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DiMario F J FJ - - 1989
We describe the clinical and radiographic features of three premature infants with symmetric thalamic calcification recognized by computed tomographic scan on days 6, 12, and 49 of life and contrast our findings with those reported in the literature. These lesions follow prepartum or intrapartum hypoxiaischemia and are clinically distinguished by ...
Bernstein I M - - 1989
A 30-year-old woman suffered massive brain injuries after a motor vehicle accident at 15 weeks' gestation. The patient was diagnosed as brain-dead on her tenth hospital day. She was supported with intensive care for 107 days after this diagnosis, and a normal 1555-g male infant was delivered at approximately 32 ...
Oro J J - - 1989
Since 1981, Missouri law has defined death as occurring when cardiopulmonary function has ceased or when all brain and brain stem function is totally and irreversibly lost. The author reviews the current published guidelines for the determination of death by neurological criteria in order to assist physicians making the evaluation.
Peabody J L - - 1989
Recent advances have made organ transplantation in newborns feasible, but the paucity of organs small enough for this age group remains a major limitation. Because anencephalic infants can survive for no more than a few weeks, they have been considered as possible organ donors for other infants. Under current law, ...
Glasier C M - - 1989
In a preliminary study, nine infants with a clinically determined diagnosis of brain death were examined with duplex pulsed Doppler ultrasonography (US) through the anterior fontanelle. Flow velocity measurements were made in the intracranial internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral artery. Resistive index (RI) was calculated in each patient and ...
Goddard-Finegold J - - 1989
The significance of lipid-containing cells found at autopsy in the white matter of infant brains is controversial, particularly with respect to their postulated role as markers of the "sudden infant death syndrome." To determine whether such cells are indicative of prior nonlethal hypoxic insult, we quantitated them in the brains ...
Daya S - - 1989
The daytime administration of the heme precursor 5-aminolevulinate (5-ALA) has been shown to reduce brain tryptophan and serotonin levels owing to saturation of liver tryptophan pyrrolase. Saturation of this enzyme with heme results in enhanced activity, leading to increased catabolism of tryptophan and thus making less tryptophan available to the ...
Ashwal S - - 1989
It is likely that extension of the current Task Force guidelines for the determination of brain death can include the preterm infant greater than 32 weeks' gestation and the term infant. Brain death in this age group can be ascertained solely on a clinical basis; an observation period of at ...
Amir N - - 1989
Two kindreds with glutaric aciduria type I were investigated. Of 20 family members who underwent neurologic examination and organic acid analysis of urine, 18 had glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GDH) activity determined in cultured skin fibroblasts and 12 had computed tomographic brain scans. Six homozygotes were identified who had undetectable GDH ...
Ikonomidou C - - 1989
Accumulating evidence suggests that the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor may play an important role in hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) brain damage. Accordingly, it has been shown that the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, partially protects the infant rat brain against H/I damage. Here we show that reducing the body temperature of the ...
Laptook A R - - 1989
We investigated postasphyxial brain damage with 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and correlated it with neurologic assessment and standard laboratory evaluation during the first 10 months of life in 1 infant, baby G. We compared these observations to 31P MRS data from 7 healthy term newborns, 1 normal infant examined ...
Azzopardi D - - 1989
To investigate the prognostic significance of abnormalities of oxidative phosphorylation, the brains of 61 newborn infants born at 27-42 wk of gestation and suspected of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury were examined by surface-coil phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Of these infants, 23 died, and the neurodevelopmental status of the 38 survivors was ...
Azzopardi D - - 1989
The brains of 30 normal preterm and term infants whose birth wt were appropriate for gestational age and 13 who were small for gestational age but healthy were studied by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine values for metabolite concentration ratios and intracellular pH. In the AGA infants, phosphocreatine/inorganic orthophosphate ...
Pomerance J J - - 1989
Between 1978 and 1982, 205 anencephalic infants weighing more than 2,500 g were born alive in California. Although typically none were offered significant support, almost 9% lived more than one week. It seems reasonable to assume that modern intensive care would have increased survival times dramatically. In fact, preliminary data ...
Sheng H Z - - 1989
A developmental study of myelin basic protein (MBP) variants in eight regions of pig nervous system (NS) was performed using a quantitative electroimmunoblotting procedure. Four major MBP forms with apparent molecular weights of 21.5K, 20.2K, 18.5K, and 17.3K were identified in both the CNS and the PNS and were detected ...
Shaw C M - - 1989
The fresh brain weights of 79 infants with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) were tabulated and compared with expected "normal" brain weights. The series included 47 males and 32 females. Their ages ranged from 8 days to 16 months with a median of 2.5 months. The weights of all these ...
Nara T - - 1989
Development of the human hypoglossal nucleus was studied using complete serial sections of the brains of 9 fetuses at 16, 18, 21, 23, 27, 32, 33, 35 and 40 weeks of gestation, a 2-month-old infant, a 16-year-old adolescent and a 63-year-old adult. Morphometric analysis produced the following three findings pertaining ...
