Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 837
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Johnston M V - - 1995
Brain damage from severe hypoxemia and ischemia is involved in many childhood disorders that produce permanent disability. Recent progress in diagnosis and brain imaging as well as in the laboratory has expanded understanding of the pathophysiology of these disorders. They are currently thought to trigger a neurotoxic biochemical cascade that ...
Allen R J - - 1994
MPKU pregnancies, with or without dietary treatment to reduce maternal plasma phenylalanine (phe), show variable, increased non-physiologic levels, as the putative cause of fetal teratogenicity. Cerebral dysgenesis with clinical neonatal microcephaly and congenital heart disease indicates altered organ morphogenesis. Although there is not an established precise relationship between maternal phe ...
Eken P - - 1994
To test the hypothesis that cranial ultrasound correlated with post-mortem findings in neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), the brains of 20 infants who died after at least two real time ultrasound scans were examined. The ultrasound abnormalities detected in the periventricular/subcortical white matter, cortex or thalami were compared with ...
Okudera T - - 1994
PURPOSE: To report the anatomic and radiologic development of the transverse, sigmoid, and occipital sinuses, the emissary veins, and the jugular bulb formation from the jugular sinus in humans before and after birth. METHODS: Roentgenograms of 33 injected brains showing the cranial venous system in human fetuses from 3 to ...
Cowan F M - - 1994
Twelve newborn infants with clinical evidence of hypoxic ischemic brain injury had conventional and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed one to six (median two) days and 7-42 days after birth. The extent and conspicuity of the early abnormalities was greater with diffusion-weighted than with conventional imaging in each of ...
Thies M L - - 1994
A total of 41 pregnant Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) were collected from Carlsbad Caverns, New Mexico, and Vickery Cave, Oklahoma, in May and June 1990 and May 1991 for organochlorine pesticide analyses. Residues of p,p'-DDE were detected by gas chromatography in 40 embryos at levels highly correlated with brain ...
Nishimura A - - 1994
The distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and substance P (SP) was examined in the brain-stem of 4 infants with respiratory abnormalities associated with remote brain-stem or cerebellar infarction utilizing immunohistochemical methods. TH-immunoreactive cells and SP-immunoreactive fibers were found in and around the area of the infarction in the tegmentum, in ...
Kuenzle C - - 1994
The prognostic significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the neonatal period was studied prospectively in 43 term infants with perinatal asphyxia. MRI was performed between 1 and 14 days after birth with a high field system (2.35 Tesla). Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed by a standardized neurological examination and the ...
Chen Y J - - 1994
To determine the neurophysiological effects of aminophylline on apnoea of prematurity, the brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) of 30 apnoeic infants and 34 age matched controls were evaluated and compared. After six days of treatment with aminophylline, the brain stem conduction time (interpeak latency of I-V) in apnoeic infants ...
Laneri G G - - 1994
Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) comprised 79% (45/57) of all infants with hydrops fetalis at our institution over a 6-year period. Thirty-seven infants with NIHF were liveborn. One or more electroencephalograms were performed on 40% of liveborn infants (15/37); the majority (87%) were moderately to markedly abnormal, including burst suppression, lack ...
Myburgh J G - - 1994
Two outbreaks of neurotoxicoses are reported in cattle browsing on the leaves of Ficus spp. In the first outbreak, three animals died and one became ill. A sheep developed severe nervous signs, including tetanic spasms, when dosed with the leaves of Ficus ingens var. ingens from the toxic camp where ...
Iida N - - 1994
The diagnosis of death by the use of brain death criteria is a familiar practice in modern Western medicine, especially in ICUs, where the function of the heart and lungs is artificially maintained. In other countries, notably Japan, brain death criteria are not accepted. In this article, which was presented ...
Adelstein W - - 1994
Because 99m Tc HM-PAO is simple to use, noninvasive and readily available, it appears to satisfy most criteria for the use of radionuclide cerebral imaging in the confirmation of brain death. Waiting periods, which are often included in brain death protocols, delay the diagnosis of brain death. 99m Tc HM-PAO ...
Cohen M - - 1994
The authors examined the brains of two infants in whom episodes of fetal compromise could be accurately correlated with gestational age. A mother who had sustained hypotensive shock at 16 weeks gestation gave birth at 20 weeks to a stillborn infant whose brain showed cystic necrosis of the lenticular nuclei ...
Konishi Y - - 1994
The aim of the study was to analyse, with a more detailed classification the occurrence of movements and postures of the fingers in normal and brain damaged pre-term infants. To this end the same videorecordings of normal subjects of the study described by Cioni and Prechtl and those with defined ...
Dambska M - - 1994
The aim of our study was to present six cases with cystic changes within the white matter in infant brains and discuss the variants of this type of neuropathological lesions of the developing brain. Two of them exhibited the changes characteristic for cystic leucoencephalopathy. To the others with moderate involvement ...
Wicht H - - 1994
The forebrain of adult hagfishes (jawless craniates, Myxinoidea) displays a unique morphology. The forebrain is thick-walled and well-differentiated cytoarchitecturally but lacks a well-developed ventricular system, and there is a pronounced compression of the entire brain along the longitudinal axis. This combination of characters obscures the boundaries between the major subdivisions ...
