Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1367
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Manzoni Paolo - - 2007
Candida species increasingly cause morbidity and mortality in the premature infant in neonatal intensive care units, and the gut reservoir is the site from which dissemination most frequently starts in such patients. Specific antifungal prophylaxis is the most suitable strategy with which to limit the severity and the frequent neurodevelopmental ...
van der Zwet W C - - 2008
Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) plays an important role in the innate immune response. Three alleles in the MBL gene, and one allele of the promoter, independently cause low serum MBL levels as compared with the wild-type. This study investigated the relationship between MBL genotype and the occurrence of nosocomial infection among ...
Smith-Vaughan Heidi - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: For Indigenous Australian children living in remote communities, onset of otitis media commences within weeks of birth and is associated with early nasopharyngeal colonisation with multiple respiratory bacterial pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. The high prevalence of eardrum perforation and the failure of standard therapies to ...
Baillie J Kenneth - - 2007
Severe sepsis will affect more than 870,000 individuals in the US this year, and has a mortality of approximately 30%. The pathophysiology of sepsis is believed to involve a complex cascade of inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, microthrombus formation and microvascular failure, leading to multiple organ failure and death. Despite numerous trials ...
Fendler Wojciech M - - 2008
AIM: To examine the diagnostic usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein and immature to total neutrophil ratio (I : T) in nosocomial sepsis among neonates treated in an intensive care unit. METHODS: A retrospective analysis and comparison of diagnostic utility performed in preterm neonates using receiver operating characteristic curves for ...
Alvarez Jesus R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the duration of the time that is needed to eradicate group B Streptococcus (GBS) in pregnant women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was performed of pregnant women with PPROM from January 1, 2000, ...
Yusuf K - - 2007
Although less common than influenza A, influenza B infections can cause significant mortality and morbidity in children who are immunocomprised and have underlying medical conditions. We report a preterm neonate with fatal influenza B virus pneumonia. This infant presented with signs and symptoms indistinguishable from any other cause of sepsis.
Shimizu Akiko - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate our hypothesis that non-pathogenic bacterial flora inhibit later colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, we performed a retrospective investigation of the association between non-pathogenic bacterial flora and later inhibition of colonization by MRSA in ELBW infants. METHODS: A total of ...
Chiang Ming-Chou - - 2007
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Testicular torsion (TT) and orchitis/epididymo-orchitis (EO) are confusing and difficult for physicians to diagnose in infants younger than 3 months. The aim of the study was to delineate the etiology and the clinical features of TT and EO in this age group. METHODS: During the period between April 1994 ...
Mao Zhi-Qin - - 2007
AIM: To explore the genetic diversities of UL144 open reading frame (ORF) of cytomegalovirus DNA detected in colon tissue from infants with Hirschsprung's disease (HD) by sequencing UL144 DNA in 23 aganglionic colon tissue and 4 urine samples from 25 HD infants. METHODS: Nest PCR was performed for amplification of ...
Frakking F N J - - 2007
We investigated whether deficiency of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a component of innate immunity, is associated with neonatal pneumonia and sepsis during the first 72 h, i.e. early onset, and during the first month after birth. In 88 neonatal intensive care patients (71 premature), MBL2 genotype and MBL plasma levels at ...
Ahmed, Shoaib Syed
Introduction: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a sensitive indicator of staphylococcal colonization and is considered a source of subsequent infection. When the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus colonization increased in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), resulting in 3 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections over a 3 month period, we ...
Strunk Tobias - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coagulase-negative staphylococci have emerged as the most common nosocomial pathogen in neonatal intensive care units worldwide. Our understanding of the interactions between coagulase-negative staphylococci and the immune system is incomplete, especially in the newborn. This review summarizes current knowledge on the human immune response to coagulase-negative staphylococci, ...
Ersoy Betul - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: We determined whether initial antithrombin (AT) levels help in diagnosis and prognosis of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis was diagnosed according to clinical and laboratory findings and positive culture results in 34 of the 54 newborns who presented to the hospital with suspected sepsis. Between AT levels and hematological parameters ...
- - 2007
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. In 2002, CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued revised guidelines for the prevention of perinatal GBS disease. These guidelines recommend universal screening ...
Kalinski Thomas - - 2007
We report on a 27-year-old primipara suffering from pre-eclampsia who died within 2 days postpartum. Toxemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and acute renal failure had masked the symptoms of invasive candida esophagitis and disseminated candidiasis in both lungs. Candida sepsis was discovered as the cause of death at postmortem ...
