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Nagy Zoltan Z Neonatal Units, Department of Woman andChild Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden. - - 2009
The Stockholm Neonatal Project involves a prospective, cross-sectional, population-based, cohort monitored for 12 to 17 years after birth; it was started with the aim of investigating the long-term structural correlates of preterm birth and comparing findings with reports on similar cohorts. High-resolution anatomic and diffusion tensor imaging data measuring diffusion ...
Ekblad Mikael - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and both brain volumes and head circumference in very-low-birth-weight/very-low-gestational-age infants. STUDY DESIGN: The PIPARI Study is a prospective follow-up study of infants with a birth weight < or =1500 g or a gestational age <32 weeks born in 2001 to ...
Barone M R - - 2009
To try to understand the causative role of epilepsy PER SE in the developmental deterioration of brain injured infants, twenty-eight infants affected with early acquired, pre- and perinatal brain injuries were enrolled and divided into three groups, a) those with West syndrome, b) those with other non-West epilepsies, and c) ...
O'Shea T M - - 2009
Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) are at increased risk for structural and functional brain abnormalities. To identify factors that contribute to brain damage in ELGANs. Multi-center cohort study. We enrolled 1506 ELGANs born before 28 weeks gestation at 14 sites; 1201 (80%) survived to 2 years corrected age. Information ...
Fransson Peter - - 2009
Recent progress in functional neuroimaging research has provided the opportunity to probe at the brain's intrinsic functional architecture. Synchronized spontaneous neuronal activity is present in the form of resting-state networks in the brain even in the absence of external stimuli. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence ...
Strathearn Lane L Department of Pediatrics, The Meyer Center for Developmental Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA. - - 2009
Infant cues, such as smiling or crying facial expressions, are powerful motivators of human maternal behavior, activating dopamine-associated brain reward circuits. Oxytocin, a neurohormone of attachment, promotes maternal care in animals, although its role in human maternal behavior is unclear. We examined 30 first-time new mothers to test whether differences ...
Ikonomidou Chrysanthy - - 2009
Apoptosis occurs physiologically in the mammalian brain during the period of the growth spurt, which in human starts in the 3rd trimester of gestation and ends by the third year of life. Environmental factors can interact with programmed cell death mechanisms to increase the number of neurons undergoing apoptosis and ...
Lloyd-Fox S - - 2010
A decade has passed since near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was first applied to functional brain imaging in infants. As part of the team that published the first functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) infant study in 1998, we have continued to develop and refine both the technology and methods associated with ...
Ewen Joshua B - - 2009
Many infants born with a facial port-wine (PW) birthmark will not develop brain involvement of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Previous studies have shown asymmetry in quantitative EEG (qEEG) correlates with degree of clinical impairment in children and adults with known SWS. We hope to determine if quantitative qEEG can be used ...
Kaukola Tuula - - 2010
BACKGROUND: New imaging techniques allow a detailed visualization of the brain and the findings possibly correlate with neurophysiologic measurements and neurosensory and motor outcomes. Postnatal clinical factors known to associate with neurologic disabilities may contribute to brain abnormalities not visible to the naked eye. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether quantitative measurement ...
Sundaram Venkataseshan - - 2010
Brain abscesses are uncommon in neonates. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a very uncommon microbial agent to cause brain abscess. We report 2 infants with Klebsiella pneumoniae sepsis who developed brain abscesses. One infant was a premature neonate who required mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently developed nosocomial sepsis and ...
Lloyd-Fox Sarah S Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, United Kingdom. - - 2009
The capacity to engage and communicate in a social world is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. While the network of regions that compose the social brain have been the subject of extensive research in adults, there are limited techniques available for monitoring young infants. This study ...
Laptook Abbot R - - 2009
Newborn encephalopathy represents a clinical syndrome with diverse causes, many of which may result in brain injury. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy represents a subset of newborns with encephalopathy and, in contrast to other causes, may have a modifiable outcome. Laboratory research has demonstrated robust neuroprotection associated with reductions of brain temperature following ...
Scafidi Joey - - 2009
Premature birth is a growing and significant public health problem because of the large number of infants that survive with neurodevelopmental sequelae from brain injury. Recent advances in neuroimaging have shown that although some neuroanatomical structures are altered, others improve over time. This review outlines recent insights into brain structure ...
Slater Rebeccah R Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, United Kingdom. - - 2010
While human infants can display distinctive behavioural and physiological spinal cord and brainstem responses to noxious stimulation, it is not known whether cortical neurons are specifically activated by noxious stimuli in newborns. Here, using a novel approach to time-lock an EEG recording to a clinically required heel lance, we show ...
Brown Gemma - - 2009
Premature infants in the NICU are often exposed to continuous loud noise despite research documenting the presence and damaging effects of noise on the preterm infant's development. Excessive auditory stimulation creates negative physiologic responses such as apnea and fluctuations in heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation. Preterm infants exposed ...
