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Dawson G - - 1992
Studies of adults and infants indicate that the left frontal brain region is specialized for approach emotions, such as joy, whereas the right frontal region is specialized for withdrawal emotions, such as distress. Furthermore, depressed adults have been found to show reduced brain activity in the left frontal region. In ...
Baram T Z TZ Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los - - 1992
Massive infantile spasms (MIS), a seizure disorder unique to infants, is considered an age-dependent response of the immature brain to various insults and stressors. The seizures improve with ACTH and glucocorticoids, both major components of the brain-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that CNS levels of these hormones are abnormal in infants ...
Sparks D L - - 1992
We have histopathologically investigated the hippocampal formation in 4 individuals with Down's syndrome (DS), 7 control individuals, and 3 individuals dying after being in coma 3-7 days. Adjacent sections of brain were stained by the Bielschowsky method and by ALZ-50 immunocytochemical methods. ALZ-50 immunoreactive neurons were found in each individual ...
Pinto-Martin J - - 1992
Over a 34-month period, 1105 newborns weighing between 501 and 2000 g at birth were enrolled in a prospective study of the aetiology and consequences of neonatal brain haemorrhage. The three participating hospitals care for approximately 85% of births in the study weight range in Middlesex, Monmouth and Ocean counties, ...
Lamb D - - 1992
This reply to John F Catherwood's criticism of brain-related criteria for death argues that brainstem criteria are neither reductionist nor do they presuppose a materialist theory of mind. Furthermore, it is argued that brain-related criteria are compatible with the majority of religious views concerning death.
Cross J H - - 1992
A previously unrecognised and distinctive pattern of severe brain injury in extreme preterm neonates was observed recently. Fifteen neonates of birth weight 600-1270 g and gestation of 24-32 weeks showed relatively late development on cerebral ultrasound scan of extensive dense and cystic lesions involving the periphery of the brain. The ...
Muller R J - - 1992
It is proposed here that borderline splitting and borderline pathology may have a neural basis. For the infant who splits its emotional and cognitive constitution of its mother during separation-individuation, the "good mother"--"bad mother" engram may be lateralized in the brain in a different way than for an infant who ...
Magliocco A M - - 1992
Varicella embryopathy is a rare entity afflicting infants born to mothers who have contracted varicella during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. The teratogenicity of varicella has not been established from epidemiologic studies, but isolated case reports describe characteristic malformations following early maternal infection. We describe a male neonate delivered ...
Wiepkema P R - - 1992
In pig husbandry sows are fixed in such a way that they undergo a chronic loss of control over their environment. In these conditions sows develop stereotypies that are associated with a specific activation of brain endorphins. Stereotyping itself reduces some neuroendocrine stress symptoms. During stress at least two coping ...
Krivánek J - - 1992
We have recently found that both vanadate and vanadyl inhibit ATP-dependent succinyl-CoA synthetase (A-SCS) solubilized from the rat brain mitochondria. Aim of the present study was to estimate a proportion of A-SCS to G-SCS in adult and 5-day-old rat brain and their susceptibility to vanadium ions. The G-SCS to A-SCS ...
Kopp N - - 1992
The brains of mammals are not mature at birth, in particular in humans. Growth and brain development are influenced by the hormonal state in which the hypothalamus plays the major regulatory role. The maturation of the hormonal patterns leads to the physiological establishment of chronological variations as revealed by the ...
Sanker P - - 1992
A case of "sudden infant death" after 15 minutes of successful resuscitation of cardiovascular function is presented. While apnoic cranial nerve areflexia and electrocerebral silence persisted, angiography and transcranial Doppler sonography demonstrated nearly normal cerebral perfusion, which even increased day by day inspite of the persistence of other signs of ...
Mott S H - - 1992
We reviewed cranial sonographic studies done on 108 normal newborn infants to determine the prevalence and variability in size of the cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Infants were classified according to gestational age by 2-week intervals. At 24 weeks, only four normal scans were identified. Between 26 and 34 weeks, ten ...
Pindur J - - 1992
A case is described of symmetrical cavitating brain stem necrosis produced by cardiac arrest in a premature infant. Two months after birth this 25-week gestational age infant suffered a prolonged episode of bradycardia. She was resuscitated and then died 3 weeks later. The autopsy revealed striking bilateral cavitation of the ...
Schweitzer P - - 1992
We have used slice preparation from newborn rats to study the development of the nucleus tractus solitarius neuronal network and brain intracellular phosphorus metabolites. As shown previously on adults, the newborn preparation retains local excitatory and inhibitory synaptic connections and enables study of intrinsic electrical properties in the nucleus tractus ...
Pasi A - - 1992
Immunoradiometrical determinations of beta-endorphin (beta-EP) levels in 29 discrete brain regions from a series of victims of "Sudden Infant Death Syndrome" yielded a uniformly low levels profile in various areas of telencephalon, thalamus, pons, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. This low levels profile was interrupted by intermediate and high beta-EP levels ...
