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Results 501 - 550 of 837
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al Khayat A - - 1997
We studied 19 infants with a mean age of 3.8 months who presented with features consistent with acute lead encephalopathy following the use of traditional medicines. All presented with convulsions; CT scans of the brain on admission showed brain oedema in four, atrophy in four and normal findings in 11. ...
McIntyre F L - - 1997
Primary craniosynostosis, the premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, occurs in up to one in 2,500 births. Secondary causes of craniosynostosis include disorders that lead to failure of brain development and conditions that influence bone metabolism. The craniosynostoses result in skull deformities and increased intracranial pressure as the ...
Franz H G - - 1997
To examine how a family's understanding of brain death may affect the decision to donate, an interview study was conducted with the immediate next of kin of 164 medically suitable organ donor candidates. Telephone interviews were conducted with members of both donor and nondonor families 4 to 6 months after ...
Soboleski D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal sonographic appearance and measurement of normal major cranial sutures in neonates and infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: High-resolution sonograms of sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid sutures were obtained for two autopsy specimens and correlated with histologic sections obtained at identical locations. ...
Ness G C - - 1997
We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these ...
Taylor R M - - 1997
The whole-brain criterion of death was first formally proposed by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death" in a "Special Communication" published in JAMA in 1968. Since then, all states in the United States and many western countries have endorsed this ...
Sparks D L - - 1997
A standardized removal and dissection procedure is presented for human infant brain. A previously unreported cistern of the pineal gland must be severed at autopsy in order to preserve the gland's anatomic integrity during brain removal. Utilization of these methods to investigate Sudden Infant Death Syndrome brain tissue should facilitate ...
Golub M S - - 1996
A large percentage of newborns are exposed to pharmacological agents that affect the brain in connection with pain management during labor. The two most commonly used agents are meperidine, administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and bupivacaine, administered by the epidural route. Over the years, infant behavioral assessments have been used in ...
Schilling T F - - 1996
Jaws and branchial arches together are a basic, segmented feature of the vertebrate head. Seven arches develop in the zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio), derived largely from neural crest cells that form the cartilaginous skeleton. In this and the following paper we describe the phenotypes of 109 arch mutants, focusing here ...
Grigelioniené G - - 1996
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found in CNS progenitor cells. Nestin reappears in CNS tumor cells and reactive astrocytes after CNS injury. In this study we investigated whether nestin could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of newborn infants and whether expression levels change with gestational age (GA) ...
Cady E B - - 1996
Previous studies of the brains of normal infants demonstrated lower lactate (Lac)/choline (Cho), Lac/creatine (Cr), and Lac/ N-acetylaspartate (Naa) peak-area ratios in the thalamic region (predominantly gray matter) compared with occipitoparietal (mainly unmyelinated white matter) values. In the present study, thalamic Cho, Cr, and Naa concentrations between 32-42 weeks' gestational ...
Hadders-Algra M - - 1996
Recently, a new assessment technique by which to evaluate brain function in the fetus and newborn infant has been developed. The method is based on the assessment of the quality of General Movements (GMs). GMs are complex movements involving all parts of the body. They are present throughout fetal life ...
van der Knaap M S - - 1996
PURPOSE: To provide a practical standard for normal development of gyri and sulci in preterm and term neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine living preterm infants without substantial neurologic problems underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain. Five infants who were born at term but died of a nonneurologic disorder ...
Wood D D - - 1996
We have studied a case of acute, fulminating multiple sclerosis (MS) (Marburg type) at the pathological and biochemical levels. Postmortem examination of the brain revealed extensive areas of gross rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter. Histologically, well-demarcated areas of demyelination with a large influx of macrophages and a subtle perivascular ...
Penrice J - - 1996
The aims of this study were 1) to define normal perinatal maturational changes in proton metabolite peak-area ratios in two regions of the neonatal brain, the thalamic and occipitoparietal regions, and 2) to investigate abnormalities of these ratios after perinatal hypoxia-ischemia. Fifty-four infants were studied: 35 normal control infants at ...
Lau G - - 1996
A patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was mistakenly given vincristine intraventricularly, as part of an intensified course of chemotherapy. Despite a CNS washout and supportive treatment, the patient developed progressive ascending paralysis, gradually lapsed into coma and died some 10 days later. Autopsy and post-mortem histological examination showed evidence of ...
Jay V - - 1996
The association of tuberous sclerosis with Down syndrome is exceedingly rare. An infant with this unusual association is reported with a description of brain and ocular abnormalities which were referable to both conditions. There was anteroposterior foreshortening of the brain and Brushfield spots in the iris, which are described in ...