Bar-Sever Z - - 1994
A preterm infant with a rare association of a multicentric hepatic hemangioendothelioma (MHH) and a large brain hemangioma is described. The imaging investigations and their findings are discussed. It is recommended that whole-body radionuclide imaging with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells is employed immediately following ultrasonography to confirm the suspected diagnosis ...
Bruggers C S - - 1994
Ifosfamide, a nitrogen mustard derived alkylating agent commonly used in the treatment of solid tumors, has been associated with neurotoxicity in 5-33% of treated patients. Encephalopathy most often occurs during or shortly following drug administration, with increased drowsiness or irritability, confusion, hallucinations, visual blurring, extrapyramidal dysfunction, cranial nerve abnormalities, incontinence, ...
O'Callaghan M J - - 1993
This study investigates the origins of hand preference at 4 years in a cohort of 115 high risk and premature infants; the relationship between patterns of hand preference and intellectual, motor, temperament and behavioural status at 4 and 6 years; and evidence for brain injury in mediating the relationship between ...
Farrell M M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To detail the origins of the definition of death, the development of the criterion of whole brain death as fulfilling the definition of death, and the tests used to fulfill that criterion. DATA SOURCES: A review of the literature was performed. No Institutional Review Board approval was necessary. DATA ...
Brown A M - - 1993
Following the reporting of a cluster of cases of brain tumour in the workforce of an underground coal mine (Mine A) in the Newcastle coalfield, a study was carried out to determine whether this phenomenon was due to chance alone or whether an environmental cause could be postulated. The study ...
Diaz J H - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To inform physicians of the critical shortage of neonatal heart donors and to provide arguments for and against selecting brain-absent anencephalics as heart donors for brain-normal infants who are dying of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. DATA SOURCES: International scientific journals of medicine, genetics, epidemiology, bioethics, and public health; adjudicated ...
Armstrong D L - - 1993
Injury to the periventricular axons and myelin in the preterm infant occur at a vulnerable period of brain development and may be associated with devastating brain lesions and neurological sequelae. Ultrasonography in the newborn period identifies the site and extent of lesions and is useful in predicting the outcome for ...
Verhoeff N P - - 1993
Two migraine patients were studied by in vivo SPECT using the dopamine D2-receptor specific radioligand 123I-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide (123I-IBZM) during ergotamine abuse and after withdrawal. Results were compared with 15 healthy controls. Striatum/cerebellum and striatum/occipital cortex ratios of count rate density were calculated as a semiquantitative measurement for striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding ...
Pasternak J F - - 1993
Term infants who have sustained brain damage from intrauterine asphyxia can often be classified into one of two distinct clinical and radiologic syndromes. The first consists of damage to the cerebral hemispheres. The second consists of damage predominantly involving the basal ganglia and thalamus. Results of studies of asphyxia in ...
Suhonen-Polvi H - - 1993
Positron emission tomography (PET) permits the study of cerebral metabolism in vivo. We performed repeated PET studies with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a tracer to measure cerebral glucose metabolism for estimation of neurological prognosis in infants with suspected hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Fourteen infants (gestational age 35.3 +/- 4.67 weeks) were ...
Ries M - - 1993
We report three newborns with brain abscesses. Two infants suffered from Serratia marcescens meningitis and one infant had enterococcal sepsis and meningitis. Brain abscesses were detected by cerebral sonography. Outcome in one infant with S. marcescens infection was poor. This patient developed multicystic encephalo-malacia and severe developmental retardation. In the ...
Lizza J P - - 1993
This paper challenges the recommendations of 1981 President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research that all jurisdictions in the United States should adopt the Uniform Determination of Death Act, which endorses a whole-brain, rather than a higher-brain, definition of death. I argue ...
Altman D I - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: A better understanding of the developmental changes in brain energy metabolism that occur in human neonates is critically important for designing rational treatment strategies that ensure an adequate supply of nutrients to the brain and minimize deleterious side effects of therapeutic interventions in sick newborns. METHODS: Cerebral metabolic rate ...
Mantych G J - - 1993
Glucose, an essential substrate for brain oxidative metabolism, is transported across the adult blood-brain barrier by Glut 1, a facilitative glucose transporter. Employing postmortem human brain samples and Western blot analysis, we demonstrated the presence of a 47-55 kilodalton Glut 1 protein in preterm and term newborn. The level of ...
Cameron D - - 1993
During routine nasal intubation of a premature infant, the endotracheal tube penetrated the brain. Bloodstained cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissue was apparent. Initial cranial sonography was normal, but the infant later developed extensive intracranial haemorrhage. Rotation of an endotracheal tube to facilitate insertion angles the bevel at the tip upwards, ...
Osamura T - - 1993
We describe a fatal case of adenovirus pneumonia accompanied by encephalitis in a neonate who showed lethargy on the 6th day and died on the 12th day. Adenoviral particles as well as viral intranuclear inclusions were noted in pulmonary alveolar epithelium cells. Neuropathological examination revealed diffuse oedema, perivascular cuffing and ...
