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Renfrew Colin - - 2008
The human genome, and hence the human brain at birth, may not have changed greatly over the past 60000 years. Yet many of the major behavioural changes that we associate with most human societies are very much more recent, some appearing with the sedentary revolution of some 10000 years ago. ...
Degos Vincent - - 2008
Injury to the perinatal brain is a leading cause of childhood mortality and lifelong disability. Cerebral palsy and cognitive impairment are usually related to periventricular white matter damage, which is seen chiefly in babies born before 32 wk gestational age, and to corticosubcortical lesions, which occur mainly in full-term infants. ...
Cheong Jeanie L Y - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Extremely preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae. Head circumference has been used as a measure of brain growth. There are limited data relating head circumference to MRI. The purpose of this work was to establish the relationship between head circumference with brain MRI at term-equivalent age and ...
Long Tracy - - 2008
BACKGROUND: What a diagnosis of brain stem death (the term used in the United Kingdom) or brain death (the term used in the United States) means to the family members of potential organ donors is an important issue to explore as biomedicine moves to expand the range of end-of-life technologies ...
Liu Wen-Ching - - 2008
Patterns of cortical functional connectivity in normal infants were examined during natural sleep by observing the time course of very low frequency oscillations. Such oscillations represent fluctuations in blood oxygenation level and cortical blood flow thus allowing computation of neurophysiologic connectivity. Structural and resting-state information were acquired for 11 infants, ...
Wikström Sverre - - 2008
AIM: To investigate if the early electroencephalogram (EEG) and amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) in very preterm infants is affected by perinatal inflammation and brain injury, and correlates with long-term outcome. METHODS: Sixteen infants born at 24-28 gestational weeks (median 25.5) had continuous EEG/aEEG during the first 72 h of life. Minimum ...
Minagawa-Kawai Yasuyo - - 2008
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a unique method of monitoring infant brain function by measuring the changes in the concentrations of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. During the past 10 years, NIRS measurement of the developing brain has rapidly expanded. In this article, a brief discussion of the general principles of NIRS, ...
Black Amy M - - 2008
Apnea of pre-maturity is common, occurring in 85% of infants born less than 34 week gestation. Oral caffeine is the most frequent form of therapy, often in conjunction with the use of intubation and intermittent ventilation. Morphine is used to reduce the pain believed to be associated with the latter. ...
Wilcox Teresa - - 2008
Over the past 30 years researchers have learned a great deal about the development of object processing in infancy. In contrast, little is understood about the neural mechanisms that underlie this capacity, in large part because there are few techniques available to measure brain functioning in human infants. The present ...
Uchiyama Yasuo - - 2008
"Autophagy" is a highly conserved pathway for degradation, by which wasted intracellular macromolecules are delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded into biologically active monomers such as amino acids that are subsequently re-used to maintain cellular metabolic turnover and homeostasis. Recent genetic studies have shown that mice lacking an autophagy-related ...
Giménez Mónica - - 2008
Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal stratum. While some earlier findings in preterm infants ...
Jedari Attary S - - 2008
This report present an infant with nystagmus, strabismus, salt and pepper and scars in funduscopy, calcification in Brain CT scan and high titer of Anti Toxoplasmosis antibody. A 10 month old infant that referred with nystagmus, strabismus after fever which appeared five months ago. In funduscopy of both eyes, salt ...
Chiaretti Antonio - - 2008
OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries in childhood are associated with poor neurological outcome. Recently, experimental and clinical works show that nerve growth factor (NGF) reduces neurological deficits and promotes endothelial cells proliferation and angiogenesis following hypoxic-ischemic brain injuries. After brain stroke, new neurons express a protein, called doublecortin (DCX), ...
deRegnier Raye-Ann - - 2008
In extremely preterm infants, neonatal brain injury and interruption of the normal maturation of the brain result in functional impairments that appear to manifest in later life. The roots of these impairments may be evaluated in the newborn infant using neurophysiologic techniques, such as evoked potentials and event-related potentials. This ...
Messerschmidt Agnes - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal cerebellar development was recently recognized to be related to prematurity. Aim of the present study was to evaluate preterm birth and possible peri- and postnatal risk factors associated with this type of brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on a series of 35 very low birth weight ...
Koch Richard - - 2008
We evaluated the brain of a 4-month-old male infant whose mother had inadequately controlled maternal phenylketonuria (MPKU). At autopsy his brain was normally developed but underweight. We found ventriculomegaly, hypoplastic cerebral white matter, and delay of myelination in late myelinating tracts without white matter astrocytosis and without chronic lesions in ...
Olson Gary E - - 2008
Selenoprotein P (Sepp1) contains most of the selenium in blood plasma, and it is utilized by the kidney, brain, and testis as a selenium source for selenoprotein synthesis. We recently demonstrated that apolipoprotein E receptor-2 (ApoER2) is required for Sepp1 uptake by the testis and that deletion of ApoER2 reduces ...