Fisher C M - - 1991
The early origins of the concept of brain death have been retraced. Using practical examples from clinical experience it has been demonstrated that conventionally, cardiac death is always accompanied by brain death. Cardiac death implies brain death. The two are inseparably linked or coupled. Death on a ventilator uncouples the ...
Eckert W G - - 1991
This is the case of a young pregnant black woman who died during foreplay when her male partner with his hands accidentally forced air from her vaginal cavity into her uterine cavity, causing air embolization in the veins on the surface of her heart and her brain. Her premature infant ...
Hardy R C - - 1991
In most instances, brain death is established on the basis of straightforward clinical findings in adult patients having suffered head trauma or cerebral hemorrhage. In exceptional instances, including infants or adults having the neurologic criteria with a backdrop other than trauma or hemorrhage, or who are being treated with barbiturate ...
Qi Y - - 1991
In this study, 13 cases of newborn term-gestational infants and six cases of premature infants who died of hypoxia were selected for the determination of ganglioside levels in several regions of brains obtained at autopsy. Cases were divided into three groups according to the hypoxic interval and gestational age: Group ...
Huang C C - - 1991
Nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection that often occurs in patients who are in an immunosuppressive state. It is often difficult to treat and the mortality is high. We report on an immunocompromised patient who suffered from cerebral nocardiosis with multiple brain abscesses which was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for ...
Kocsard-Varo G - - 1991
The proposition is that the masterswitch of life and death is invested in the physiological role of the pineal gland which by its neurohormonal influence and its neuronal connections in the brain gears hypothalamic noradrenaline levels to which the function of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and breathing are integrated. ...
Squier M - - 1991
Recent epidemiological studies have shown that cerebral palsy is only rarely associated with birth asphyxia and that there may be more important causative factors in the prenatal period. For this reason a series of 165 brains of infants who were stillborn or died in the early neonatal period was examined ...
Del Toro J - - 1991
Neuropathology occurring as a result of hemodynamic injury occurs in up to 25% of preterm newborns of less than 1,500 gm birth weight and in a much smaller, but nonetheless meaningful, proportion of more mature infants. Abnormalities in cerebrovascular regulation have been proposed as major contributing factors to both ischemic ...
Garcia-Alix A - - 1991
The brain structure of 14 infants born with congenital myotonic dystrophy at 2 hospitals was evaluated by cranial ultrasonography, and the findings were correlated with clinical and neuropathologic data. Ventricular dilation was diagnosed in 11 infants (78%). Seven infants died during the neonatal period; all had ventricular dilation which remained ...
Maekawa K - - 1991
Seventy-one full-term normal newborns were studied at the age of 5-7 days. A 0.1% tartrate or a 0.25% saline solution was given to each infant after 1-2 min of breast or bottle feeding and then the same solutions were once more given to the same subjects. Sucking rhythm was recorded ...
Peden C J - - 1990
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to study the brain of 2 normal and 15 abnormal infants aged from 33 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) to 14 months postnatal age. Eleven of the infants were examined on at least two occasions. The principal clinical diagnoses in the abnormal infants were ...
Majnemer A - - 1990
Multimodality-evoked potentials are widely used in newborns to assess the maturation and integrity of the sensory pathways. Reliable normative data are needed to maximize the utility of this technique as a diagnostic and research tool. Several electrophysiologic studies on the maturational changes of the auditory brain-stem response have demonstrated that ...
Gay C T - - 1990
The clinician is often asked to evaluate the floppy infant. Numerous conditions that cause hypotonia in infancy are briefly outlined in this article. These conditions may affect the brain, spinal cord, or motor unit. Several disorders of neuromuscular transmission, including four distinct and recently described congenital myasthenic syndromes and infant ...
Squier W - - 1990
An infant with dysmorphic features was born to an epileptic mother who had taken phenytoin and sodium valproate throughout pregnancy. The infant began to have intractable seizures 10 minutes after delivery, and retrospective reports from the mother suggested they may have occurred in utero. Ultrasound examination of the brain showed ...
Evans Martyn - - 1990
Martyn Evans believes that it is a 'shocking feature' of brain-centred conceptions of death that they require us to regard as dead a person whose heart may continue to beat spontaneously. When it comes to neocortical conceptions of death, we might even be burying or cremating a 'breathing corpse'. If ...
Downie Jocelyn - - 1990
The connection between brain life and brain death is neither as simple nor as defensible as it might at first appear. The problem rests with the two dominant competing definitions of death:...the loss of that which is necessary for the organism to continue to function as a whole;....the loss of ...
Ashwal S - - 1990
Twelve liveborn anencephalic infants were serially examined to determine if they would meet our clinical criteria for whole brain death within a 7-day period: Protocol 1 infants (6) received intensive care including intubation from birth; and Protocol 2 infants (6) received intensive care during the period in which death was ...
Flüeler U - - 1990
Three infants presented with the onset of hemifacial spasm after birth and at the age of 10 months. One patient was found to have occlusion of the straight sinus and large collateral veins at the base of the brain, presumably due to venous sinus thrombosis, supporting the concept of vascular ...
