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Matturri Luigi - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: To contribute to a more balanced assessment of the morphological substrates underlying unexplained perinatal death and SIDS. METHODS: In-depth histological, immunohistochemical and genetic examinations were performed on the autonomic nervous and cardiac conduction systems in 95 unexpected perinatal deaths, 140 SIDS and 78 controls (44 infants and 34 perinatal ...
Campolo D - - 2011
This paper describes a novel approach to the assessment of spatial cognition in children. In particular we present a wireless instrumented toy embedding magneto-inertial sensors for orientation tracking, specifically developed to assess the ability to insert objects into holes. To be used in naturalistic environments (e.g. daycares), we also describe ...
Mijares Nodarse Eleina - - 2011
INTRODUCTION: The techniques most frequently used within a screening context (otoacoustic emissions and click auditory brainstem response) have well-known limitations in hearing loss detection. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the feasibility of a semi-automated multiple auditory steady-state responses (MSSR) system designed for neonatal hearing screening. METHODS: A sample of 50 newborns ...
Luquetti Daniela Varela - - 2011
The impacts of birth defects in the society have substantially increased over the last decades in countries where the reduction of infant mortality by other causes has occurred. Birth defects surveillance represents an important source of information for planning X health policies and resource allocation. In this article, we discuss ...
Malhotra Yogangi - - 2011
We report the first pediatric case of an extrarenal, noncentral nervous system, diffusely metastatic, gastrointestinal rhabdoid tumor in a 106-day-old, previous 25-week preterm infant. The unusual clinical presentation, the diagnosis, and biology of this tumor as well as the etiology of hemoperitoneum in neonates and infants are discussed.
Boechat Márcia Cristina Bastos - - 2010
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is considered to be the best method for detailed pulmonary evaluation. The aim here was to describe a scoring system based on abnormalities identified on HRCT among premature infants, and measure the predictive validity of the score in relation to respiratory morbidity during the first year ...
Jobe Alan H - - 2010
Many extremely low birth weight (LBW) neonates now survive with intensive care. Their survival depends on fetal and neonatal adaptations of multiple organ systems, which represents a plasticity of development. Many extremely LBW neonates do not have severe lung immaturity, will breathe, and do not require surfactant treatment. The two ...
Doyle Lex W - - 2010
Caffeine improves neurological outcome in very preterm infants, but the mechanisms responsible for this neurological benefit are unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether caffeine influenced brain macro- or microstructural development in preterm infants. Seventy preterm infants <1,251 g birthweight randomly allocated to either caffeine (n = ...
Bonifacio Sonia L - - 2010
To assess whether birth at <26 weeks gestation is an important predictor of brain microstructure maturation as determined by using diffusion tensor imaging. We performed serial magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in 176 infants born at <33 weeks gestation. Diffusion parameters were calculated for white and gray matter ...
Bishop Andrew J - - 2012
To evaluate the incidence of infant brain tumors and survival outcomes by disease and treatment variables. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program November 2008 submission database provided age-adjusted incidence rates and individual case information for primary brain tumors diagnosed between 1973 and 2006 in infants less than 12 ...
Magdum Shailendra Ashok - - 2010
Brain tumors in infants (under the age of 1 yr) are mercifully rare. Nonetheless, neonatal tumours present a treatment challenge to those involved. Surgery can be technically challenging, if possible at all, and the sensitivity of the developing nervous system to the side-effects of radio- and chemotherapy has limited their ...
Wong C Y - - 2010
Brain herniation is generally thought to be unlikely to occur in newborns due to the presence of the patent fontanelles and cranial sutures. A review of the literature published from 1993 to 2008 via MEDLINE search revealed no reports on neonatal brain herniation from intracranial tumour. We report a preterm ...
Sie Sintha D - - 2010
Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) deficiency is a rare neurometabolic disorder, characterized by neurological impairment and refractive seizures, due to toxic accumulation of sulfite in the brain. Earlier it was suggested that in Moco-deficient humans maternal clearance of neurotoxic metabolites prevents prenatal brain damage. However, limited data are available about the time ...
Smith Kristen M - - 2011
This study investigates the morphometry of Heschl's gyrus and its included primary auditory cortex (PAC) in hearing impaired (HI) and normal hearing (NH) infants. Fourty-two infants, age 8-19 months, with NH (n = 26) or hearing impairment (n = 16) were studied using high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter ...
Popa Roxana Tania - - 2010
Agenesis of the corpus callosum is an anomaly that may occur as isolated or in association with other central nervous system or systemic malformations. We report the case of an infant antenatal diagnosed with ventriculomegaly referred in the postnatal period to our department for imaging evaluation. Ultrasonography showed the absence ...
Fetters Linda - - 2010
Early damage to white matter of the brain may have developmental consequences for prematurely born infants including the coordination of leg movements. Our perspective is that white matter damage initiates an ontogenetic course that may lead to movement dysfunction leading to disability. In this study, spontaneous kicking in the human ...