Peden C J - - 1993
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to examine, within the first month of life, the brains of 11 infants born at term--10 with signs of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and one who was neurologically normal at birth. All the infants had peak resonances on their spectra which could be assigned to ...
Nelson K B - - 1993
In this article, the authors examine whether indicators commonly used to recognized birth asphyxia are specific to asphyxial states, and whether these allow recognition of a severity of asphyxia sufficient to pose a risk of irreversible brain injury. Characteristics recognizable within the first hours after birth are focused on because ...
Rosen M G - - 1993
Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring has been used to identify periods of fetal risk, with the hope that clinical intervention would avoid the potential for perinatal death or neurologic damage. A literature review of 10 infant studies failed to document fetal heart rate patterns associated with neurologic injury or protocols ...
Gruetter R - - 1993
In order to assess the influence of longitudinal relaxation on previously reported variations in 31P NMR signals during brain development, we used an accelerated two-point technique to determine T1 at 2.35 Tesla in 8 min. Comparison between 10 normal neonates (age range 37-46 weeks postconception) and 10 healthy infants (age ...
Andrews P I - - 1993
An asphyxiated male infant was delivered by cesarean section at 38 weeks gestation. The patient was macrocephalic with clinical evidence of fetal immobility syndrome. He died aged two days. Autopsy revealed excessive brain weight, pachygyria, enlarged olfactory tracts and hypoplastic optic nerves. Microscopy revealed evidence of impaired neuronal migration throughout ...
Dambska M - - 1993
Neuropathological examination of six brains of newborns and infants who died in the course of congenital cyanotic cardiac anomalies showed focal brain lesions. The material included five cases from two weeks to two months of age, and one two-year-old infant. In two of them, the periventricular ischemic infarcts were found, ...
Faber M D - - 1993
Recent physiological studies of the human mind-brain lend support to the theory of object relations, and in particular to the manner in which the object of the early period enters the infant's dawning psyche to elicit a perdurable pattern of both positive and negative response to stimuli. The psychoanalytic concept ...
Vannucci R C - - 1993
Animal research has provided important information on the pathogenesis of and neuropathologic responses to perinatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. In experimental animals, structural brain damage from hypoxia-ischemia has been produced in immature rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, sheep and monkeys (18, 20, 24, 25, 38). Of the several available animal models, the fetal ...
Trammer R M - - 1992
To evaluate narcotic and nicotine effects on the neonatal auditory system, brain stem auditory evoked responses were recorded in 15 infants prenatally exposed to both narcotics and nicotine (median gestational age 38.4 weeks, median birth weight 2820 g), in 15 nicotine exposed infants (gestational age 40.0 weeks, birth weight 3000 ...
Hayashida K - - 1992
In order to evaluate the lung and brain uptake of 99mTc ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP), alternative body scans were carried out in 15 cases of cerebrovascular disease. The biodistribution of 99mTc-ECD was 5.5 +/- 0.7%, 3.8 +/- 0.7% in the brain; 13.1 +/- 3.7%, 2.2 +/- 1.2%, ...
Grimmer I - - 1992
Auditory brain stem responses potentials were recorded from 71 newborns within the first 2 weeks after birth; conceptional age ranged from 37 to 41 weeks. Thirty-nine newborns were infants of diabetic mothers (IDMs) (17 White A, 22 White B-D) and 32 healthy term newborns served as control group. IDMs with ...
Libicher M - - 1992
The subarachnoid space was examined with real-time ultrasonography (US) in 89 healthy infants. US of the brain in all infants revealed no abnormalities. Three variables were measured in the coronal plane at the level of the foramen of Monro: the sinocortical width (SCW) ranged from 0.4 to 3.3 mm, the ...
Grahnquist L - - 1992
Proteus is an uncommon pathogen in neonatal meningitis and has, to our knowledge, not previously been described from Scandinavia. Our case illustrates the typical course of the disease when onset is within the first two weeks of life. The typical patient is a previously healthy, sometimes slightly preterm infant, who ...
Bayertz K - - 1992
This paper is based on the hypothesis that the effort to establish new criteria for diagnosing human death, which has been taking place over the past twenty years or more, can be viewed as a paradigm case for the impact of scientific and technological progress on morality. This impact takes ...
Krajewski R - - 1992
Brain abscesses are rare in infants and their clinical presentation is specific for this age group. Seven cases of brain abscess in infants aged 2-11 months are reported. The underlying cause was meningitis in four, sepsis in two, and unknown in one. Gram-negative organisms were cultured in 6 patients. The ...
Pérez-Otaño I - - 1992
MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) was incidentally administered to pregnant marmosets during the whole gestational period, except for the last 15 days before term. The infant monkeys were killed 5 months after birth, and dopamine and its metabolites were measured in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens. Prenatal exposure to MPTP produced a ...
Terpeluk C - - 1992
A newborn infant is described who presented with septicaemia and meningoencephalitis caused by Plesiomonas shigelloides, a Gram-negative rod belonging to the family Vibrionaceae. The patient in this case, the first to be documented in Europe, developed multilocular lysis of the brain despite immediate treatment with antibiotics active in vitro. A ...
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