Kudo H - - 1990
Reduced glutathione (GSH) plays an important role in cellular protection against damage from free radicals and other electrophiles. GSH in the rat central nervous system was quantitatively analyzed. In adult brain, tissue from the cerebellum and cerebrum had higher GSH levels than that from the brainstem and spinal cord. Infant ...
Shuper A - - 1990
A 3-day-old infant with incontinentia pigmenti presented with acute encephalopathy associated with neuroradiographic findings of hemorrhagic necrosis and brain edema. No specific infectious, inflammatory, vascular, or metabolic abnormality was identified. We speculate that there is a variably expressed mutant protein in incontinentia pigmenti that could cause either developmental brain malformations ...
Flórez J - - 1990
The autoradiographic pattern of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in the brain of two newborn infants with Down syndrome (DS) (stillbirths, 31 and 39 gestational weeks), were compared with that of age-matched control fetuses. Densities and distribution patterns of muscarinic receptors in the forebrain were similar in both groups. However, a marked ...
Nicholls D M - - 1990
1. Polysomes were isolated from the brain of infant rabbits at 22 days of age. The animals received s.c. injections 3 times weekly of aluminium (Al) maltolate (3 mg Al/kg body wt) or Al lactate (16 mg Al/kg body wt) from 5 days of age. 2. The polysomes were used ...
Gross S C - - 1990
1. The distribution of isozymes of 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase (E.C.3.1.4.1) was examined in various organs of mouse, including liver, spleen, pancreas, heart, lung, kidney, brain and blood. 2. Five isozymes were identified and designated as isozymes I through V. 3. These isozymes are distributed unevenly with respect to the various organs ...
Churchill L R - - 1990
The condition of newborn infants with anencephaly, a neural tube defect, is incurable and uniformly fatal. Although physicians reached a consensus two decades ago on the appropriateness of using these infants' organs, ethical and legal questioning has since challenged the grounds on which medical authorities justified transplantation. Advocates have proposed ...
Vogel H - - 1990
We report a male infant with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) who survived for 19 weeks following birth at 36 weeks gestational age. No heritable or acquired cause of neuromuscular disease was found. He manifested joint contractures of upper and lower extremities, diffuse hypotonia requiring ventilatory support, and areflexia; the general ...
Kohrman M H - - 1990
Guidelines for the determination of brain death in children were recently published by a multidisciplinary task force. We report a 3-month-old female who fulfilled these criteria but regained partial cortical and brainstem function for a prolonged period. This patient and similar newborn patients are analyzed with respect to sensitivity and ...
Hamvas A - - 1990
We describe the association of brain death in an infant with a large cutaneous hemangioma of the forearm. The irreversible cerebral injury is presumed to be secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion as a result of a combination of systemic hypotension and a systemic vascular "steal" phenomenon caused by the cutaneous hemangioma.
Mahdi A H - - 1990
Computerized tomographic scanning of the brain was performed in 26 infants with Infantile spasms. Majority of the patients, 18 (69%) had some abnormality. Changes noted were cerebral atrophy in 12, calcifications in 5 and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum in 3 patients. One infant each had porencephaly, hydrocephalus and cavum ...
Chou S M - - 1990
We report three siblings (two boys and girl) with familial (autosomal recessive) infantile olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) associated with lower motoneuron involvement. Brain autopsy findings in two of the children revealed a multisystem degeneration characterized by marked hypoplasia of phylogenetically new parts of the brain stem (basis pontis and inferior olivary ...
Kimura S - - 1990
The ultrastructural brain and liver pathology in an infant, who died of acute encephalopathy due to systemic carnitine deficiency (CD), an important condition mimicking Reye's syndrome (RS), was reported. The major finding in the brain was swelling of astrocyte cytoplasm. Expanded mitochondria in nerve cells and myelin sheath splitting in ...
Slagle T A - - 1989
Cranial ultrasounds performed during the first 3 d of life on 211 infants of 24 to 40 wk gestational age were examined to determine the in utero development of the cingulate sulcus. The sulcus was identified between 24 and 28 wk of gestational age as fragmented echoes in the region ...
Fuller C - - 1989
A three month male infant with a 24 hour history of cyanotic attacks was found to have heterotopic brain tissue at thoracotomy. He has remained well over 20 years of follow up. The pathogenesis of the condition is discussed.
Winter R M - - 1989
A male infant, the offspring of a father-daughter mating, is described. He had a lethal condition consisting of brachycephaly, large fontanelles, a flat face, a small nose with thin nares, hypertelorism, small ears with cystic pinnae, camptodactyly, talipes equinovarus, and hypoplastic lungs and kidneys. The brain was very short in ...
Shinnar S - - 1989
For many, the ethical issues raised in the previous sections are sufficient to justify opposition to tampering with either the dead-donor rule or the definition of death in general and the use of anencephalic infants as organ donors in particular regardless of how many organs could be procured. Others will ...
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