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Couper Z - - 2010
Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a contentious issue on both biomechanical and medical fronts, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the loading-injury relationship of infant shaking and the parameters that are deterministic to its nature. In order to address this lack, a finite element (FE) representation of a ...
Esmaeilzadeh Majid - - 2010
An accident or a catastrophic disease may occasionally lead to brain death (BD) during pregnancy. Management of brain-dead pregnant patients needs to follow special strategies to support the mother in a way that she can deliver a viable and healthy child and, whenever possible, also be an organ donor. This ...
Jeschonek Susanna - - 2010
One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, ...
Spittle Alicia J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Abnormal General Movements (GMs) early in life are predictive of later neuromotor deficits and are related to white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, other structural correlates of abnormal GMs have not been defined. AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore brain-metrics (linear brain measurements ...
van Delft Eveline - - 2010
We present a premature infant with an inability to ventilate spontaneously during sleep periods. In addition, the patient showed general hypotonia. The child had a delayed passage of stool and increased anal muscle tone, indicating Hirschsprung's disease. The combination of these symptoms suggested congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, which was confirmed ...
de Vries Linda S - - 2009
Our aim was to document changes in the evaluation and prognosis of term-born infants with neonatal encephalopathy of hypoxic-ischemic origin, with particular reference to our own experiences and influences, and to summarize the debate on causation and the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal factors. High quality neonatal cranial ultrasound ...
van der Weel F R Ruud - - 2009
A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young ...
Wolf Martin - - 2009
This article reviews tissue oximetry and imaging to study the preterm and newborn infant brain by near-infrared spectroscopy. These two technologies are now advanced; nearly 100 reports on their use in newborn infants have been published, and commercial instruments are available. The precision of oximetry, however, is a limitation for ...
Volpe Joseph J - - 2009
The field of neonatal neurology, and specifically its focus on the premature infant, had its inception in neuropathologic studies. Since then, the development of advanced imaging techniques has guided our developing understanding of the etiology and nature of neonatal brain injury. This review promotes the concept that neonatal brain injury ...
Edwards A David AD Division of Clinical Sciences, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK. - - 2009
The development of the concepts of delayed post-ischaemic neuronal death and neural rescue brought about a search for clinical treatments to reduce brain damage after birth asphyxia. Cooling had long been an unproven empyrical therapy, and a 20 year programme of careful laboratory and clinical research has proved that hypothermia ...
McPhie Anika A - - 2009
Human infants are often exposed to opiates chronically but the mechanisms by which opiates induce dependence in the infant are not well studied. In the adult the brain regions involved in the physical signs of opiate withdrawal include the periaqueductal gray area, the locus coeruleus, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, nucleus ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2009
Death has occurred when there is irreversible loss of integration of the organism as a whole, and brain death is said to be a criterion for death. In the present case, a 10-month-old boy was found submerged in a bathtub and was given cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 37 minutes. He had ...
Bueter Wolfgang - - 2009
Inflammation seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage in fetuses/infants born much before term. We raise the possibility that noninflammatory phenomena induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, which, in turn, leads to the unfolded protein response, which is followed by apoptosis-promoting processes and inflammation. Perhaps by these ...
Ancora Gina - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Changes in head posture influence brain hemodynamics. Optimal positioning has been recommended as 1 of 10 potentially better practices to reduce the incidence of brain injury in preterm newborns. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the effect of different head and body ...
Nagy Zoltan Z Neonatal Units, Department of Woman andChild Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2009
The Stockholm Neonatal Project involves a prospective, cross-sectional, population-based, cohort monitored for 12 to 17 years after birth; it was started with the aim of investigating the long-term structural correlates of preterm birth and comparing findings with reports on similar cohorts. High-resolution anatomic and diffusion tensor imaging data measuring diffusion ...
Ekblad Mikael - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and both brain volumes and head circumference in very-low-birth-weight/very-low-gestational-age infants. STUDY DESIGN: The PIPARI Study is a prospective follow-up study of infants with a birth weight < or =1500 g or a gestational age <32 weeks born in 2001 to ...
Barone M R - - 2009
To try to understand the causative role of epilepsy PER SE in the developmental deterioration of brain injured infants, twenty-eight infants affected with early acquired, pre- and perinatal brain injuries were enrolled and divided into three groups, a) those with West syndrome, b) those with other non-West epilepsies, and c) ...
