Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1367
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Velaphi Sithembiso - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: In January 1995, a combined maternal and neonatal protocol for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infection was implemented that consisted of a risk factor-based approach for maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis using ampicillin combined with a single intramuscular dose of penicillin given to all newborns within 1 hour of ...
Mowbray Erin E - - 2003
A case of neonatal sepsis caused by Edwardsiella tarda, a bacterium usually associated with freshwater ecosystems, is described. The infant's mother was immersed in lake water during the sixth month of pregnancy and had vaginal and gastrointestinal colonization with the same strain of E tarda as the infant at the ...
Eliakim Alon - - 2003
Neonatal sepsis is very common in preterm infants, and severe morbidity during the neonatal period is a major cause of osteopenia of prematurity. We examined the effect of neonatal sepsis on bone turnover markers in premature infants. Twenty-four premature infants participated in the study. Ten of the premature infants developed ...
Hengst Joan M - - 2003
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific, acute-phase protein that rises in response to infectious and noninfectious inflammatory processes. Good evidence exists to support the use of CRP measurements in conjunction with other established diagnostic tests (such as a white blood cell (WBC) count with differential and blood culture) to establish ...
Glück Ulrich - - 2003
BACKGROUND: As a bacterial reservoir, the nose may harbor potentially pathogenic bacteria (PPB: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae). In patients carrying PPB, antiseptic regimens could be crucial for infection control after major operations on or injuries of the head, nasal sinuses, or lungs. Such regimens may ...
Roilides Emmanuel - - 2003
From June to July 1998, two episodes of Candida tropicalis fungemia occurred in the Aristotle University neonatal intensive care unit (ICU). To investigate this uncommon event, a prospective study of fungal colonization and infection was conducted. From December 1998 to December 1999, surveillance cultures of the oral cavities and perinea ...
Baltimore Robert S - - 2003
Neonatal sepsis is uncommon (2-4 per 1000 live births in developed countries), but the rate increases dramatically in premature newborns and those born to mothers with infections or prolonged rupture of the fetal membranes. While infections caused by organisms contracted from the mother at birth have decreased in the past ...
Edwards Rodney K - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative effects of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis regimens on patterns of early-onset neonatal sepsis. METHODS: We performed an historical cohort study of 17187 infants born at our center from September 1993 to February 2000. A risk-based strategy was employed prior to July 1996 and a screening-based strategy ...
Hammoud Majeda S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To find the optimum screening method in detecting group B streptococcal (GBS) colonization in both mother and infant, and to identify the risk factors that influence GBS colonization in the infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1,120 singleton pregnant women were evaluated for GBS colonization by combined lower vaginal-anorectal swabs (LVRS) ...
Guerra-Moreno John - - 2003
Neutropenia exists when the neutrophil counts is less than 1000/mm3 in infants between 2 weeks and 1 year of age and less than 1500/mm3 beyond 1 year of age (1). Severe infections occur when the absolute neutrophil count is below 500/mm3 with perirectal abscesses, pneumonia, and sepsis being common. Granulocyte ...
Bonnemaison E - - 2003
Two protocols are used by French neonatologists for the treatment of suspected maternofetal infection (SMFI). Three groups of premature and term neonates were included to study the impact of antibiotics on fecal flora: 10 infants with SMFI treated with amoxicillin and netilmicin (group BI), 10 infants with SMFI treated with ...
Treszl András - - 2003
The amount of inflammatory cytokines is a major determinant for the development of sepsis in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. We investigated whether variants of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, IL-4 receptor alpha-chain, IL-6 and IL-10 genes, associated with altered cytokine production, might influence the risk and complications of sepsis in ...
Ayoola O O - - 2003
The present study sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features and bacterial aetiological agents of septicaemia in post-neonatal infants (age 1-12 months) presenting with fever at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. STUDY SETTING: It was carried out at the Otunba Tunwase Children Emergency Ward (OTCHEW) (a 40 bedded ward) ...
Madan Ashima - - 2003
To determine the frequency and timing of symptoms and to evaluate the effectiveness of a sepsis-screening pathway in term and near-term infants, data were collected prospectively for a period of 1 year from December 1, 2000, to November 30, 2001. Results confirmed that a sepsis-screening pathway using a combination of ...
Resch B - - 2003
The reliability of procalcitonin (PCT) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was determined and compared with that of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the diagnosis of early-onset sepsis of the neonate within the first 12 h of life. ROC analysis of values of 41 neonates with blood-cultures-positive and clinical sepsis compared with those of ...
Allen Tara R - - 2003
To review the choice of antibiotics in treating suspected late neonatal sepsis in infants weighing 1000 g or less in a neonatal intensive care unit. Retrospective review of medical records. Ninety-six infants weighing 1000 g or less were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit during the study period. Sixty-two ...
Haque K - - 2003
Although the overall incidence of neonatal sepsis has declined over the past decade, mortality remains high in the pre term infant. The high level of mortality and morbidity from sepsis despite the use of potent anti-microbial agents, and the global emergence of antibiotic resistance, have led to the search for ...