Glasgow Tiffany S - - 2007
Implementation of national guidelines for the prevention of group B streptococcal (GBS) infections has led to an increase in intrapartum antibiotic use and reduction in early-onset GBS infections in newborns. Other outcomes, including the clinical diagnosis of sepsis in term infants, treatment with antibiotics, length of stay, and cost have ...
Bentlin Maria Regina - - 2007
The present study is aimed to determine serum and urine interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in premature infants with late onset sepsis (LOS) and to evaluate if urine IL-8 is a useful test for LOS diagnosis. Fifty-six premature infants admitted to the NICU over 1 year had serum and urine IL-8 determined ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Invasive candida infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole for the prevention of fungal colonization and infection in very-low-birth-weight neonates. METHODS: During a 15-month period, all neonates weighing less than 1500 g at birth ...
Figueras-Aloy José - - 2007
Adhesion molecules may play a role in the evolution and severity of neonatal sepsis. The purposes of this study were to determine whether serum soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, L-selectin, and P-selectin levels are useful tools in the diagnosis of proven sepsis in newborn infants, ...
Adib Minoo - - 2007
Neonatal sepsis is a disease of infants who are less than 1 month of age. These infants are clinically ill, and their blood culture are positive for bacteria. The reported incidence of neonatal sepsis for all infants is 1 to 10 per 1000 live births. The mortality rate is 4.2-26%. ...
Stillova Lucia - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Early-onset group B Streptococcal disease (EOGBSD) is a serious but preventable neonatal infection. Maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) does not prevent all cases of the disease. Management of asymptomatic neonates of GBS colonized mothers is problematic. AIMS: The objective of this prospective study was to determine whether administration of ...
van den Berg Anemone - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In a previous study, we have found that glutamine supplementation decreased the infection rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. In this study, we investigated whether this beneficial effect originated from increased number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal microflora of these infants. METHODS: In ...
Pandey Anubhav - - 2007
Ureaplasma urealyticum has been implicated in various neonatal morbidities in preterm infants. Its association with chronic lung disease (CLD) remains controversial. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate colonization of U. urealyticum in preterm infants (with gestational age <34 wk) and to evaluate the relationship between U. urealyticum ...
Mammina Caterina - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (MDRGN) are an important cause of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We conducted a 1-year prospective surveillance study in an NICU to assess the epidemiology of MDRGN among newborns and the relative importance of acquisition routes. METHODS: Neonates admitted at the NICU of ...
Torine Ilana J - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to compare total energy expenditure (TEE) in extremely premature infants during and after an episode of sepsis. We hypothesized that TEE in the sepsis group (SEP) would be higher during the septic period and higher than an age-matched control group (CTL). We further hypothesized ...
Ghotaslou Reza - - 2007
Neonatal sepsis is a life-threatening emergency, and any delay in treatment may cause death. Because of the importance of the problem in Iran, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine the etiological agents of neonatal septicemia, and the prevalence and epidemiology of Klebsiella bacteremia in the neonatal wards. ...
Arnon S - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy of serum amyloid A (SAA), an acute phase protein in the detection of neonatal early-onset sepsis, by means of a fast automated SAA kit. STUDY DESIGN: Full-term infants <72 h of age, who had risk factors and/or were suspected of having sepsis, were eligible for ...
de Benedetti Fabrizio - - 2007
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) is a soluble pattern recognition receptor of innate immunity that binds a wide range of pathogens and exerts opsonic effects. We investigated the association between serum MBL levels and development of sepsis in infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Serum MBL levels on admission ...
Shaw C K - - 2007
Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit. The epidemiology of neonatal infections is complex; however, they are in large part secondary to developmentally immature host defence mechanisms. These immunodeficiencies, which are exaggerated in premature and sick neonates, include quantitative and qualitative ...
Sharma Renu - - 2007
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Failure of the gut barrier and endotoxemia have been implicated in sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF) syndromes in adults. The contributions of endotoxin (ETX) and proinflammatory cytokines (CKs) to the pathophysiology of disease and the outcomes of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are not clear. ...
Sehgal Rachna - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Multidrug-resistant extended-spectrum 3 lactamase-producing bacteria (ESBL) have emerged as a common problem globally. However, data regarding clinical profile and outcome in neonates infected with ESBL-producing gram-negative bacteria are sparse. METHODS: A retrospective study was undertaken of all neonates admitted between April 2002 and May 2003 to the ...
Flores-Lara Yolanda - - 2007
Steinernema spp. third-stage infective juveniles (IJs) play a key role in the symbiotic partnership between these entomopathogenic nematodes and Xenorhabdus bacteria. Recent studies suggest that Steinernema carpocapsae IJs contribute to the nutrition and growth of their symbionts in the colonization site (vesicle) [Martens, E.C. and Goodrich-Blair, H., 2005. The S. ...
