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Rousset Catherine I - - 2008
Intracerebral injection of ibotenate in newborn rodents produces brain damage that mimics that of infants with cerebral palsy. Because maternal infection may contribute to brain injury in preterm infants, we investigated brain damage after maternal inflammation and postnatal ibotenate treatment in a rat model of cerebral palsy. Pregnant rats were ...
DeSilva Jeremy M - - 2008
An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil ...
Swain James E JE Yale Child Study Center, Program for Risk, Resilience and Recovery, USA. - - 2008
A range of early circumstances surrounding the birth of a child affects peripartum hormones, parental behavior and infant wellbeing. One of these factors, which may lead to postpartum depression, is the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery (VD) or cesarean section delivery (CSD). To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would ...
Leliefeld Paul H - - 2008
OBJECT: Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) that is associated with hydrocephalus may lead to alterations in cerebral hemodynamics and ischemic changes in the brain. In infants with hydrocephalus, defining the right moment for surgical intervention based on clinical signs alone can sometimes be a difficult task. Clinical signs of raised ICP ...
Lavery Shelly V - - 2008
Continuously monitoring brain ftinction at the bedside in the NICU for term infants at risk of brain injury has become part of routine clinical practice in many countries. These monitors offer invaluable information about the sick infant's neurologic status by providing real-time measurements of the brain's electrical activity and identifring ...
Hart Anthony R - - 2008
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of developmental difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to identify damage to the brain following preterm birth. It is hoped this information will aid prognostication and identify neonates who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Cystic periventricular white matter ...
McRory John E - - 2008
We have generated a syntaxin 1A knockout mouse by deletion of exons 3 through 6 and a concomitant insertion of a stop codon in exon 2. Heterozygous knockout animals were viable with no apparent phenotype. In contrast, the vast majority of homozygous animals died in utero, with embryos examined at ...
Altaye Mekibib M Center for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, 3333 Burnet Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA. - - 2008
Spatial normalization and segmentation of infant brain MRI data based on adult or pediatric reference data may not be appropriate due to the developmental differences between the infant input data and the reference data. In this study we have constructed infant templates and a priori brain tissue probability maps based ...
Ledebt Annick - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to compare the walking abilities in infants with and without periventricular leukomalacia and to see whether the severity of the brain damage was related to locomotor outcome of the infants at 12 and 18 months. 47 newborns were included in the study based ...
Ohgi Shohei - - 2008
Comparisons of spontaneous movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries can provide insights into normal and abnormal processes in the ontogeny of motor development. In this study, the characteristics of spontaneous upper-extremity movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries were ...
Villapol Sonia - - 2008
Neonatal encephalopathy is a major predictor of neurodevelopmental disability in term infants and occurs in 1 to 6 of every 1,000 live term births. Despite improvements in perinatal practice during the past several decades, the incidence of cerebral palsy attributed to neonatal asphyxia remained essentially unchanged, primarily because management strategies ...
Strathearn Lane L Department of Neuroscience, Meyer Center for Developmental Pediatrics, Human Neuroimaging Laboratory, Clinical Care Center, Suite 1530, 6621 Fannin St, Houston TX 77030-2399, USA. - - 2008
Our goal was to determine how a mother's brain responds to her own infant's facial expressions, comparing happy, neutral, and sad face affect. In an event-related functional MRI study, 28 first-time mothers were shown novel face images of their own 5- to 10-month-old infant and a matched unknown infant. Sixty ...
Dubois J - - 2008
In the human brain, the morphology of cortical gyri and sulci is complex and variable among individuals, and it may reflect pathological functioning with specific abnormalities observed in certain developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Since cortical folding occurs early during brain development, these structural abnormalities might be present long before the ...
Renfrew Colin - - 2008
The human genome, and hence the human brain at birth, may not have changed greatly over the past 60000 years. Yet many of the major behavioural changes that we associate with most human societies are very much more recent, some appearing with the sedentary revolution of some 10000 years ago. ...
Degos Vincent - - 2008
Injury to the perinatal brain is a leading cause of childhood mortality and lifelong disability. Cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment are usually related to periventricular white matter damage, which is seen chiefly in babies born before 32 wk gestational age, and to corticosubcortical lesions, which occur mainly in full-term infants. ...
Cheong Jeanie L Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Extremely preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae. Head circumference has been used as a measure of brain growth. There are limited data relating head circumference to MRI. The purpose of this work was to establish the relationship between head circumference with brain MRI at term-equivalent age and ...
Long Tracy - - 2008
BACKGROUND: What a diagnosis of brain stem death (the term used in the United Kingdom) or brain death (the term used in the United States) means to the family members of potential organ donors is an important issue to explore as biomedicine moves to expand the range of end-of-life technologies ...
