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Benítez-Bribiesca L - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Experimental undernutrition in animals, during the critical brain development period, produces retardation of brain growth as well as a number of different morphologic and functional abnormalities in neurons, mainly in the dendritic synaptic apparatus. These alterations are the cause of the poor neurointegrative development that occurs in experimental malnutrition. ...
Coetzee T - - 1999
The galactolipids galactocerebroside and sulfatide and the proteolipid protein (PLP) and its splice variant DM20 are the most abundant lipid and protein components of central nervous system myelin. Recent studies have found that mice lacking either the galactolipids or PLP are able to form myelin sheaths with apparently normal periodicity ...
Molina C P - - 1999
A 29-week gestational age newborn male infant was found to have an echogenic mass in the 3rd ventricle by prenatal ultrasound 2 weeks prior to delivery. At delivery he was poorly responsive and had hydrocephalus and ascites. A CT scan after birth showed cerebral infarction, amorphous tissue in the left ...
Bates E - - 1999
Three logically and empirically independent issues are often conflated in theory and research on brain and language: localization, innateness, and domain specificity. Research on adults and infants with focal brain injury support the following conclusions: (a) linguistic knowledge is not innate, and it is not localized in a clear and ...
van der Heide J - - 1999
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effects of preterm birth, severe brain lesions, and postterm age on kicking movements of young infants and to compare the prognostic value of kinematic analysis of kicking with a qualitative assessment of infants' spontaneous movements. SUBJECTS: The subjects ...
Stewart A L - - 1999
Infants born very preterm (<33 weeks) are at increased risk of neurocognitive deficits. Their neurodevelopmental outcome up to age 8 years can be predicted by neonatal ultrasonography, but little is known of their later function. We investigated the effect of very preterm birth on brain structure and neurocognitive and behavioural ...
Korst L M - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a term neonate who has had sufficient intrapartum asphyxia to produce persistent brain injury will manifest the following four criteria: profound acidemia (arterial pH <7.00), an APGAR score < or =3 for 5 min or longer, seizures within 24 h of birth, and multiorgan system dysfunction. ...
Pihko E - - 1999
We studied auditory event-related potentials (ERP) in newborns and 6-month-old infants, about half of whom had a familial risk for dyslexia. Syllables varying in vowel duration were presented in an oddball paradigm, in which ERPs to deviating stimuli are assumed to reflect automatic change detection in the brain. The ERPs ...
Xu F H - - 1999
Contingent negative variation (CNV) is a brain function test of the central nervous system in reference to attention, will preparation and motivation. We compared the neuropharmacological effects of 6 main Kampo formulations (1. Mao-to: MA HUANG TANG; 2. Shimbu-to: ZHEN WU TANG; 3. Ninjin-to: REN SHEN TANG; 4. Shigyaku-san: SI ...
Dawson G - - 1999
In previous studies, infants of depressed mothers have been found to exhibit reduced left frontal brain electrical activity (EEG). The left frontal region has been hypothesized to mediate social approach behaviors and positive affective expression. These findings raise important questions about the cause and nature of atypical EEG patterns in ...
Miyawaki T - - 1998
We demonstrated the developmental characteristics of vessel density in the human brain, using an antibody against CD31, which specifically reacts with endothelium. In the cerebral cortex and subcortical white matter, the vessel density was low at 16-28 weeks of gestation (GW), and then increased after 36 GW. In the deep ...
Singer J H - - 1998
Using an in vitro rat brain stem slice preparation, we examined the postnatal changes in glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and passive membrane properties that underlie a developmental change in inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) recorded in hypoglossal motoneurons (HMs). Motoneurons were placed in three age groups: neonate (P0-3), intermediate (P5-8), ...
Jones D G - - 1998
The possible symmetry between the concepts of brain death and brain birth (life) is explored. Since the symmetry argument has tended to overlook the most appropriate definition of brain death, the fundamental concepts of whole brain death and higher brain death are assessed. In this way, a context is provided ...
Janakiraman N - - 1998
Death is a natural process, but the definition of death varies depending on the cultural and religious background, all over the world. The historical development of the concept and the current criteria in the determination of brain death must be well understood. Termination of life support measures in a brain ...
Miyata S - - 1998
It is known that cold exposure as an infant results in a permanent cold tolerance which is accompanied by a reduced rate of colonic temperature decline and increased metabolic heat production to cold stimulation. The present study was aimed to elucidate the central mechanism of cold tolerance of adult rats ...
Battin M R - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To investigate preterm infants, we have installed in our neonatal intensive care unit a dedicated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system which was specifically designed for neonatal use. The aim of this study was to describe the MR appearances of the brain in preterm infants who were first scanned between ...
Teglas M B - - 1998
A Sarcocystis-like organism was associated with encephalitis and myocarditis in an ataxic, emaciated adult male turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) from Gilmer County, West Virginia. Protozoal schizonts and merozoites were associated with areas of inflammation and occasionally necrosis in both the heart and the brain. The organisms divided by endopolygeny and stained ...
