Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1370
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Raskind Craig H - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of conjunctival colonization, identify the colonizing flora, and correlate culture results with physical findings in infants in a NICU. DESIGN: Surveillance study. SETTING: Level III NICU of a large university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All infants admitted for longer than 24 hours during a 26-week period. ...
Désinor Olbeg Y - - 2004
The aim of the study was to determine the etiology of meningitis and sepsis in the newborn at the State University Hospital of Haiti and evaluate the susceptibility 'in vitro' of the pathogens to the antibiotics commonly used. This was a prospective case series study over a 10-month period (May ...
Pickett Kimberly C - - 2004
A complete history and systematic physical examination are important first steps in assessing any infant. In some instances these steps may provide immediate clues to a potentially life-threatening illness. This article presents the case of a former 26-week male infant, who presented on day of life 42, 32 weeks gestation ...
Liljedahl Magnus - - 2004
AIM: To determine whether sepsis caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is a risk factor for developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature newborns. METHODS: All newborns born at < or = 30 wk of gestation at Orebro University Hospital during 1994-2001 with clinical sepsis caused by CoNS (group A, n = ...
Ahrens Peter - - 2004
Mutations of genes involved in the innate immune system have been reported to be associated with an increased sepsis rate in adults. We determined the -159T mutation of the CD14 gene, the 896G mutation of the toll-like receptor 4 gene, the 3020insC mutation of the NOD2 gene (NOD2-3020insC), the IL-6 ...
Arnon Shmuel - - 2004
AIM: Late-onset sepsis (occurring after the first three days of life) is a serious complication in preterm infants. In order to assess the possible prognostic virtues of the acute phase inflammatory response in the disease, we compared the inflammatory response of preterm infants who died within 72 hours (h) (fulminant ...
Ahmad Magdy - - 2004
Neutrophil dysfunction may contribute to an increased risk of sepsis in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates. The current study was designed to determine whether recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) affects absolute neutrophil count (ANC), phagocytic function, and oxidative burst in neutropenic VLBW neonates. Fourteen ventilated VLBW neonates were treated with rhG-CSF ...
Cohain Judy Slome - - 2004
In 2002 the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) wrote new GBS protocols that call for the 4,000,000 pregnant women in the US each year to have a rectal/vaginal culture for GBS at 36 weeks. The protocols recommend that the 800,000 women per year who will have a GBS-positive result receive ...
Sajan Imran - - 2004
The authors observed the effect of drotrecogin alfa (activated) in a case of pediatric severe sepsis. A 4-month-old male infant with Serratia marcescens septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and consumptive coagulopathy was admitted. The safety and efficacy of drotrecogin alfa (activated) has not yet been established for patients ...
Schloesser Rolf L - - 2004
We report a case of transplacentally acquired neonatal sepsis with non-typhoid Salmonella. The infant's mother, a 36-y-old woman, presented with fever and malaise in the 25th week of gestation. Because of a pathological cardiotocogram, Caesarean section was performed a few h following admission. The premature infant had clinical signs of ...
El Desoky E S - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of monitoring of serum concentration of aminoglycosides in neonates. METHOD: A retrospective evaluation of serum concentration monitoring of aminoglycosides (gentamicin and amikacin) and vancomycin in neonates treated for sepsis in a maternity and children hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, over the period 1998-2000. RESULTS: The ...
Silveira Rita C - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To determine plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). STUDY DESIGN: A controlled, prospective study of 20 control neonates, 19 term newborn infants presenting with sepsis and no meningitis, and 19 asphyxiated term newborn infants. Blood and CSF ...
Toltzis P - - 2003
Infections with Gram-negative bacilli have affected critically ill newborns throughout the era of modern neonatal intensive care. Selected topics regarding the acquisition of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly those expressing antibiotic resistance, in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are reviewed. Some data suggest that the recent introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis ...
Bendel Catherine M - - 2003
Candida species are important nosocomial pathogens in the newborn population, particularly among the premature very-low-birth-weight infants in neonatal intensive care units. Candida colonization of the neonatal skin and gastrointestinal tract is an important first step in the pathogenesis of invasive disease. C albicans is the most commonly isolated species in ...
Flidel-Rimon O - - 2003
AIM: To evaluate the effect of a change in antibiotic protocol on pathogens that cause neonatal sepsis. METHODS: Suspected sepsis was treated with amikacin together with ceftazidime in 1995-1998 and piperacillin/tazobactam in 1999-2002. RESULTS: The annual rate for Klebsiella sepsis fell from 2.5 to 0.45 cases per 1000 admission days ...
Balter Sharon - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Management of infants whose mothers receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is controversial. In 1996 consensus guidelines for prevention of neonatal Group B streptococcal disease included an algorithm for management of infants whose mothers received IAP. To assess practices for testing and treatment of infants, we evaluated a population-based sample ...
Tamim Mohammed M - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Premature infants have a higher incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) than full term infants. UTI in premature infants can present with signs of sepsis: poor weight gain; temperature instability; metabolic acidosis; poor feeding; and abdominal distention. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of ...