O'Shea T M - - 2009
Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) are at increased risk for structural and functional brain abnormalities. To identify factors that contribute to brain damage in ELGANs. Multi-center cohort study. We enrolled 1506 ELGANs born before 28 weeks gestation at 14 sites; 1201 (80%) survived to 2 years corrected age. Information ...
Fransson Peter - - 2009
Recent progress in functional neuroimaging research has provided the opportunity to probe at the brain's intrinsic functional architecture. Synchronized spontaneous neuronal activity is present in the form of resting-state networks in the brain even in the absence of external stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence ...
Strathearn Lane L Department of Pediatrics, The Meyer Center for Developmental Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2009
Infant cues, such as smiling or crying facial expressions, are powerful motivators of human maternal behavior, activating dopamine-associated brain reward circuits. Oxytocin, a neurohormone of attachment, promotes maternal care in animals, although its role in human maternal behavior is unclear. We examined 30 first-time new mothers to test whether differences ...
Ikonomidou Chrysanthy - - 2009
Apoptosis occurs physiologically in the mammalian brain during the period of the growth spurt, which in human starts in the 3rd trimester of gestation and ends by the third year of life. Environmental factors can interact with programmed cell death mechanisms to increase the number of neurons undergoing apoptosis and ...
Lloyd-Fox S - - 2010
A decade has passed since near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was first applied to functional brain imaging in infants. As part of the team that published the first functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) infant study in 1998, we have continued to develop and refine both the technology and methods associated with ...
Ewen Joshua B - - 2009
Many infants born with a facial port-wine (PW) birthmark will not develop brain involvement of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Previous studies have shown asymmetry in quantitative EEG (qEEG) correlates with degree of clinical impairment in children and adults with known SWS. We hope to determine if quantitative qEEG can be used ...
Kaukola Tuula - - 2010
BACKGROUND: New imaging techniques allow a detailed visualization of the brain and the findings possibly correlate with neurophysiologic measurements and neurosensory and motor outcomes. Postnatal clinical factors known to associate with neurologic disabilities may contribute to brain abnormalities not visible to the naked eye. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether quantitative measurement ...
Sundaram Venkataseshan - - 2010
Brain abscesses are uncommon in neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a very uncommon microbial agent to cause brain abscess. We report 2 infants with Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis who developed brain abscesses. One infant was a premature neonate who required mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently developed nosocomial sepsis and ...
Lloyd-Fox Sarah S Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2009
The capacity to engage and communicate in a social world is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. While the network of regions that compose the social brain have been the subject of extensive research in adults, there are limited techniques available for monitoring young infants. This study ...
Laptook Abbot R - - 2009
Newborn encephalopathy represents a clinical syndrome with diverse causes, many of which may result in brain injury. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy represents a subset of newborns with encephalopathy and, in contrast to other causes, may have a modifiable outcome. Laboratory research has demonstrated robust neuroprotection associated with reductions of brain temperature following ...
Scafidi Joey - - 2009
Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure ...
Slater Rebeccah R Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
While human infants can display distinctive behavioural and physiological spinal cord and brainstem responses to noxious stimulation, it is not known whether cortical neurons are specifically activated by noxious stimuli in newborns. Here, using a novel approach to time-lock an EEG recording to a clinically required heel lance, we show ...
Brown Gemma - - 2009
Premature infants in the NICU are often exposed to continuous loud noise despite research documenting the presence and damaging effects of noise on the preterm infant's development. Excessive auditory stimulation creates negative physiologic responses such as apnea and fluctuations in heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. Preterm infants exposed ...
Giuseppe Distefano - - 2009
In preterm infants, neurological signs and clinical manifestations of brain damage are limited criteria for diagnosis of neurologic sequelae. Early indicators of brain damage are needed and currently some specific biochemical markers of brain injury are investigated to assess regional brain damage after perinatal asphyxia in neonates. In this study ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2009
Premature infants have a disproportionately increased risk for brain injury based on several mechanisms including intraventricular hemorrhage, ischemia and the vulnerability of developing neuronal progenitor cells. Injury to the developing brain often results in neurologic abnormalities that can be correlated with a structural lesion; however more subtle injury may result ...
Mathur Amit - - 2009
Preterm birth is a major public-health issue because of its increasing incidence combined with the frequent occurrence of subsequent behavioral, neurological, and psychiatric challenges faced by surviving infants. Approximately 10-15% of very preterm children (born<30 weeks gestational age) develop cerebral palsy, and 30-60% of them experience cognitive impairments. These adverse ...