Schulman H - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants are particularly prone to hypothermia, a condition with a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: To study the CT brain patterns in infants with hypothermia and neurological symptoms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the brain CT of nine infants with neonatal hypothermia, multiple organ failure, seizures and coma. RESULTS: Two ...
Childs A M - - 1998
PURPOSE: MR imaging of the brain is increasingly used in the investigation of the newborn, but little information is available on the normal appearance of the developing brain. We scanned a series of newborn infants in an attempt to define the normal appearance of developing periventricular white matter and to ...
Futagi Y - - 1998
In order to specify the locations and to clarify the electrophysiological significance of the transitory rhythmic theta activities detected on scalp electrodes in infants, we performed simultaneous EEG and video recording with power spectral map analysis in 29 normal infants of less than 1 year of age. The rhythmic theta ...
Barlow C F - - 1998
We report the development of spastic diplegia in infants during the course of interferon Alfa-2a (IFN) therapy for potentially life-endangering hemangiomas. Five infants who displayed diplegia were selected from a group of 26 infants treated with IFN. Diplegia persisted in three infants, and in the remaining two significant recovery occurred ...
Bernat J L - - 1998
The concept of whole-brain death is under attack again. Scholars are arguing that the concept of brain death per se--regardless of the focus on "higher," "stem" or "whole"--is fundamentally flawed. These scholars have identified what they believe are serious discrepancies between the definition and criterion of brain death, and have ...
Hüppi P S - - 1998
Definition in the living premature infant of the anatomical and temporal characteristics of development of critical brain structures is crucial for insight into the time of greatest vulnerability of such brain structures. We used three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) and image-processing algorithms to quantitate total brain volume and total ...
Sinha S K - - 1998
The asphyxial injury to neonate brain seems to be mediated through a cascade of biochemical events during ischaemia--reperfusion which includes excitatory amino acids, free radicals and accelerated programmed cell death (Apoptosis). The diagnosis of asphyxia requires rigorous approach based on background clinical information, certain diagnostic tests and exclusion of alternative ...
Variend S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cytomegaloviral (CMV) parotitis reflects a disseminated disease that increases vulnerability to unexpected death. DESIGN: Necropsy-based cross-sectional study comparing incidences of brain stem microglial nodules and visceral lymphocytic infiltrates in patients with and without CMV parotitis. SUBJECTS: One hundred twelve infants and young children comprising a study ...
Ashwal S - - 1997
Brain death can be diagnosed in the full-term newborn, even when less than 7 days of age. An observation period of 48 hours is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. If an EEG is isoelectric or if a CBF study shows no flow, the observation period can be shortened to 24 ...
Ferrari F - - 1997
Posture, quantity of spontaneous movement patterns, quality of general movements (GMs), and behavioural state organisation were studied in nine infants affected by documented brain malformations. A single 1 h video recording of five infants and two or more serial video recordings of another four infants were performed after birth. The ...
Edwards A D - - 1997
This study addressed the hypothesis that in human infants severe in utero insults induce a significant proportion of brain cells to undergo apoptosis. Morphologic criteria were used to quantify apoptosis and necrosis in the cingulate gyrus of two groups of infants: six infants who died after severe birth asphyxia with ...
Martín-Ancel A - - 1997
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if the concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is affected by perinatal asphyxia, and to examine the relation of IL-6 levels in the CSF to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), to brain damage, and to the neurological outcome. METHODS: Asphyxiated term neonates were ...
Morikawa S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of timing of brain insults causing abnormal outcome in preterm infants. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one preterm infants were examined. The timing of brain insult was estimated from EEG or clinical findings. Development was assessed until a corrected age ...
Kinnala A - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of neonatal hypoglycaemia on the local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (LCMRglc). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight newborn infants with neonatal hypoglycaemia were studied. The LCMRglc in the whole brain, in five cerebral regions and in skeletal muscles were quantitated using positron emission tomography (PET) and ...
Hagberg H - - 1997
The Levene model in 7-day-old rats is the most often used model of hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) in immature animals. The rat central nervous system is immature at birth and corresponds neurodevelopmentally to the term human infant during the second postnatal week. The Levene model of HI differs from clinical asphyxia with ...
Obonai T - - 1997
Ten early neonatal sudden death victims (ENSD) were selected for neuropathological and immunohistochemical examinations. The gestational ages of the victims ranged from 36 to 42 weeks, and the postnatal ages from 8 hours to 10 days of life. In 6 of 10 patients, softening with rarefaction was observed in the ...
Fujii M - - 1997
The development of the human lateral vestibular nucleus was studied on serial sections of the brain of 8 fetuses and neonates at 12-40 weeks of gestation, an infant at 2 months of age and an adult of 63 years using a microscope with a drawing tube and an image-analysing computer ...