Costello A M - - 1988
The neurodevelopmental status of 171 very preterm infants whose brains had been scanned prospectively with ultrasound was assessed blind at four years using a wide range of tests, including tests of cognitive function. Highly significant correlations were found between the ultrasound appearance of the brain and outcome. The probability of ...
Kobayashi T - - 1988
Galactosylceramide and galactosylsphingosine (psychosine) were assayed in tissues from infants and fetuses with globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD). Galactosylceramide concentrations were not increased in nervous tissues or other organs. Using a sensitive assay method, we found galactosylsphingosine accumulations in GLD tissues, both infantile and fetal, which suggests that GLD is a ...
Field D R DR Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, University of California, San Francisco - - 1988
We present in detail a case of a 27-year-old primigravida who was maintained in a brain-dead state for nine weeks. An apparently normal and healthy male infant weighing 1440 g was delivered. The newborn did well and was found to be growing and developing normally at 18 months of age. ...
Altman D I - - 1988
Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) with positron emission tomography in adult humans with cerebrovascular disease have demonstrated consistently that values below 10 ml/(100 gm.min) occur only in infarcted brain. Although experimental data suggest that the newborn brain may be more resistant to ischemic injury than the adult brain, ...
Bychkov V - - 1988
A polypoid tumor containing astrocytic glia and ependyma was excised from the base of the tongue of a 3-month-old infant. Neuroid elements were identified immunocytochemically and by means of electron microscopy. We attribute this rare anomaly to displacement of brain tissue in early embryogenesis before closure of the palate.
Suhonen-Polvi H - - 1988
The brains of 42 newborn infants were examined with MRI at 0.02 T field, and regional variations of T1 relaxation time were measured from the images. There were three groups: 1. full term infants (9), 2. preterm infants (10) and 3. SGA (= small for gestational age) infants (20). Relaxation ...
Kinney H C - - 1988
The timing and synchronization of postnatal myelination in the human central nervous system (CNS) are complex. We found eight time-related patterns of CNS myelination during the first two postnatal years in autopsied infants. The intensity of myelination was graded in 162 infants with diverse diseases on an ordinal scale of ...
Arras J D JD Department of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY - - 1988
Geirsson R T - - 1988
Birth trauma is a rare primary cause of perinatal death, occurring at most only once in every 1000-2000 births. As a cause of brain damage and later handicap it is often difficult to dissociate injury at birth from the concomitant effects of asphyxia, growth retardation or preterm delivery. A continuum ...
Abdulrazzaq Y M - - 1988
Oxygen consumption at different stages of vigilance, and for the whole 24 h, was measured in 13 small-for-gestational age (SGA) and 16 appropriate-for-age (AGA) premature infants at ages of 4-25 days. Brain weight was calculated from head circumference measurements and expressed as percentage of body weight and was found to ...
Stewart A L - - 1988
The ability to predict long-term outcome on the basis of objective measures made shortly after the birth of an infant has introduced a completely new approach to the investigation of the aetiology of childhood impairments and disabilities, and the evaluation of the effects of perinatal management regimes designed to avoid ...
Singh M - - 1988
We document four patients, including two sibs, with asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy and mild congenital hydrocephalus. All infants were males; three had postaxial polydactyly. The CT scan of brain showed moderate dilatation of the lateral ventricles in all cases. This appears to be the first documentation of apparent hydrocephalus in this ...
Gallagher C E - - 1988
Under present law, two criteria are used to declare a person dead: (1) permanent cessation of cardiopulmonary function or (2) if cardiopulmonary activity has been artificially sustained, irreversible absence of all brain activity. This article focuses on the factors that must be taken into account if states consider modifying their ...
Alatis A J - - 1989
As technology increases in the field of organ transplantation for newborns, a problematic limitation persists: too few organ donors are available to match the number of needy organ donees. Anencephalic newborns have been suggested (and recently used) as organ sources. Anencephalic infants are born without the upper part of their ...
Koeda T - - 1988
Ultrasonographic examination was performed in 13 preterm, 10 normal term and 3 term brain-damaged infants to evaluate changes of the ventricular width with the head position. The lower side of the frontal horn was narrowed and the upper side dilated in all preterm and brain-damaged infants. These changes of the ...
Sano K K Department of Neurosurgery, Teikyo University, - - 1988
Although emotion in the human is largely modified by the frontal association areas (software) and may better be called affect, it is still very much influenced by the balance of the ergotropic and the trophotropic circuits in the prosencephalon (hardware) especially in patients with organic brain lesions. Violent, aggressive, restless ...
Morrison J C - - 1988
Previous work has shown that both meperidine and normeperidine are transferred across the placenta to the fetus. Little is known in primates, however, about the tissue deposition of these compounds. Four pregnant, dated rhesus monkeys within one week of term were anesthetized for cesarean delivery. An equal mixture of meperidine ...