Leviton Alan - - 2010
The authors explored associations between blood gas abnormalities in more than 1,000 preterm infants during the first postnatal days and indicators of neonatal brain damage. During 2002-2004, women delivering infants before 28 weeks' gestation at one of 14 participating institutions in 5 US states were asked to enroll in the ...
Yamamoto Yutaka - - 2010
Idiopathic perinatal cerebral infarction is recognized to be more common in the preterm infant than previously realized. However, the pathogenic mechanisms and the onset time remain unclear. We encountered an extremely low birth weight female infant with severe intrauterine growth retardation and brain infarction localized on the left inferior temporal ...
Divi Rao L - - 2010
Mitochondrial compromise has been documented in infants born to women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) who received nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) therapy during pregnancy. To model these human exposures, we examined mitochondrial integrity at birth and 1 year in brain cortex and liver from offspring of retroviral-free ...
Hill Cheryl A - - 2011
Objective : Craniosynostosis has been hypothesized to result in alterations of the brain and cerebral blood flow due to reduced intracranial volume, potentially leading to cognitive deficits. In this study we test the hypothesis that intracranial volume and whole brain volume in infants with unilateral coronal synostosis differs from those ...
Tang Samantha - - 2010
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB are essential in promoting normal development of the central nervous system. Specific functions that are affected in knockout models include respiratory control, coordination of movement and balance, and feeding activities. The expression of these markers has not yet been studied in the ...
Hurley M - - 2010
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of subdural haematomas (SDHs) occurring in infants presenting following atraumatic cardiorespiratory collapse. This study was a review of retrospective case notes, brain imaging and post-mortem examinations carried out in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and emergency department (ED) in ...
Esteban Francisco J - - 2010
In the search for a useful parameter to detect and quantify subtle brain abnormalities in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), we hypothesised that the analysis of the structural complexity of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) using the fractal dimension (FD), a measurement of the topological complexity of ...
Machaalani Rita - - 2010
We provide the first quantification and localization of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) alpha7 and beta2 in the human adult and infant brainstem and hippocampus. After applying immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed and paraffin embedded human brain tissue, we qualitatively analyzed the staining to provide a comparison in expression amongst the ...
Eze K C - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To analyse the pattern of findings in sonographic examination of infant brains. SETTING: Radiology Department of a University Teaching Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ultrasound request cards, reports and case notes of 114 consecutive term infants who underwent transfontanelle ultrasonography over a four-year period (between 1st May 2000 and ...
Leliefeld Paul H - - 2010
OBJECT: Clinical signs and symptoms of hydrocephalus can be clear and specific, but also subtle, nonspecific, or even absent. It may be difficult to decide whether shunt placement is indicated, especially in infants. Therefore, there is a need for the development of better noninvasive detection methods to distinguish between compensated ...
Viscardi Rose M - - 2010
There is accumulating epidemiologic and experimental evidence that intrauterine or postnatal infection with Ureaplasma species is a significant risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes and complications of extreme preterm birth such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and intraventricular hemorrhage. In a cohort of very low birth weight infants, Ureaplasma spp were detected ...
Gilmore John H - - 2010
Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with abnormalities of brain structure and white matter, although little is known about when these abnormalities arise. This study was conducted to identify structural brain abnormalities in the prenatal and neonatal periods associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. Prenatal ultrasound scans and neonatal structural ...
Slater Rebeccah R Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London, UK. - - 2010
This study demonstrates that infants who are born prematurely and who have experienced at least 40days of intensive or special care have increased brain neuronal responses to noxious stimuli compared to healthy newborns at the same postmenstrual age. We have measured evoked potentials generated by noxious clinically-essential heel lances in ...
Harder S - - 2010
CLD is a rapidly progressive and invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder. We describe clinical and neuroimaging findings in 5 infants with CLD. Retrospective review of medical records of infants with CLD from the past 11 years at our institution was performed. Relevant clinical and demographic data were recorded. Specific attention was ...
Fransson Peter - - 2011
The functional network topology of the adult human brain has recently begun to be noninvasively mapped using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging and described using mathematical tools originating from graph theory. Previous studies have revealed the existence of disproportionally connected brain regions, so called cortical hubs, which act as ...
Kostović Ivica - - 2010
The aim of this review is to present clinically relevant data on prenatal development of thalamocortical connections in the human brain. The analysis is based on extensive Zagreb Neuroembryological Collection, including more than 500 prenatal human brains stained with various classical neurohistological, as well as modern histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. ...
Milgrom Jeannette - - 2010
After birth, preterm infants face a stressful environment, which may negatively impact early brain development and subsequent neurobehavioral outcomes. This randomized controlled trial involving 45 women with infants <30-wk gestation, assessed the effectiveness of training parents in reducing stressful experiences. Intervention consisted of 10 sessions in the Neonatal Intensive Care ...