Nobre A C - - 1997
Recent neuroimaging and neuropsychological research in adults and infants suggests that the neural system for language is widely distributed and shares organizational principles with other cognitive systems in the brain. Connectionist modelling has clarified that networks operating with associative mechanisms can display properties typically associated with genetically predetermined and dedicated ...
Soboleski D - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the normal sonographic appearance and measurement of normal major cranial sutures in neonates and infants. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: High-resolution sonograms of sagittal, coronal, and lambdoid sutures were obtained for two autopsy specimens and correlated with histologic sections obtained at identical locations. ...
McIntyre F L - - 1997
Primary craniosynostosis, the premature closure of one or more cranial sutures, occurs in up to one in 2,500 births. Secondary causes of craniosynostosis include disorders that lead to failure of brain development and conditions that influence bone metabolism. The craniosynostoses result in skull deformities and increased intracranial pressure as the ...
al Khayat A - - 1997
We studied 19 infants with a mean age of 3.8 months who presented with features consistent with acute lead encephalopathy following the use of traditional medicines. All presented with convulsions; CT scans of the brain on admission showed brain oedema in four, atrophy in four and normal findings in 11. ...
Franz H G - - 1997
To examine how a family's understanding of brain death may affect the decision to donate, an interview study was conducted with the immediate next of kin of 164 medically suitable organ donor candidates. Telephone interviews were conducted with members of both donor and nondonor families 4 to 6 months after ...
Ness G C - - 1997
We report on an infant girl with severe RSH or Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome with hyperbilirubinemia. The infant died at age 2 months. Sterol analysis of liver and brain tissues showed marked elevations of 7-dehydrocholesterol with decreased levels of cholesterol. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated remarkable increases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in these ...
Taylor R M - - 1997
The whole-brain criterion of death was first formally proposed by the "Ad Hoc Committee of the Harvard Medical School to Examine the Definition of Brain Death" in a "Special Communication" published in JAMA in 1968. Since then, all states in the United States and many western countries have endorsed this ...
Sparks D L - - 1997
A standardized removal and dissection procedure is presented for human infant brain. A previously unreported cistern of the pineal gland must be severed at autopsy in order to preserve the gland's anatomic integrity during brain removal. Utilization of these methods to investigate Sudden Infant Death Syndrome brain tissue should facilitate ...
Grigelioniené G - - 1996
Nestin is an intermediate filament protein found in CNS progenitor cells. Nestin reappears in CNS tumor cells and reactive astrocytes after CNS injury. In this study we investigated whether nestin could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of newborn infants and whether expression levels change with gestational age (GA) ...
Schilling T F - - 1996
Jaws and branchial arches together are a basic, segmented feature of the vertebrate head. Seven arches develop in the zebrafish embryo (Danio rerio), derived largely from neural crest cells that form the cartilaginous skeleton. In this and the following paper we describe the phenotypes of 109 arch mutants, focusing here ...
Cady E B - - 1996
Previous studies of the brains of normal infants demonstrated lower lactate (Lac)/choline (Cho), Lac/creatine (Cr), and Lac/ N-acetylaspartate (Naa) peak-area ratios in the thalamic region (predominantly gray matter) compared with occipitoparietal (mainly unmyelinated white matter) values. In the present study, thalamic Cho, Cr, and Naa concentrations between 32-42 weeks' gestational ...
Golub M S - - 1996
A large percentage of newborns are exposed to pharmacological agents that affect the brain in connection with pain management during labor. The two most commonly used agents are meperidine, administered intravenously or intramuscularly, and bupivacaine, administered by the epidural route. Over the years, infant behavioral assessments have been used in ...
Hadders-Algra M - - 1996
Recently, a new assessment technique by which to evaluate brain function in the fetus and newborn infant has been developed. The method is based on the assessment of the quality of General Movements (GMs). GMs are complex movements involving all parts of the body. They are present throughout fetal life ...
van der Knaap M S - - 1996
PURPOSE: To provide a practical standard for normal development of gyri and sulci in preterm and term neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine living preterm infants without substantial neurologic problems underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain. Five infants who were born at term but died of a nonneurologic disorder ...
Jay V - - 1996
The association of tuberous sclerosis with Down syndrome is exceedingly rare. An infant with this unusual association is reported with a description of brain and ocular abnormalities which were referable to both conditions. There was anteroposterior foreshortening of the brain and Brushfield spots in the iris, which are described in ...
Wood D D - - 1996
We have studied a case of acute, fulminating multiple sclerosis (MS) (Marburg type) at the pathological and biochemical levels. Postmortem examination of the brain revealed extensive areas of gross rarefaction in the hemispheric white matter. Histologically, well-demarcated areas of demyelination with a large influx of macrophages and a subtle perivascular ...
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