Giuseppe Distefano - - 2009
In preterm infants, neurological signs and clinical manifestations of brain damage are limited criteria for diagnosis of neurologic sequelae. Early indicators of brain damage are needed and currently some specific biochemical markers of brain injury are investigated to assess regional brain damage after perinatal asphyxia in neonates. In this study ...
Adams-Chapman Ira - - 2009
Premature infants have a disproportionately increased risk for brain injury based on several mechanisms including intraventricular hemorrhage, ischemia and the vulnerability of developing neuronal progenitor cells. Injury to the developing brain often results in neurologic abnormalities that can be correlated with a structural lesion; however more subtle injury may result ...
Mathur Amit - - 2009
Preterm birth is a major public-health issue because of its increasing incidence combined with the frequent occurrence of subsequent behavioral, neurological, and psychiatric challenges faced by surviving infants. Approximately 10-15% of very preterm children (born<30 weeks gestational age) develop cerebral palsy, and 30-60% of them experience cognitive impairments. These adverse ...
Gazzolo Diego - - 2009
Hypoxia-ischemia constitutes a risk in infants by altering cerebral blood flow regulatory mechanisms and causing loss of cerebral vascular auto-regulation. Hypotension, cerebral ischemia, and reperfusion are the main events involved in vascular auto-regulation leading to cell death and tissue damage. Reperfusion could be critical since organ damage, particularly of the ...
Samal Badhuli - - 2009
Brain abscess is an uncommon and serious life-threatening infection in children. Focal intracranial infections caused by Salmonella spp. in this age group are also rare. We report the case of a 4-month-old male infant with a frontoparietal brain abscess caused by Salmonella typhimurium, the presence of which was not suspected ...
Shi Yuan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical values of positron emission tomography (PET) in preterm and term newborn infants through observing brain glucose metabolism by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET. METHOD: To observe the brain (18)F-FDG PET imaging in 9 term and 7 preterm newborn infants in the same condition after administration of 0.1 ...
Shankaran Seetha - - 2009
In this article, the role of hypothermia and neuroprotection for neonatal encephalopathy will be discussed. The incidence of encephalopathy due to hypoxia ischemia as well as the pathophysiology will be presented. The diagnosis of encephalopathy in full-term neonates will be discussed. The current management of brain injury that occurs with ...
Joffe Ari - - 2010
Brain death is accepted in most countries as death. The rationales to explain why brain death is death are surprisingly problematic. The standard rationale that in brain death there has been loss of integrative unity of the organism has been shown to be false, and a better rationale has not ...
Nakato Emi - - 2009
The objective of the present study was to determine whether a developmental difference occurs in brain activity when infants look at frontal and profile views using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which is an optical imaging technique used to measure changes in the concentrations of oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb), and total hemoglobin ...
Loeliger Michelle - - 2009
A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) alters pulmonary mechanics and regional blood flow in the preterm infant. Its significance with respect to brain injury and brain development are unclear. We evaluated the effects of surgical ductal ligation on the preterm baboon brain. Baboons were delivered at 125 d of gestation (dg, ...
Heine Vivi M - - 2009
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are administered to human fetuses at risk of premature delivery and to infants with life-threatening respiratory and cardiac conditions. However, there are ongoing concerns about adverse effects of GC treatment on the developing human brain, although the precise molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced brain injury are unclear. Here, we ...
Leijser Lara M - - 2009
This study describes the relation between frequent and clinically relevant brain imaging findings in very preterm infants (GA<32 weeks), assessed with sequential cranial ultrasonography throughout the neonatal period and MRI around term age, and several potential perinatal risk factors. For ultrasound findings during admission the following independent risk factors were ...
Baradkar V P - - 2009
Brain abscess is uncommon in the pediatric population. Here, we report one such case due to Candida albicans in one-year-old infant, without any predisposing factors. The child presented with progressively increasing size of head circumference. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT scan of brain and microbiological investigations on the drained ...
Reiman Milla - - 2009
Preterm infants have smaller cerebral and cerebellar volumes at term compared with term born infants. Perinatal factors leading to the reduction in volumes are not well known. IL-6 -174 and -572 genotypes partly regulate individual immunologic responses and have also been connected with deviant neurologic development in preterm infants. Our ...
Lee Ji Y - - 2009
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mediated by autoantibodies and preferentially affecting women of childbearing age. Because the offspring of mothers with SLE show a high frequency of learning disorders, we hypothesized that maternally transferred autoantibodies that bind DNA and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) could have a pathogenic ...
Pasternak J D - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess in infants is extremely rare in the developed world. Often, these children have a predisposing history and are infected with certain bacterial aetiology. CASE HISTORY: A 3-month-old boy presented to the hospital emergently with an increased intracranial pressure crisis. All predisposing factors such as maternal history, family ...
Gunn Alistair Jan - - 2008
There is strong evidence that prolonged, moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated within a few hours after severe hypoxia-ischemia and continued until resolution of the acute phase of delayed cell death can reduce neuronal loss and improve behavioral recovery in term infants and adults after cardiac arrest. This review examines the evidence ...