Liu Wen-Ching - - 2008
Patterns of cortical functional connectivity in normal infants were examined during natural sleep by observing the time course of very low frequency oscillations. Such oscillations represent fluctuations in blood oxygenation level and cortical blood flow thus allowing computation of neurophysiologic connectivity. Structural and resting-state information were acquired for 11 infants, ...
Wikström Sverre - - 2008
AIM: To investigate if the early electroencephalogram (EEG) and amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) in very preterm infants is affected by perinatal inflammation and brain injury, and correlates with long-term outcome. METHODS: Sixteen infants born at 24-28 gestational weeks (median 25.5) had continuous EEG/aEEG during the first 72 h of life. Minimum ...
Minagawa-Kawai Yasuyo - - 2008
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a unique method of monitoring infant brain function by measuring the changes in the concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. During the past 10 years, NIRS measurement of the developing brain has rapidly expanded. In this article, a brief discussion of the general principles of NIRS, ...
Black Amy M - - 2008
Apnea of pre-maturity is common, occurring in 85% of infants born less than 34 week gestation. Oral caffeine is the most frequent form of therapy, often in conjunction with the use of intubation and intermittent ventilation. Morphine is used to reduce the pain believed to be associated with the latter. ...
Wilcox Teresa T Department of Psychology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA. - - 2008
Over the past 30 years researchers have learned a great deal about the development of object processing in infancy. In contrast, little is understood about the neural mechanisms that underlie this capacity, in large part because there are few techniques available to measure brain functioning in human infants. The present ...
Uchiyama Yasuo - - 2008
"Autophagy" is a highly conserved pathway for degradation, by which wasted intracellular macromolecules are delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded into biologically active monomers such as amino acids that are subsequently re-used to maintain cellular metabolic turnover and homeostasis. Recent genetic studies have shown that mice lacking an autophagy-related ...
Giménez Mónica - - 2008
Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants ...
Jedari Attary S - - 2008
This report present an infant with nystagmus, strabismus, salt and pepper and scars in funduscopy, calcification in Brain CT scan and high titer of Anti Toxoplasmosis antibody. A 10 month old infant that referred with nystagmus, strabismus after fever which appeared five months ago. In funduscopy of both eyes, salt ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries in childhood are associated with poor neurological outcome. Recently, experimental and clinical works show that nerve growth factor (NGF) reduces neurological deficits and promotes endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis following hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. After brain stroke, new neurons express a protein, called doublecortin (DCX), ...
deRegnier Raye-Ann - - 2008
In extremely preterm infants, neonatal brain injury and interruption of the normal maturation of the brain result in functional impairments that appear to manifest in later life. The roots of these impairments may be evaluated in the newborn infant using neurophysiologic techniques, such as evoked potentials and event-related potentials. This ...
Messerschmidt Agnes - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal cerebellar development was recently recognized to be related to prematurity. Aim of the present study was to evaluate preterm birth and possible peri- and postnatal risk factors associated with this type of brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on a series of 35 very low birth weight ...
Koch Richard - - 2008
We evaluated the brain of a 4-month-old male infant whose mother had inadequately controlled maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). At autopsy his brain was normally developed but underweight. We found ventriculomegaly, hypoplastic cerebral white matter, and delay of myelination in late myelinating tracts without white matter astrocytosis and without chronic lesions in ...
Olson Gary E - - 2008
Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) contains most of the selenium in blood plasma, and it is utilized by the kidney, brain, and testis as a selenium source for selenoprotein synthesis. We recently demonstrated that apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2) is required for Sepp1 uptake by the testis and that deletion of ApoER2 reduces ...
Benjak Vesna - - 2008
There is a high incidence of periventricular leukomalacia, caused by hypoxia-ischemia, in preterm infants. These lesions damage the periventricular crossroads of commissural, projection and associative pathways, which are in a close topographical relationship with the lateral ventricles. We explored to what extent abnormalities of echogenicity of the periventricular crossroads correlate ...
Johnson Stephen A - - 2008
Drugs that suppress neuronal activity, including general anesthetics used in pediatric and obstetric medicine, trigger neuroapoptosis in the developing rodent brain. Exposure of infant rats for 6 hours to a combination of anesthetic drugs (midazolam, nitrous oxide, isoflurane) reportedly causes widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration, followed by lifelong cognitive deficits. Isoflurane, the ...
van Bel Frank - - 2008
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia or birth asphyxia is a serious complication with a high mortality and morbidity. For decades, neuroprotective options have been explored to reduce reperfusion and reoxygenation injury to the brain, which accounts for a substantial part of birth asphyxia-related brain damage. In this review, we focus on neuroprotective strategies ...