Allinquant B - - 1987
After inactivation of RNase inhibitor by parachloromercuribenzoate, total alkaline RNase activity was found to be two fold higher in white matter as in grey matter extracts from human brain tissue. This activity was lower in human purified myelin. Two human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) RNase isoenzymes of group 3 (a minor ...
Loewy E H - - 1987
This article deals with the ever more timely and often vexing topic of maintaining a brain-dead mother as an incubator for her developing offspring. It explores the issue by: (1) reviewing the history of the problem and the "state of the art" today, (2) examining the moral problem of using ...
Gould S J - - 1987
In the cerebral lateral ventricle of the human fetus, the embryonic ventricular and subventricular zones (VZ and SVZ) persist into the latter half of gestation, particularly in the lateral wall. The SVZ is usually referred to as the germinal layer at this stage. The VZ is gradually replaced by ependyma, ...
Richards G E - - 1987
We tested the hypothesis that there is an orderly progressive increase in neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal and neonatal sheep. The pregnant ewes or newborns were killed with an intravenous overdose of pentobarbitone. Brains were removed immediately and frozen at -80 degrees C for later dissection and measurement of ...
Scher M S - - 1987
Current methods for estimating gestational age utilizing clinical parameters can be inaccurate in the very premature neonate. Neuropathologic studies have been used to verify these clinical estimates of gestational age. Estimates of maturity using neonatal electroencephalography have documented the evolution of regional and hemispheric electrical patterns at different gestational ages; ...
Rakestraw M R - - 1987
This report describes the finding of nodular collections of heterotopic brain tissue in the lungs of a stillborn anencephalic infant. Immunoperoxidase staining was performed on the nodules and on the neural tissue found at the infant's cranial defect, for neuron-specific enolase, glial-fibrillary acidic protein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and epithelial membrane antigen. ...
Voit T - - 1987
Thalamic-striatal damage of symmetric bilateral distribution was found in four severely asphyxiated neonates born at term. Two patients showed evidence of bilateral thalamic-striatal necrosis and two showed hemorrhage of the same distribution. The four patients had a common history of prolonged asphyxia in the neonatal period combined with severe acidosis ...
Oosterbaan H P - - 1987
Human anencephalic infants have always been considered not to have circulating levels of oxytocin or vasopressin. However, this article shows that amniotic oxytocin levels in anencephalic infants without hydramnios fall within the control range. In addition, low levels of both oxytocin and vasopressin are present in the umbilical circulation. These ...
Shewmon D A - - 1987
A great need persists for diagnostic criteria for both brain death in young children and irreversible loss of consciousness at all ages. This article examines the inferences derived from a hypothetical confirmatory study in which all of the N patients who fulfilled the criterion did in fact experience brain death ...
Hervás J A - - 1987
A newborn infant with Proteus mirabilis meningitis developed multiple brain abscesses with diameters ranging from 2 to 4 cm. Intravenous antibiotic therapy alone without surgical intervention led to the complete resolution of this complication. The case supports that this may be an acceptable treatment of multiple brain abscesses in neonates. ...
Kline M W - - 1987
A 23-day-old infant presented with apnea and was found to have Citrobacter diversus meningitis and brain abscess. The organism persisted in brain abscess fluid for over 4 weeks despite adequate antibiotic therapy. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated persistent radiolucencies in both frontal lobes, and midline shift, long after completion of antibiotic ...
Dambska M - - 1987
We present a neuropathological study of brainstem involvement during the neonatal period, under the influence of prolonged fetal asphyxia. The investigation was performed on 20 brains of premature and mature newborns, who died in the course of chronic asphyxia. Ischemic cell change, neuronal loss and gliosis were present in the ...
Brody B A - - 1987
This study establishes the sequence of myelination in a population of autopsied infants from birth through the second postnatal year. Myelination was assessed in 62 precisely defined central nervous system (CNS) sites of 162 infants with diverse diseases who were autopsied from 1972 to 1984 at Children's Hospital, Boston. The ...
Ludwig B - - 1987
With the modern noninvasive brain imaging methods, cerebral lesions of different types and degrees can frequently be determined in infants with West syndrome. In CT examinations preceding the spasms and the ACTH therapy, "idiopathic" forms of infantile spasms were rare. The CT findings consistent with perinatal or postnatal encephalopathy were ...
Delpy D T - - 1987
Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have been used to study the brains of normal newborn infants and infants with cerebral disorders admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. MRS, which involves transporting the infant to the spectrometer, allows measurement of mobile phosphorus compounds such as ...
Popovitch E R - - 1987
Alzheimer's neurofibrillary tangles, Lewy bodies and chromatolytic neurons were found in the brain at autopsy of a 28-year-old male with pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, and severe dementia of 7-year duration prior to his death. Review of histological material showed generalized changes involving both cortical and subcortical structures. These changes were ...
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