Qin Qiong - - 2008
Neuroprotectin D1 (NPD1), a docosahexaenoic acid-derived autacoid, is an endogenous neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory mediator that is generated in the retina and brain. The effects of exogenous NPD1 on retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis and the role of 12/15-lipoxygenase (Alox15) in retina were evaluated after optic nerve transection (ONT). Treatment with ...
Kaindl Angela M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Oxygen toxicity has been identified as a risk factor for adverse neurological outcome in survivors of preterm birth. In infant rodent brains, hyperoxia induces disseminated apoptotic neurodegeneration. Because a tissue-protective effect has been observed for recombinant erythropoietin (rEpo), widely used in neonatal medicine for its hematopoietic effect, we examined ...
Nguyen The Tich S - - 2009
The application of volumetric techniques to preterm infants has revealed brain volume reductions. Such quantitative data are not available in routine neonatal radiologic care. The objective of this study was to develop simple brain metrics to compare brain size in preterm and term infants and to correlate these metrics with ...
Rousset Catherine I - - 2008
Intracerebral injection of ibotenate in newborn rodents produces brain damage that mimics that of infants with cerebral palsy. Because maternal infection may contribute to brain injury in preterm infants, we investigated brain damage after maternal inflammation and postnatal ibotenate treatment in a rat model of cerebral palsy. Pregnant rats were ...
DeSilva Jeremy M - - 2008
An increase in brain size is a hallmark of human evolution. Questions regarding the evolution of brain development and obstetric constraints in the human lineage can be addressed with accurate estimates of the size of the brain at birth in hominins. Previous estimates of brain size at birth in fossil ...
Swain James E JE Yale Child Study Center, Program for Risk, Resilience and Recovery, USA. - - 2008
A range of early circumstances surrounding the birth of a child affects peripartum hormones, parental behavior and infant wellbeing. One of these factors, which may lead to postpartum depression, is the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery (VD) or cesarean section delivery (CSD). To test the hypothesis that CSD mothers would ...
Leliefeld Paul H - - 2008
OBJECT: Raised intracranial pressure (ICP) that is associated with hydrocephalus may lead to alterations in cerebral hemodynamics and ischemic changes in the brain. In infants with hydrocephalus, defining the right moment for surgical intervention based on clinical signs alone can sometimes be a difficult task. Clinical signs of raised ICP ...
Lavery Shelly V - - 2008
Continuously monitoring brain ftinction at the bedside in the NICU for term infants at risk of brain injury has become part of routine clinical practice in many countries. These monitors offer invaluable information about the sick infant's neurologic status by providing real-time measurements of the brain's electrical activity and identifring ...
Hart Anthony R - - 2008
Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of developmental difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to identify damage to the brain following preterm birth. It is hoped this information will aid prognostication and identify neonates who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Cystic periventricular white matter ...
McRory John E - - 2008
We have generated a syntaxin 1A knockout mouse by deletion of exons 3 through 6 and a concomitant insertion of a stop codon in exon 2. Heterozygous knockout animals were viable with no apparent phenotype. In contrast, the vast majority of homozygous animals died in utero, with embryos examined at ...
Altaye Mekibib - - 2008
Spatial normalization and segmentation of infant brain MRI data based on adult or pediatric reference data may not be appropriate due to the developmental differences between the infant input data and the reference data. In this study we have constructed infant templates and a priori brain tissue probability maps based ...
Ledebt Annick - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to compare the walking abilities in infants with and without periventricular leukomalacia and to see whether the severity of the brain damage was related to locomotor outcome of the infants at 12 and 18 months. 47 newborns were included in the study based ...
Ohgi Shohei - - 2008
Comparisons of spontaneous movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries can provide insights into normal and abnormal processes in the ontogeny of motor development. In this study, the characteristics of spontaneous upper-extremity movements of premature infants with brain injuries and those without brain injuries were ...
Villapol Sonia - - 2008
Neonatal encephalopathy is a major predictor of neurodevelopmental disability in term infants and occurs in 1 to 6 of every 1,000 live term births. Despite improvements in perinatal practice during the past several decades, the incidence of cerebral palsy attributed to neonatal asphyxia remained essentially unchanged, primarily because management strategies ...
Strathearn Lane - - 2008
Our goal was to determine how a mother's brain responds to her own infant's facial expressions, comparing happy, neutral, and sad face affect. In an event-related functional MRI study, 28 first-time mothers were shown novel face images of their own 5- to 10-month-old infant and a matched unknown infant. Sixty ...
Dubois J - - 2008
In the human brain, the morphology of cortical gyri and sulci is complex and variable among individuals, and it may reflect pathological functioning with specific abnormalities observed in certain developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Since cortical folding occurs early during brain development, these structural abnormalities might be present long before the ...
Renfrew Colin - - 2008
The human genome, and hence the human brain at birth, may not have changed greatly over the past 60000 years. Yet many of the major behavioural changes that we associate with most human societies are very much more recent, some appearing with the sedentary revolution of some 10000 years ago. ...
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