Gazzolo Diego - - 2009
Hypoxia-ischemia constitutes a risk in infants by altering cerebral blood flow regulatory mechanisms and causing loss of cerebral vascular auto-regulation. Hypotension, cerebral ischemia, and reperfusion are the main events involved in vascular auto-regulation leading to cell death and tissue damage. Reperfusion could be critical since organ damage, particularly of the ...
Samal Badhuli - - 2009
Brain abscess is an uncommon and serious life-threatening infection in children. Focal intracranial infections caused by Salmonella spp. in this age group are also rare. We report the case of a 4-month-old male infant with a frontoparietal brain abscess caused by Salmonella typhimurium, the presence of which was not suspected ...
Shi Yuan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical values of positron emission tomography (PET) in preterm and term newborn infants through observing brain glucose metabolism by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET. METHOD: To observe the brain (18)F-FDG PET imaging in 9 term and 7 preterm newborn infants in the same condition after administration of 0.1 ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2009
In this article, the role of hypothermia and neuroprotection for neonatal encephalopathy will be discussed. The incidence of encephalopathy due to hypoxia ischemia as well as the pathophysiology will be presented. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in full-term neonates will be discussed. The current management of brain injury that occurs with ...
Joffe Ari - - 2010
Brain death is accepted in most countries as death. The rationales to explain why brain death is death are surprisingly problematic. The standard rationale that in brain death there has been loss of integrative unity of the organism has been shown to be false, and a better rationale has not ...
Nakato Emi - - 2009
The objective of the present study was to determine whether a developmental difference occurs in brain activity when infants look at frontal and profile views using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which is an optical imaging technique used to measure changes in the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), and total hemoglobin ...
Loeliger Michelle - - 2009
A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) alters pulmonary mechanics and regional blood flow in the preterm infant. Its significance with respect to brain injury and brain development are unclear. We evaluated the effects of surgical ductal ligation on the preterm baboon brain. Baboons were delivered at 125 d of gestation (dg, ...
Heine Vivi M - - 2009
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are administered to human fetuses at risk of premature delivery and to infants with life-threatening respiratory and cardiac conditions. However, there are ongoing concerns about adverse effects of GC treatment on the developing human brain, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced brain injury are unclear. Here, we ...
Leijser Lara M - - 2009
This study describes the relation between frequent and clinically relevant brain imaging findings in very preterm infants (GA<32 weeks), assessed with sequential cranial ultrasonography throughout the neonatal period and MRI around term age, and several potential perinatal risk factors. For ultrasound findings during admission the following independent risk factors were ...
Baradkar V P - - 2009
Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained ...
Reiman Milla - - 2009
Preterm infants have smaller cerebral and cerebellar volumes at term compared with term born infants. Perinatal factors leading to the reduction in volumes are not well known. IL-6 -174 and -572 genotypes partly regulate individual immunologic responses and have also been connected with deviant neurologic development in preterm infants. Our ...
Lee Ji Y - - 2009
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies and preferentially affecting women of childbearing age. Because the offspring of mothers with SLE show a high frequency of learning disorders, we hypothesized that maternally transferred autoantibodies that bind DNA and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) could have a pathogenic ...
Pasternak J D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess in infants is extremely rare in the developed world. Often, these children have a predisposing history and are infected with certain bacterial aetiology. CASE HISTORY: A 3-month-old boy presented to the hospital emergently with an increased intracranial pressure crisis. All predisposing factors such as maternal history, family ...
Gunn Alistair Jan - - 2008
There is strong evidence that prolonged, moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated within a few hours after severe hypoxia-ischemia and continued until resolution of the acute phase of delayed cell death can reduce neuronal loss and improve behavioral recovery in term infants and adults after cardiac arrest. This review examines the evidence ...
Qin Qiong - - 2008
Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid-derived autacoid, is an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mediator that is generated in the retina and brain. The effects of exogenous NPD1 on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and the role of 12/15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in retina were evaluated after optic nerve transection (ONT). Treatment with ...
Kaindl Angela M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen toxicity has been identified as a risk factor for adverse neurological outcome in survivors of preterm birth. In infant rodent brains, hyperoxia induces disseminated apoptotic neurodegeneration. Because a tissue-protective effect has been observed for recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo), widely used in neonatal medicine for its hematopoietic effect, we examined ...
Nguyen The Tich S S Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Angers, France. - - 2009
The application of volumetric techniques to preterm infants has revealed brain volume reductions. Such quantitative data are not available in routine neonatal radiologic care. The objective of this study was to develop simple brain metrics to compare brain size in preterm and term infants and to correlate these metrics with ...
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