Benjak Vesna - - 2008
There is a high incidence of periventricular leukomalacia, caused by hypoxia-ischemia, in preterm infants. These lesions damage the periventricular crossroads of commissural, projection and associative pathways, which are in a close topographical relationship with the lateral ventricles. We explored to what extent abnormalities of echogenicity of the periventricular crossroads correlate ...
Johnson Stephen A - - 2008
Drugs that suppress neuronal activity, including general anesthetics used in pediatric and obstetric medicine, trigger neuroapoptosis in the developing rodent brain. Exposure of infant rats for 6 hours to a combination of anesthetic drugs (midazolam, nitrous oxide, isoflurane) reportedly causes widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration, followed by lifelong cognitive deficits. Isoflurane, the ...
van Bel Frank - - 2008
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia or birth asphyxia is a serious complication with a high mortality and morbidity. For decades, neuroprotective options have been explored to reduce reperfusion and reoxygenation injury to the brain, which accounts for a substantial part of birth asphyxia-related brain damage. In this review, we focus on neuroprotective strategies ...
Mimura Nobuhito - - 2008
Olopatadine, a new second-generation antihistamine, is widely used in the treatment of allergic disorders. The low levels of histamine H1 receptor occupancy in human brain by olopatadine, which is related to its minimal sedation, suggest its low penetration into the brain. The present study evaluates the impact of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) ...
Dales Shelley - - 2008
This paper examines attachment theory in the context of the biology of affect regulation and the convergence of these in psychotherapeutic processes. Because of recent advances in understanding how the infant brain/mind/body is shaped by the infant's first social experiences, the purpose of this investigation is to extract those underlying ...
Mierzewska Hanna - - 2008
Adenylosuccinase (ADSL) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting mainly the nervous system. The disease causes psychomotor retardation, frequently with autistic features and epilepsy. ADSL deficiency may be diagnosed by detection of two abnormal metabolites in body fluids--succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr). It is assumed that the former ...
Wakuda Tomoyasu - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Obstetric complications have been regarded as a risk factor for schizophrenia later in life. One of the mechanisms underlying the association is postulated to be a hypoxic process in the brain in the offspring around the time of birth. Hippocampus is one of the brain regions implicated in the ...
Fraser Charles D CD - - 2008
Antegrade cerebral perfusion (ACP) is a cardiopulmonary bypass technique that uses special cannulation procedures to perfuse only the brain during neonatal and infant aortic arch reconstruction. It is used in lieu of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), and thus has the theoretical advantage of protecting the brain from hypoxic ischemic ...
Ng Sze M SM School of Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. - - 2008
Infants born at extreme prematurity are at high risk of developmental disability. A major risk factor for disability is having a low level of thyroid hormone described as hypothyroxinaemia, which is recognised to be a frequent phenomenon in these infants. Derangements of critical thyroid function during the sensitive window in ...
Reiman Milla - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between histologic inflammation of placenta and brain findings in ultrasound examinations and regional brain volumes in magnetic resonance imaging in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) or in very preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: VLBW or very preterm infants (n = 121) were categorized into 3 groups according to the ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the understanding of the conceptual basis and diagnostic tests used for brain death (BD) by neurosurgeons in Canada. METHODS: Between February and June 2006, a previously developed survey was mailed to every neurosurgeon in Canada. RESULTS: Of 223 surveys mailed, 147 (66%) were returned; of these, 128 ...
Braun Alex - - 2007
Germinal matrix (GM) is a richly vascularized collection of neuronal-glial precursor cells in the developing brain, which is selectively vulnerable to hemorrhage in premature infants. It has rapid angiogenesis associated with high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Because pericytes provide structural stability to blood vessels, we asked whether ...
Yu Chun Shui - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of our study were to employ diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)-based histogram analysis to determine the presence of occult damage in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), to compare its severity with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and to determine correlations between DTI histogram measures and clinical and MRI indices in ...
Wang Ze - - 2008
Arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI provides a noninvasive approach for longitudinal imaging of regional brain function in infants. In the present study, continuous ASL (CASL) perfusion MRI was carried out in normally developing 7- and 13-month-old infants while asleep without sedation. The 13-month infant group showed an increase (P<0.05) ...
Coats Brittany - - 2007
Computer finite element model (FEM) simulations are often used as a substitute for human experimental head injury studies to enhance our understanding of injury mechanisms and develop prevention strategies. While numerous adult FEM of the head have been developed, there are relatively few pediatric FEM due to the paucity of ...
Padilla-Gomes Nelly F - - 2007
AIM: To compare the prevalence of transient periventricular echodensities (TPE), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) and haemorrhagic brain lesions (HBL) in singleton intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) infants and in those appropriate for gestational age (AGA). METHODS: Thirty-five IUGR and 35 AGA singleton infants born between 24- and 34-week gestational age were studied. The ...
Aisen Paul S - - 2007
As a potential disease-modifying treatment for AD, Alzhemed (tramiprosate) is a compound that binds to soluble amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) and inhibits the formation of neurotoxic aggregates that lead to amyloid plaque deposition in the brain. The safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic effects of Alzhemed were assessed in a double-blind study in ...