Benavente-Fernández I - - 2010
AIM: As we progress in our knowledge of preterm brain injury, cohort studies are focusing in neuroimaging preterm infants in the first days of life. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the most powerful neuroimaging modality and valuable in understanding perinatal brain injury. The main purpose of the study is to evaluate ...
Vicenzini E - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is a sensitive technique for circulatory arrest diagnosis in brain death when patterns such as reverberant flow and short systolic spikes are observed. In infants, the nonossified fontanelles compensate for intracranial hypertension. We describe TCD patterns in infants with brain death, different from adults, with the ...
Florio Pasquale - - 2010
Hypoxia-ischemia constitutes a risk in infants by altering cerebral blood flow regulatory mechanisms and causing loss of cerebral vascular auto-regulation. Hypotension, cerebral ischemia, and reperfusion are the main events involved in vascular auto-regulation leading to cell death and tissue damage. These dramatic phenomena represent a common repertoire in infants complicated ...
Couper Z - - 2010
Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a contentious issue on both biomechanical and medical fronts, primarily due to a lack of understanding of the loading-injury relationship of infant shaking and the parameters that are deterministic to its nature. In order to address this lack, a finite element (FE) representation of a ...
Esmaeilzadeh Majid - - 2010
An accident or a catastrophic disease may occasionally lead to brain death (BD) during pregnancy. Management of brain-dead pregnant patients needs to follow special strategies to support the mother in a way that she can deliver a viable and healthy child and, whenever possible, also be an organ donor. This ...
Jeschonek Susanna - - 2010
One of the earliest categorical distinctions to be made by preverbal infants is the animate-inanimate distinction. To explore the neural basis for this distinction in 7-8-month-olds, an equal number of animal and furniture pictures was presented in an ERP-paradigm. The total of 118 pictures, all looking different from each other, ...
Spittle Alicia J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Abnormal General Movements (GMs) early in life are predictive of later neuromotor deficits and are related to white matter abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, other structural correlates of abnormal GMs have not been defined. AIMS: The objective of this study was to explore brain-metrics (linear brain measurements ...
van Delft Eveline - - 2010
We present a premature infant with an inability to ventilate spontaneously during sleep periods. In addition, the patient showed general hypotonia. The child had a delayed passage of stool and increased anal muscle tone, indicating Hirschsprung's disease. The combination of these symptoms suggested congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, which was confirmed ...
de Vries Linda S - - 2009
Our aim was to document changes in the evaluation and prognosis of term-born infants with neonatal encephalopathy of hypoxic-ischemic origin, with particular reference to our own experiences and influences, and to summarize the debate on causation and the relative importance of antenatal and perinatal factors. High quality neonatal cranial ultrasound ...
van der Weel F R Ruud - - 2009
A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young ...
Wolf Martin - - 2009
This article reviews tissue oximetry and imaging to study the preterm and newborn infant brain by near-infrared spectroscopy. These two technologies are now advanced; nearly 100 reports on their use in newborn infants have been published, and commercial instruments are available. The precision of oximetry, however, is a limitation for ...
Volpe Joseph J - - 2009
The field of neonatal neurology, and specifically its focus on the premature infant, had its inception in neuropathologic studies. Since then, the development of advanced imaging techniques has guided our developing understanding of the etiology and nature of neonatal brain injury. This review promotes the concept that neonatal brain injury ...
Edwards A David AD Division of Clinical Sciences, MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK. - - 2009
The development of the concepts of delayed post-ischaemic neuronal death and neural rescue brought about a search for clinical treatments to reduce brain damage after birth asphyxia. Cooling had long been an unproven empyrical therapy, and a 20 year programme of careful laboratory and clinical research has proved that hypothermia ...
McPhie Anika A - - 2009
Human infants are often exposed to opiates chronically but the mechanisms by which opiates induce dependence in the infant are not well studied. In the adult the brain regions involved in the physical signs of opiate withdrawal include the periaqueductal gray area, the locus coeruleus, amygdala, ventral tegmental area, nucleus ...
Joffe Ari R - - 2009
Death has occurred when there is irreversible loss of integration of the organism as a whole, and brain death is said to be a criterion for death. In the present case, a 10-month-old boy was found submerged in a bathtub and was given cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 37 minutes. He had ...
Bueter Wolfgang - - 2009
Inflammation seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of perinatal brain damage in fetuses/infants born much before term. We raise the possibility that noninflammatory phenomena induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, which, in turn, leads to the unfolded protein response, which is followed by apoptosis-promoting processes and inflammation. Perhaps by these ...
Ancora Gina - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Changes in head posture influence brain hemodynamics. Optimal positioning has been recommended as 1 of 10 potentially better practices to reduce the incidence of brain injury in preterm newborns. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the effect of different head and body ...
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