Barr L L - - 1996
PURPOSE: To determine whether textural features derived from sonographic pixel intensities differ significantly between healthy infants and infants who have had acute clinical hypoxic episodes. METHODS: Neurosonographic and calibration phantom-processed image data were evaluated prospectively from 9 infants (age range, 1 to 163 days) with at least 1 episode of ...
Kinnala A - - 1996
AIM: To measure the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRGlc) in neonatal brains during maturation using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). METHODS: Twenty infants were studied using PET during the neonatal period. The postconceptional age ranged from 32.7 to 60.3 weeks. All infants had normal neurodevelopment and ...
Hüppi P S - - 1996
Postnatal brain development of healthy prematurely born infants was assessed to study possible influence of premature birth and early extrauterine environment on structural, biochemical, and functional brain development. Myelination and differentiation of gray and white matter were studied by in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI), changes in cerebral metabolism ...
Kessel A - - 1996
An 11-month-old infant suffering from microcephalus, developmental delay, severe failure to thrive and marked cortical atrophy on brain CT is presented. The cause of this condition was total calorie malnutrition induced by the emotional dysfunction of the mother. Improvement of the maternal-infant relationship, combined with appropriate nutrition, transformed the infant ...
Pamphlett R - - 1996
In infants, extreme extension or rotation of the head can occlude one or both vertebral arteries. We sought to determine whether small communicating arteries or asymmetric vertebral arteries could predispose the brain stem to ischemia should such head movements occur. In 68 infants, the carotid, posterior communicating, precommunicator posterior cerebral, ...
Droit S - - 1996
The characteristics of rhythmical kicking movements of preterm infants with documented brain damage (BD), who later showed a severe motor impairment, are described and compared with those of low-risk (LR) preterm infants. Spontaneous movements were videotaped for 60 min in the incubator or in a warmer. A first group of ...
Moore M H - - 1996
Computed tomographic scan-based examination of the cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces before and after fronto-orbital advancement in infants with unilateral coronal synostosis was performed. In infants who had not undergone surgery, pronounced compression of the ipsilateral frontal brain substance, frontal subarachnoid space, and frontal horn of the lateral ventricle were evident, with ...
Bettendorff L - - 1996
Total thiamine (the sum of thiamine and its phosphate esters) concentrations are two- to fourfold lower in human brain than in the brain of other mammals. There were no differences in the total thiamine content between biopsied and autopsied human brain, except that in the latter, thiamine triphosphate was undetectable. ...
Dambska M - - 1996
The aim of the study was to examine the astroglial reactivity in brains of fetuses and newborns during the third trimester of gestation. The immuno-histochemical reaction of glial cells with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was used. The periventricular white matter damage due to pre- and perinatal hypoxia or sepsis ...
Barkovich A J - - 1995
PURPOSE: To investigate imaging findings in premature infants who had profound asphyxia. METHODS: CT (three patients), MR (three patients), and ultrasonography (four patients) studies of five patients who had profound asphyxia before the postconceptional age of 32 weeks were retrospectively reviewed. The patients ranged from 1 day to 4 months ...
Tokioka A B - - 1995
Event-related brain potentials generated in an auditory oddball paradigm were recorded in term and preterm infants. The amplitudes of these brain potentials were significantly larger when generated by a rare improbable stimulus compared to a common frequently presented stimulus. While the magnitude of this novelty detection effect depended on the ...
Konishi Y - - 1995
Changes of the midline structures of the brain, including the pons, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum, induced by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in 7 infants with infantile spasms were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. Decreased volume of these parts of the brain was induced in almost all infants. Decreased volume ...
Kim C R - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: Because stress in utero may enhance neuromotor maturation, we hypothesized that infants born to mothers with preeclampsia would have a shorter absolute latency V and interpeak latency I-V period (brain-stem conduction time) of brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) than infants born to normotensive mothers. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort ...
Anderson N G - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate normal brain anatomy as seen on posterior fontanelle cranial sonography with anatomical sections of the premature infant brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images obtained from 93 cranial ultrasound examinations performed via both the anterior and posterior fontanelle in 53 infants, ranging in ...
Petersen M C - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess respiratory responses of newborn infants with myelomeningocele through pneumograms and carbon dioxide challenge, and to evaluate the possibility of predicting which patients with myelomeningocele acquired respiratory symptoms related to the Arnold-Chiari deformity and brain-stem dysfunction. METHODS: All surviving infants with spina ...
Kjaer I - - 1995
A survey is given of current knowledge of the interrelationship between facial, cranial and brain development in humans. First, normal facial, cranial (mandible, maxilla, palatine bone, cranial base, theca cranii, dentition), and brain development are described separately. Then, developmental interrelationships are illustrated under normal and pathologic conditions (cleft lip and ...
Leth H - - 1995
Glucose is the predominant cerebral energy source under physiological conditions, although other substrates may support cerebral metabolism. The present study was undertaken to determine if lactate is present in the immature human brain, and if so, whether or not concentrations of lactate differ between small-for-gestational-age and appropriate-for-gestational-age infants. Thirty stable, ...