Donnell S C - - 2002
We performed a prospective, observational, cohort study on 208 surgical neonates and infants between 1992 and 1997. Surveillance cultures of the oropharynx and rectum were obtained at the start of parenteral nutrition and thereafter twice weekly. Blood cultures were taken on clinical indication only. Microbial translocation was diagnosed when the ...
Chen Katherine T - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of intrapartum fever in identifying asymptomatic term neonates with early-onset neonatal sepsis. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review of all term neonates with sepsis over a 7-year period to evaluate the significance of symptoms at delivery and intrapartum sepsis risks factors in identifying neonates with sepsis. RESULTS: ...
Woltjen Mary Gerner - - 2002
PURPOSE: To identify the best screening protocol to prevent neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis through literature review. DATA SOURCES: Selected research articles, texts, and Internet sources. CONCLUSIONS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and American College ...
Huang Yhu-Chering - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of sepsis associated with have been rarely reported in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We describe such an outbreak in a NICU, and the results of molecular epidemiologic investigations are presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August and September 2000, 6 premature infants hospitalized in a pediatric NICU developed ...
Leach Amanda J - - 2002
This is the first report of in vivo pneumococcal penicillin MIC drift from 4.0 to 16.0 mg/liter, possibly associated with alterations in the pbp1a gene. The case presented here is of an infant with early onset recurrent pneumonia and chronic bronchitis requiring repeated antibiotics.
Nuntnarumit Pracha - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Infection is one of the major problems in neonates. The diagnosis of neonatal septicemia is difficult to establish based on the clinical criteria alone. However, empirical treatment should not be delayed because of the high mortality. Laboratory tests used to support diagnosis have shown variable predictive values. C-reactive protein ...
Liao Chiang-Hua - - 2002
In this hospital-based review, clinical presentations associated with Group B streptococcus (GBS) infections in children occurring between January 1980 and March 2000 were analyzed. Among the 25 infants with invasive group B streptococcal infections, 9 (36%) were early onset diseases (EOD), 12 (48%) were late onset diseases (LOD), and 4 ...
Uy Imelda P - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of early-onset group B beta hemolytic streptococcal (EOGBS) infection and the association between changes in the incidence and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective population survey of infants with GBS at < 7 days of age with a nested case-control study of non-GBS ...
Asindi Asindi A - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the incidence of prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) in a tertiary care institution, the bacterial pathogens involved in maternal and neonatal colonization, and the major bacterial pathogens of neonatal sepsis in PROM. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted over 2 years from March 1999 ...
Trijbels-Smeulders Monique - - 2002
Group B streptococcal (GBS) infection is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. In The Netherlands, there are no published data on the incidence of neonatal GBS infection. We collected data of all infants with GBS disease during the first 3 months of life, as reported ...
Hyde Terri B - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Although increased use of intrapartum antibiotics caused significant declines in early-onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection, the effect on infections caused by other pathogens is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine trends in the incidence of early-onset sepsis caused by organisms other than group B ...
Garland Suzanne M - - 2002
Premature delivery is still a significant problem in Obstetrics. It has multiple causes, with around 50% thought due to infection. Of note infection as a pathogenesis is more likely in those pre-term births occurring <30 weeks gestation and is largely sub-clinical. Potential pathogens largely arise from the ascending route and ...
Könönen E - - 2002
As part of a series of longitudinal studies on the development of the indigenous microflora of the upper respiratory tract, the establishment of streptococci in the oral cavity and nasopharynx and IgA1 protease production by the early streptococcal flora was examined in 50 healthy Caucasian infants at the ages of ...
Yossuck Panitan - - 2002
From 1996 to 2001, nineteen episodes of bacteremia due to group B Streptococci (GBS) were diagnosed in Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University. The incidence of early onset group B streptococcal disease (EOD) was 0.27 cases/1,000 live births in 1996, and decreased to 0.10 cases/1,000 live births in 2001. The incidence of ...
Stoll Barbara J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Late-onset sepsis (occurring after 3 days of age) is an important problem in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the current incidence of late-onset sepsis, risk factors for disease, and the impact of late-onset sepsis on subsequent hospital course, we evaluated a cohort of 6956 VLBW (401-1500 ...
Tokel Kürsad - - 2002
Coarctation of the aorta can manifest in a number of ways. Differential diagnosis is particularly difficult during the neonatal period, especially in newborns presenting with a sepsis-like or metabolic disease-like condition. We describe five newborns who presented with metabolic acidosis, renal insufficiency, or ischemic hepatitis and stress the importance of ...
Banerjea M C - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: To review the role of colony-stimulating factors as adjuncts in the therapy of neonatal sepsis. DATA SUMMARY: Data provided by animal experiments and in vitro experiments in human neonates demonstrate the inability of newborn infants to significantly upregulate colony-stimulating factor expression during infectious challenge. In a few clinical trials, ...