Barnard Chantelle - - 2003
Although maternal screening and the administration of prophylactic intrapartum antibiotics have decreased the incidence of early onset group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in neonates, there is still significant morbidity and mortality as a result of neonatal GBS disease.Maternal GBS infections are not uncommon, but with appropriate therapy there is almost ...
Chowdhary A - - 2003
An outbreak of candidemia due to Candida tropicalis involving 16 neonates (gestational age 28-36 weeks) is reported. All infants had received hyperalimentation and at least one course of antibiotics. The commonest clinical manifestations included episodes of acute respiratory distress and lack of response to antibacterial antibiotic therapy. Candida tropicalis was ...
Cordero Leandro - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To study multicenter antibiotic practices for suspected early-onset sepsis (EOS) with negative blood cultures (NegBCs) and to identify opportunities for reduction of antimicrobial exposure. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Thirty academic hospitals (University HealthSystem Consortium) located in 24 states. METHODS: Data were from a survey of 790 extremely low birth ...
Bonifacio Sonia L - - 2003
Pseudomonas pneumonia is an uncommon but serious infection in infants, occurring mainly in infants of low birth weight. In this retrospective clinicopathologic correlation study, we reviewed the clinical records and analyzed postmortem lung pathology in 8 infants with pneumonia due to P. aeruginosa. From the histopathology, 2 different pneumonic patterns ...
Fanaro S - - 2003
The neonatal intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem composed of numerous genera, species and strains of bacteria. This enormous cell mass performs a variety of unique activities that affect both the colonic and systemic physiology. Its primary activities include nutritive, metabolic, immunological and protective functions. Most studies of infants have ...
Kovatchev Boris P - - 2003
We introduce the sample asymmetry analysis (SAA) and illustrate its utility for assessment of heart rate characteristics occurring early in the course of neonatal sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Conceptually, SAA describes changes in the shape of the histogram of RR intervals that are caused by reduced accelerations ...
Kankuri Esko - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Clinical and microbiological features of maternal sepsis in the peripartum period (7 days before to 7 days after delivery) were analyzed to determine possible risk factors, optimal treatment and outcome. In 43 483 deliveries during 1990-98, laboratory-confirmed bacteremia was found in 41 (5.1%) out of 798 clinically ...
Stoll Barbara J - - 2003
Infection is a serious complication among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. This article reviews studies from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network including infection data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Blood culture-proven early-onset ...
Yen Ju-Bei - - 2003
Shigellosis continues to be an important public health problem in developed countries, since communication in the world village has become more frequent. In addition, this disease is difficult to be prevented because only a small number of bacteria are required to cause infection, and it has exhibited steady trends towards ...
Brito D V D - - 2003
We report an outbreak of conjunctivitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa involving seven infants admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of the Uberlândial Federal University Hospital between March and September 2001. Three infants developed systemic complications (01 sepsis and 02 pneumonias). Ten isolates were obtained from conjunctival cultures and ...
Weber Martin W - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infections are a major cause of death worldwide. Simple procedures for identifying infants with infection that need referral for treatment are therefore of major public health importance. METHODS: We investigated 3303 infants <2 months of age presenting with illness to health facilities in Ethiopia, The Gambia, Papua New ...
Lin Feng-Ying C - - 2003
A case-control study was conducted in the greater Houston area to determine risk factors for late-onset group B streptococcus (GBS) disease (onset of disease or first positive culture between 7 and 180 days after birth). Characteristics of 122 case patients diagnosed during 1995-2000 were compared with control subjects matched for ...
Wan A K L - - 2003
We previously reported that, before tooth eruption, over one-half of infants aged 6 mos were already infected with Streptococcus mutans. The aim of this investigation was to determine the colonization of S. mutans after tooth eruption in the same cohort of 111 infants (35 pre-term, 76 full-term). Our results showed ...
Engle William D - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To compare 2 days of antibiotic therapy (AT) to 4 days of AT in neonates with pneumonia and to assess the usefulness of neutrophil values (NV), C-reactive protein (CRP), and procalcitonin (PCT) in this population. DESIGN: The study population consisted of consecutive, eligible term neonates begun on AT for ...
Lodinová-Zádníková Rája - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The development of allergies is a complex in which both composition and influence of the intestinal flora play an important role. We observed in earlier studies that the presence of an orally administered probiotic Escherichia coli strain in the intestine stimulated both a serum and local antibody response, decreased ...
Baek Yong Woon - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Adjunctive tests are needed to predict sepsis in the newborn and to lower the rate or duration of unnecessary antibiotic use. We evaluated the normal Inter-alpha inhibitor protein (IaIp) values in infants and the association of plasma levels of IaIp with sepsis in term and preterm newborns. METHODS: Plasma ...
Orrett Fitzroy A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The present study took place at the antenatal clinics of the San Fernando General Hospital located in the south and the Mount Hope Maternity Hospital located in the north-west of the West Indies, respectively. Participants were from the lower socioeconomic group that included representatives from the two major ethnic ...