Makhoul Imad R - - 2007
Candidal infections are one of the common causes of late-onset sepsis (LOS) among very low birthweight (VLBW) infants, and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perinatal and neonatal risk factors for fungal LOS compared with bacterial LOS in VLBW infants. ...
Park Chan-Hoo - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present paper was to study the natural history of neonatal sepsis in a newly established neonatal intensive care center that started in 1988 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital 9 (GNUH) in Chinju city, Korea. METHODS: Neonates admitted to GNUH neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between ...
Draus John M JM - - 2007
The coexistence of colonic atresia and Hirschsprung's disease presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Colonic atresia is quickly recognized, and the majority of patients are diverted shortly after birth. The diagnosis of coincident Hirschsprung's disease usually is made after anastomotic failure after restoration of intestinal continuity. A recent compilation of ...
Griffin M Pamela - - 2007
To test the hypothesis that heart rate characteristic (HRC) monitoring adds information to clinical signs of illness in diagnosing neonatal sepsis, we prospectively recorded clinical data and the HRC index in 76 episodes of proven sepsis and 80 episodes of clinical sepsis in 337 infants in the University of Virginia ...
Fanos V - - 2007
The incidence of infections is higher in the neonatal period than at any time of life. The basic treatment of infants with infection has not changed substantially over the last years. Antibiotics (with or without supportive care) are one of the most valuable resources in managing sick newborn babies. Early-onset ...
Härtel Christoph - - 2007
CONTEXT: In recent years, tremendous effort has been carried out to study the genetic basis of susceptibility to development, progression and severity of complex diseases and response to therapy. The ultimate goal of these investigations is to find new tools for prevention and treatment of these complex diseases, such as ...
Trijbels-Smeulders M - - 2007
(1) To describe the epidemiology of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease over five years (1997-2001) in the Netherlands, stratified for proven and probable sepsis and for very early (<12 h), late early (12 h - <7 days) and late (7-90 days) onset sepsis. (2) To evaluate the effect of ...
López Sastre José B - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The results of recent studies suggest the usefulness of PCT for early diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine the behavior of serum PCT concentrations in both uninfected and infected neonates, and to assess the value of this marker ...
Bianconi Simona - - 2007
AIMS: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of ranitidine on the incidence of late onset sepsis. METHODS: This study was based on information extracted from charts of 569 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from July 2003 to July 2005. All infants admitted ...
Luce Wendy A - - 2007
Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates and adults, and the mortality rate doubles in patients who develop cardiovascular dysfunction and septic shock. Sepsis is especially devastating in the neonatal population, as it is one of the leading causes of death for hospitalized infants. In the ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2007
Neutropenia is a major risk factor for bacterial colonization and sepsis in preterm neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), but little is known about its relationships with candidal colonization (CC) in these settings. We performed a case-control study on neonates with birth weight of <1500 g admitted to ...
Bell Susan Givens - - 2007
The five-part "Pointers in Practical Pharmacology" immunomodulation series has presented some of the agents researchers are investigating in hopes of finding the means to effectively prevent and treat infectious processes in neonates. The phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline appears promising, but large, randomized, clinical trials are still lacking. So far, there is ...
Bonsu Bema K - - 2007
BACKGROUND: When urine infections are missed in febrile young infants with normal urinalysis, clinicians may worry about the risk--hitherto unverified--of concomitant invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid by uropathogens. In this study, we determine the extent of this risk. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study of febrile 0-89 day old ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2007
AIMS: Retrospective cohort study to assess if different patterns of Candida colonization determine different risks of progression to invasive fungal infection (IFI) in preterm neonates in NICU. METHODS: Weekly surveillance cultures from all neonates weighing at birth <1500 g admitted over a 6-year period were reviewed. Infants with available results ...
Hufnagel Markus - - 2007
During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes risk factors associated with multidrugresistant enterococci colonization and its seasonal patterns. Over a 12-month period, we performed a prospective epidemiological study ...
Lynch Anne - - 2007
We evaluated prenatal factors related to perinatal loss in twins, using medical records and death certificates, to determine the main perinatal event that contributed to babies' deaths. This was a retrospective cohort study of 550 monochorionic diamniotic or diamniotic dichorionic twins who were delivered at Kaiser Permanente Colorado between 1994 ...
Huang Yhu-Chering - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are the most common pathogens of late-onset bacteraemia in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Discriminating true infection from contamination is difficult. METHODS: To evaluate the significance of a single blood culture yielding CoNS from only one blood culture obtained from NICU infants between July 1999 and ...
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