Brunetti M - - 1995
It is usually accepted that GPEtn is only an intermediate in glycerophospholipid degradation. However, some years ago J. P. Infante published a review-hypothesis concerning the possible involvement of GPEtn and GPCho in the biosynthesis of acyl-specific glycerophospholipids in mammalian tissues. This paper reports the results obtained by incubating brain cortex ...
McMahan Jeff - - 1995
The dominant conception of brain death as the death of the whole brain constitutes an unstable compromise between the view that a person ceases to exist when she irreversibly loses the capacity for consciousness and the view that a human organism dies only when it ceases to function in an ...
Thal D R - - 1995
The lipofuscin of pyramidal cells in each hippocampal subfield of each of seven human autopsy cases without brain disease at the age of 3-12 months (infants) and of 17-23 years (young adults) was comparatively investigated at the electron microscopic level. In infant pyramidal neurons of the hippocampal subfields CA 1, ...
Sourkes T L - - 1995
From 1865 to about 1910 studies of the chemistry of the brain were afflicted by the hypothesis that cerebral lipid matter consisted of a giant molecule from which all the simpler lipids were derived as breakdown products. In successive periods the main proponents of this 'protagon' theory were Oscar Liebreich, ...
Blennow M - - 1995
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the structural protein of intermediate filaments in astroglia. GFAP has extensively been used as a marker of gliosis in neuropathology. It also appears in excessive amounts in the cerebrospinal fluid in various acute brain disorders. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after perinatal asphyxia is a condition in ...
Falck G - - 1995
Increased brain weights have been reported in the literature to occur among infants who have died from sudden infant death syndrome, suggesting that cerebral edema might play a role in the cause of death among these children. We have compared brain weights from children between the ages of 1 week ...
Ou S F - - 1995
Multiple etiological factors have been associated with infantile spasms (IS), and are usually linked to diffuse or multifocal brain damage. It is generally believed that infants with symptomatic IS have a significantly higher incidence of mental retardation and epilepsy than those with cryptogenic IS. However, IS secondary to focal brain ...
Tsuru A - - 1995
Cystic necrosis in the cerebellar white matter was found in three premature infants. The necrosis was characteristically localized in the center of the white matter of the superficial cerebellar folia, sparing the overlying cortex. The patients were aged between 28 and 34 gestational weeks, and had a clinical history of ...
Marsh D O - - 1995
Studies of outbreaks of methylmercury poisoning in Japan and Iraq from consumption of methylmercury (MeHg)-contaminated fish or bread proved that brain was the target organ, the toxic effects were dose-related, and the fetal brain was especially susceptible. Previous population studies suggested that a 5% risk of minimal fetal effect may ...
Schmidt H - - 1995
Catabolites of purine nucleotides were measured in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of newborn infants with sepsis, seizures and hydrocephalus using isocratic reversed-phase HPLC. The inosine levels in the CSF of the infants with any of the illnesses were significantly higher when compared with the controls. There was a tendency for ...
Myers G J - - 1995
The Seychelles Child Development Study is examining the association between fetal methylmercury exposure from a maternal diet high in fish and subsequent child development. The study is double blind and uses maternal hair mercury as the index of fetal exposure. An initial cross-sectional pilot study of 804 infants aged 1 ...
Gelot A - - 1995
We report neuropathological studies of five cases of type II lissencephaly from three fetuses and two infants. This comparative study allowed us to determine the developmental course of the cerebral lesions. Two distinct developmental events seem to generate this type of brain malformation: firstly, an early disturbance in cortex formation, ...
Cecchi R - - 1995
Medical science needs to regulate the transplantation of organs, including the adoption of new guidelines concerning the diagnosis of brain death in patients less than five years old. In fact in the case of anencephalic infants the specific criteria are not the same as those used in subjects with normal ...
Reilly J S - - 1995
Children are fluent affective communicators by their first birthday. The development of affective facial expression in infants with focal brain damage thus provides a promising context in which to investigate the developing neural substrates of emotions. We examined both positive and negative affective expression in 12 infants (6-24 months) with ...
Blennow M - - 1995
While the release of neurotransmitters is involved in the pathophysiology of brain damage following birth asphyxia, it also plays a role in endogenous defense against such damage. Levels of monoamines and the main cerebral monoamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured in asphyxiated and control infants within 24 ...
Toft P B - - 1995
The local cerebral vascular response to hyperventilation was investigated in five distressed, intubated infants by means of a T2 sensitive gradient-echo MRI technique at 1.5 T. In one preterm infant, the MR signal change during hyperventilation was sparse. In four term infants, the mean MR signal of the brain slice ...
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