontogenesis cortical surface area and cerebral volume are related by a scaling law whose exponent gives a quantitative measure of cortical development. We used this approach to investigate the hypothesis that premature termination of the intrauterine environment by preterm birth reduces cortical development in a dose-dependent ...
Wu Chia-Lu - - 2006
Brain abscess is rarely encountered in neonates and carries a high morbidity and mortality. Here we report a premature infant who developed systemic Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection resulting in multiple brain abscesses with intraventricular rupture at 3 months postnatal age. He was treated successfully with a combination of surgical ...
Mewes Andrea U J - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: MRI studies have shown that preterm infants with brain injury have altered brain tissue volumes. Investigation of preterm infants without brain injury offers the opportunity to define the influence of early birth on brain development and provide normative data to assess effects of adverse conditions on the preterm brain. ...
Giménez Mónica - - 2006
Very preterm birth (VPTB) is an important risk factor for white matter (WM) damage. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine regional WM brain abnormalities in 50 adolescents with antecedents of very preterm birth (VPTB) without evidence of WM damage on T2-weighted MRI. This group was compared with a group ...
Zhou Ming - - 2006
BRD7 is a potential nuclear transcription regulation factor related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). BRD2, a putative BRD7-interacting protein, has been screened from human fetal brain cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system. This study was to further identify the interaction between BRD7 and BRD2 in mammalian cells, and to investigate the ...
da Graca Ralph L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine age-related concentrations of brain-type natriuretic peptide in preterm infants using bedside Triage brain-type natriuretic peptide test and correlate it to the presence or absence of the patent ductus arteriosus and ventilatory support. METHODS: Serum brain-type natriuretic peptide levels were measured in infants who were born at <32 ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2006
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The relationship between infection, the inflammatory response and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants is slowly being elucidated. The developing brain, particularly the periventricular white matter, is vulnerable to cytotoxic and hypoxic/ischemic injury, which places these infants at increased risk for abnormal cognitive and motor functioning. This ...
Robinson Shenandoah S Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Neuropathology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Case Research Institute, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. - - 2006
Perinatal brain injury leads to chronic neurological deficits in children. Damage to the premature brain produces white matter lesions (WMLs), but the impact on cortical development is less well defined. Gamma-aminobutyric acid(GABA)ergic neurons destined for the cerebral cortex migrate through the developing white matter and form the subplate during late ...
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