Stoll Barbara J - - 2002
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether the rates and causes of early-onset sepsis (that occurring within 72 hours after birth) among very-low-birth-weight infants have changed in recent years, since antibiotics have begun to be used more widely during labor and delivery. METHODS: We studied 5447 very-low-birth-weight infants (those weighing between 401 ...
Lui Vincent Chi Hang - - 2002
Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR), a congenital disease, is characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the ganglion plexuses of the caudal most gut. In the aganglionic colon, the plexus remnants are replaced by aggregates of glial cells and hypertrophied nerve fibers. Signaling of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-GFRAs-receptor tyrosine ...
Huang Yi-Shen - - 2002
Escherichia coli is the second most common bacterium isolated from the blood of neonates with sepsis. During a 12-year period from January 1988 through December 2000, E. coli sepsis or central nervous system infections were diagnosed in a total of 46 infants (M/F ratio, 3.6:1) in a tertiary care medical ...
Pierro Agostino - - 2002
Various factors can influence the metabolism of surgical neonates. These include prematurity, operative stress, critical illness, and sepsis. The nutritional management of surgical infants with congenital or acquired intestinal abnormalities has improved after the introduction of parenteral nutrition. This article is focused on the energy and protein metabolism of surgical ...
Grimwood K - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine in New Zealand infants the attack rates, risk factors, preventive policies, strain serotype and antibiotic susceptibilities of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) infection. METHOD: A 2-year prospective active surveillance study was conducted in New Zealand's 19 neonatal units. Cases had to present within 48 h of ...
Mehr S S - - 2002
AIM: To determine the incidence and clinical characteristics of sepsis in ventilated infants from an Australian neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in the late 1990s. METHODS: Demographic data was collected from babies requiring assisted ventilation (AV) over the 6-month period from 1 July to 31 December 1998. Sepsis was divided ...
Garrett Denise O - - 2002
A nursery outbreak of fever and clinical sepsis resulted in the deaths of 36 neonates in Roraima, Brazil. To determine the cause, epidemiologic studies were performed, along with culture and endotoxin analysis of intravenous (iv) fluids. Affected neonates were more likely to have lower birth weight (2.1 vs. 3.2 kg; ...
Paul David A - - 2002
To investigate the factors affecting thrombopoietin (TPO) levels in preterm infants and to determine if TPO levels differ in infants born to mothers with preeclampsia and those infants with culture-proven sepsis. Serial serum samples (N = 95) were obtained from 27 infants less than 33 weeks' gestation. Samples were analyzed ...
Vaciloto Edinéia - - 2002
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the main etiological agent of neonatal sepsis in developed countries, however there is no detailed information on its incidence in Brazil. We registered the incidence and lethality of GBS infection in a Brazilian private maternity hospital from April 1991 to March 2000. Maternal risk factors ...
de Jonge E - - 2002
Drotrecogin alfa (Xigris, recombinant activated protein C) is an anticoagulant developed and launched by Eli Lilly & Co for the treatment of sepsis [333781], [339372], [430133], [436271]. The FDA and the EMEA accepted the brand name Xigris for drotrecogin alfa in June 2001. This trade name had been proposed by ...
Pera Angelina - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dexamethasone use increases the risk for Candida sepsis (CS) in very low birth weight premature infants (<1250 g). DESIGN: Retrospective chart review of all infants with a birth weight <1250 g, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio between ...
Ashbee H Ruth - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To identify the timing, pattern, and determinants of colonization of neonates by Malassezia. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: A neonatal medical and surgical unit consisting of 10 special care, 10 high-dependency, 10 intensive care, and 10 surgical cots. PARTICIPANTS: All neonates (< or = 28 days of age) or ...
Wendel George D GD - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy of a clinical protocol to reduce the incidence of early-onset neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection. STUDY DESIGN: We assessed neonatal sepsis from GBS and other organisms with use of a before-after study design to evaluate the effects of implementation of combined intrapartum ...
Olowu W A - - 2002
This report, presents a case of congenital malaria in an 8-hour-old female neonate. She responded well to oral chloroquine at a dose of 25 mg/kg in divided doses over a period of three days and was discharged home for follow-up, 24 hours after completion of the course of chloroquine. This ...
Kessler Alexander T - - 2002
Malassezia furfur fungemia can cause sepsis in low birth weight neonates receiving parenteral lipids through central intravenous catheters. Its presentation has varied from nonspecific signs and symptoms to pulmonary vasculitis and endocarditis. We report the case of a premature infant who developed peripheral thromboembolic phenomena without evidence of endocarditis associated ...
Yang Shaolong - - 2002
OBJECTIVES: The major forms of human inter-alpha-inhibitor proteins circulating in the plasma are inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI, containing one light peptide chain called bikunin and two heavy chains) and pre-alpha-inhibitor (PalphaI, containing one light and one heavy chain). Although it has been reported that a decrease in IalphaI/PalphaI is correlated with an ...
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