Mimura Nobuhito - - 2008
Olopatadine, a new second-generation antihistamine, is widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders. The low levels of histamine H1 receptor occupancy in human brain by olopatadine, which is related to its minimal sedation, suggest its low penetration into the brain. The present study evaluates the impact of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ...
Dales Shelley - - 2008
This paper examines attachment theory in the context of the biology of affect regulation and the convergence of these in psychotherapeutic processes. Because of recent advances in understanding how the infant brain/mind/body is shaped by the infant's first social experiences, the purpose of this investigation is to extract those underlying ...
Mierzewska Hanna - - 2008
Adenylosuccinase (ADSL) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting mainly the nervous system. The disease causes psychomotor retardation, frequently with autistic features and epilepsy. ADSL deficiency may be diagnosed by detection of two abnormal metabolites in body fluids--succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr). It is assumed that the former ...
Wakuda Tomoyasu - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications have been regarded as a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life. One of the mechanisms underlying the association is postulated to be a hypoxic process in the brain in the offspring around the time of birth. Hippocampus is one of the brain regions implicated in the ...
Ng Sze M SM School of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. - - 2008
Infants born at extreme prematurity are at high risk of developmental disability. A major risk factor for disability is having a low level of thyroid hormone described as hypothyroxinaemia, which is recognised to be a frequent phenomenon in these infants. Derangements of critical thyroid function during the sensitive window in ...
Fraser Charles D CD Jr Congenital Heart Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2008
Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is a cardiopulmonary bypass technique that uses special cannulation procedures to perfuse only the brain during neonatal and infant aortic arch reconstruction. It is used in lieu of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), and thus has the theoretical advantage of protecting the brain from hypoxic ischemic ...
Reiman Milla - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between histologic inflammation of placenta and brain findings in ultrasound examinations and regional brain volumes in magnetic resonance imaging in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) or in very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: VLBW or very preterm infants (n = 121) were categorized into 3 groups according to the ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the understanding of the conceptual basis and diagnostic tests used for brain death (BD) by neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS: Between February and June 2006, a previously developed survey was mailed to every neurosurgeon in Canada. RESULTS: Of 223 surveys mailed, 147 (66%) were returned; of these, 128 ...
Braun Alex - - 2007
Germinal matrix (GM) is a richly vascularized collection of neuronal-glial precursor cells in the developing brain, which is selectively vulnerable to hemorrhage in premature infants. It has rapid angiogenesis associated with high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Because pericytes provide structural stability to blood vessels, we asked whether ...
Yu Chun Shui - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of our study were to employ diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis to determine the presence of occult damage in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), to compare its severity with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine correlations between DTI histogram measures and clinical and MRI indices in ...
Wang Ze - - 2008
Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI provides a noninvasive approach for longitudinal imaging of regional brain function in infants. In the present study, continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion MRI was carried out in normally developing 7- and 13-month-old infants while asleep without sedation. The 13-month infant group showed an increase (P<0.05) ...
Coats Brittany - - 2007
Computer finite element model (FEM) simulations are often used as a substitute for human experimental head injury studies to enhance our understanding of injury mechanisms and develop prevention strategies. While numerous adult FEM of the head have been developed, there are relatively few pediatric FEM due to the paucity of ...
Padilla-Gomes Nelly F - - 2007
AIM: To compare the prevalence of transient periventricular echodensities (TPE), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and haemorrhagic brain lesions (HBL) in singleton intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants and in those appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: Thirty-five IUGR and 35 AGA singleton infants born between 24- and 34-week gestational age were studied. The ...
Aisen Paul S - - 2007
As a potential disease-modifying treatment for AD, Alzhemed (tramiprosate) is a compound that binds to soluble amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) and inhibits the formation of neurotoxic aggregates that lead to amyloid plaque deposition in the brain. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic effects of Alzhemed were assessed in a double-blind study in ...
Yamada Takashi - - 2007
Theanine (r-glutamylethylamide) is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. Recent studies suggest that theanine affects neurotransmission, especially inhibitory neurotransmission. In this study, we investigated whether theanine affects brain development in infant rats, because inhibitory neurotransmission is required for mature brain function. Mother rats were fed theanine ...
Taga Gentaro - - 2007
One of the practical problems in neuroimaging using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is to choose an appropriate source-detector distance to maximize the sensitivity to cerebral blood oxygenation and to improve the spatial resolution for mapping cortical activation. While NIRS has attracted increasing attention in neuroimaging in infants, there has been ...
Larson Susan G - - 2007
The holotype of Homo floresiensis, diminutive hominins with tiny brains living until 12,000 years ago on the island of Flores, is a partial skeleton (LB1) that includes a partial clavicle (LB1/5) and a nearly complete right humerus (LB1/50). Although the humerus appears fairly modern in most regards, it is remarkable ...
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