Casetta A - - 2003
The epidemiology, risk factors, maternal and neonatal outcomes of nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa acquisition in preterm premature rupture of membranes were analysed. Of 63 women receiving antibiotic prophylaxis with co-amoxiclav, 11 acquired P. aeruginosa vaginal carriage with a median delay of 15 days (6-42) i.e. an incidence of 8.94 per 1000 ...
Vaughn Phil - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine if glutamine-supplemented enteral nutrition decreased the incidence of nosocomial sepsis in neonates. METHODS: In a multicenter (n = 20) clinical trial, we randomly allocated infants (n = 649) with birth weight between 500 and 1250 g, who were <7 days of age, and had no major anomalies ...
Pinto Nelangi M - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To identify limitations of current strategies for intrapartum prophylaxis of neonatal early-onset group B streptococcal infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of infants with culture-proven early-onset group B streptococcal infection admitted to two nurseries and their mothers from July 1992, when ACOG and AAP guidelines for intrapartum prophylaxis were first issued, ...
Dahl Mats S - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To study the incidence, clinical manifestations, concomitant conditions and case-fatality rate in patients with invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections in the Göteborg area (mean population 582,666) of Sweden during 1981-95. DESIGN: Patients were identified from the records of the Department of Clinical Bacteriology. Clinical data were obtained from ...
Figueras-Aloy J - - 2003
AIM: To determine the changes in plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentrations during neonatal sepsis. METHODS: In a prospective study, 60 consecutive newborns meeting the criteria for sepsis and without receiving exogenous nitric oxide (25 haemoculture-positive [HC+] and 35 haemoculture-negative [HC-]) were compared with 68 healthy newborns (46 full-term ...
Fitzwater John - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and organ dysfunction are common and likely contribute to death after burn trauma. We sought to define relationships between sepsis, severe multiple organ dysfunction (MOD), and death after burn trauma. METHODS: Adults with > or = 20% total body surface area burns were prospectively enrolled. Information regarding infection, ...
Ottolini Mary C - - 2003
BACKGROUND: In May 1996, the CDC recommended obtaining a complete blood count and blood culture (BC) from all asymptomatic "at risk" newborns; those > or =35 weeks gestation born to mothers with group B streptococcal vaginal colonization or those with maternal fever, premature rupture of membranes or previous infant with ...
Caksen H - - 2003
In this study, 20 newborn infants with sepsis were evaluated and scored according to the criteria of Töllner and Rodwell and associates. Leukocyte count, serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interluekin (IL)-6 levels were also studied in all infants. The aim of this study was to determine ...
McDonald L Clifford - - 2003
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rarely recognized cause of neonatal sepsis. We present a recent case of S. pneumoniae bacteremia acquired on the first day of life in a neonate born at 30 weeks of gestation to a mother without prenatal care who had prolonged rupture of the membranes and received ...
Sinha Anushua - - 2003
Administration of group B streptococcal (GBS) antibiotic prophylaxis to women in labor has dramatically reduced the incidence of GBS neonatal disease, but there is little information on its impact on neonatal infections caused by other organisms. We conducted a nested case-control study to define the association between maternal intrapartum antibiotics ...
Kotiw Michael - - 2003
The purpose of the study was to determine the epidemiological relationships in three unrelated cases of neonatal late-onset Group B streptococcal (GBS) disease and maternal breast-milk infection with GBS. All deliveries were by cesarean section; case 1 was at term, and cases 2 and 3 were at 32- and 33-wk ...
Jain N K - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Neonatal Sepsis is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in newborns both in developed and developing countries. OBJECTIVE: This study was to analyse the symptoms and sign of Neonatal Sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective hospital based study the date was collected from patient record files of two years ...
López Sastre José B - - 2003
A prospective multicenter study was conducted to assess the epidemiology of neonatal invasive candidiasis in Spain. In a total of 20,565 admissions to the 27 participating neonatal units over an 18-month period, systemic candidiasis was diagnosed in 118 (0.57%) neonates. Candida species were isolated from the blood in 79 infants, ...
Suri Mandhir - - 2003
Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit. The epidemiology of neonatal infections is complex; however, they are in large part secondary to developmentally immature host defense mechanisms. These immunodeficiencies, which are exaggerated in premature and sick neonates, include quantitative and qualitative ...
Moore Matthew R MR Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, Division of Applied Public Health Training, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA. - - 2003
Sepsis occurring in the first week of life can be a devastating neonatal problem. Group B streptococci (GBS) and enterobacteriaceae are the main causes of early-onset sepsis in more developed countries. Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis (IAP) has lowered the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis by 50-80%. However, there are concerns that ...
Griffin M Pamela - - 2003
Late-onset neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, and early detection could prove beneficial. Previously, we found that abnormal heart rate characteristics (HRC) of reduced variability and transient decelerations occurred early in the course of neonatal sepsis and sepsis-like illness in infants in a single neonatal intensive ...
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