Yamada Takashi - - 2007
Theanine (r-glutamylethylamide) is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. Recent studies suggest that theanine affects neurotransmission, especially inhibitory neurotransmission. In this study, we investigated whether theanine affects brain development in infant rats, because inhibitory neurotransmission is required for mature brain function. Mother rats were fed theanine ...
Taga Gentaro - - 2007
One of the practical problems in neuroimaging using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is to choose an appropriate source-detector distance to maximize the sensitivity to cerebral blood oxygenation and to improve the spatial resolution for mapping cortical activation. While NIRS has attracted increasing attention in neuroimaging in infants, there has been ...
Larson Susan G - - 2007
The holotype of Homo floresiensis, diminutive hominins with tiny brains living until 12,000 years ago on the island of Flores, is a partial skeleton (LB1) that includes a partial clavicle (LB1/5) and a nearly complete right humerus (LB1/50). Although the humerus appears fairly modern in most regards, it is remarkable ...
Walton Raquel M - - 2007
Lysosomal storage disorders constitute a large group of genetic diseases, many of which are characterized by mental retardation and other neurologic symptoms. The mechanisms of neural dysfunction remain poorly understood. Because neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are fundamentally important to normal brain development and function, we investigated NPC properties in a ...
Auvichayapat Narong - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical manifestation, predisposing factor location of abscess, causative organism, treatment, and outcome of brain abscess. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive retrospective study. SETTING: Srinagarind Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen. MATERIAL AND METHOD: One hundred and seven infants and children with brain ...
Eswaran Hari - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Utilizing a MEG-based device specifically designed to study the fetus, we investigated the presence of salient patterns in spontaneous fetal brain activity. METHODS: We performed 91 MEG recordings from 30 fetuses at various gestational ages. The tracings were evaluated and compared to the well-established electroencephalographic (EEG) features in premature ...
Gibson Alan T - - 2007
Preterm birth currently occurs in approximately 12% of pregnancies and appears to be increasing despite improvements in obstetric care. Improvements in neonatal care have led to increased survival, particularly at extreme prematurity, but survival may be associated with significant morbidity. This may be acute, reflecting the difficulties in supporting an ...
Horsch Sandra - - 2007
AIMS: Brain abnormalities are common in preterm infants and can be reliably detected by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at term equivalent age. The aim of the present study was to acquire population based data on brain abnormalities in extremely low gestational age (ELGA) infants from the Stockholm region and to ...
Jurkiewicz Elzbieta - - 2007
Adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL) deficiency is a rare disease of de novo purine synthesis. The main symptoms are psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, autistic features, occasionally associated with muscular hypotonia. Diagnosis is made by detection of abnormal purine metabolites (succinyladenosine - S-Ado and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside - SAICAr) in body fluids. The severity ...
Franceschini Maria Angela - - 2007
This is the first report to demonstrate quantitative monitoring of infant brain development with frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS). Regionally specific increases in blood volume and oxygen consumption were measured in healthy infants during their first year. The results agree with prior PET and SPECT reports; but, unlike these methods, FD-NIRS ...
Rees Sandra M - - 2007
Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) enhances ventilation in very preterm infants, but the effects on the brain remain uncertain. We evaluated the impact of iNO on brain growth and cerebral injury in a premature baboon model. Baboons were delivered at 125 d of gestation (term 185 d of gestation) and ventilated ...
Hebden Jeremy C - - 2007
A new method of assessing neurological function and pathology in the newborn infant is being developed based on the transmission of near-infrared light across the brain. Absorption by blood over a range of wavelengths reveals a strong dependency on oxygenation status, and measurements of transmitted light enable the spatial variation ...
Mewes Andrea U J - - 2007
Regional investigations of newborn MRI are important to understand the appearance and consequences of early brain injury. Previously, regionalization in neonates has been achieved with a Talairach parcellation, using internal landmarks of the brain. Non-synostotic dolichocephaly defines a bi-temporal narrowing of the preterm infant's head caused by pressure on the ...
Cai Jeff - - 2007
The mechanisms underlying astrocyte heterogeneity in the developing mouse brain are poorly understood. The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is essential for motoneuron and oligodendrocyte formation; however, its role in astrocyte development remains obscure. During cortical development, Olig2 is transiently expressed in immature developing astrocytes at neonatal stages and is progressively ...
Jayawant Sandeep - - 2007
Subdural haemorrhages (SDH) are associated with significant neurodisability in affected individuals. The incidence of SDH in infants is between 12 and 25 cases per 100,000 children and most detected SDH are due to physical abuse. In the infant brain, SDH are caused by tearing of the bridging veins in the ...
Saitoh Makiko - - 2007
The lipid composition and molecular species of phospholipids were examined in the brain of a patient with Zellweger syndrome (ZS), and were compared with those of control infants. In the cerebral gray matter of the ZS patient, the amounts of ceramide monohexoside and cholesterol ester were larger than those of ...
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