Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1369
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Lawrence Sarah L - - 2005
Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS) is the main cause of late-onset sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). Although CONS rarely causes fulminant sepsis, vancomycin is frequently used as empiric therapy. Indiscriminate use of vancomycin has been linked to the emergence of vancomycin resistant organisms. The objective of this study was ...
Gordon A - - 2005
Late onset neonatal sepsis (systemic infection after 48 hours of age) continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Early treatment with antibiotics is essential as infants can deteriorate rapidly. It is not clear which antibiotic regimen is most suitable for initial treatment of suspected late onset sepsis. ...
Makhoul Imad R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of mortality among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and deaths occurring within 3 days after the onset of sepsis can probably be ascribed to sepsis. We examined the association of sepsis due to specific pathogens with the risk for early mortality ...
Turunen Riikka - - 2005
Late-onset hospital-acquired sepsis is common in extremely low birth-weight (<1000 g) (ELBW) infants. The diagnosis is difficult since, at early stages of sepsis, routine laboratory tests are neither specific nor sensitive. In term infants with sepsis neutrophil surface expression of CD11b/CD18, a beta2-integrin, is significantly increased. Here we studied whether ...
Wells Carol L - - 2004
Septicemia is currently the 10th leading cause of death in the United States, and shock and trauma patients are the source of much of the morbidity and mortality associated with septicemia. There is substantial evidence that the composition of the indigenous flora plays an important role in modulating outcome variables ...
Ekelund K - - 2004
During the period 1984-2002, 472 cases of invasive group B streptococcal (GBS) disease in infants aged 0-90 days in Denmark were registered. The overall incidence was 0.4/1000 live births. Most infants (73%) had early-onset GBS infection with 53% registered within the first day. Serotype III predominated (59%) with other serotypes ...
Daley A J - - 2004
Significant advances in the prevention of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease have occurred in the last decade. In Australia, as well as in centres overseas, intrapartum penicillin given to carrier mothers has been shown to unequivocally decrease early onset neonatal GBS sepsis. In choosing which women should receive intrapartum ...
Arnon Shmuel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Few studies demonstrated that serum amyloid A (SAA), a non-specific acute-phase reactant, could be used as a reliable early marker for the diagnosis of late-onset sepsis (LOS). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the diagnostic value and the dynamics of SAA levels during the course of LOS and to compare it to ...
Huang Y-C - - 2004
To analyse the relatedness of colonizing candidal isolates from very-low-birthweight infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), we prospectively collected 86 candidal isolates from 20 infants, including 67 isolates of Candida albicans from 15 infants, 17 isolates of Candida parapsilosis from five infants and two isolates of Candida ...
Jauréguy Françoise - - 2004
Early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. To prevent the vertical transmission of GBS and neonatal GBS infection, guidelines recommend intrapartum penicillin or amoxicillin prophylaxis. This intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is suspected to favor colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, the effects ...
Sallam Adel - - 2004
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an uncommon organism identified in neonatal bacteremia, but when it occurs, it has serious implications for both the infant and the mother. Despite the similarities in the manifestations between group B streptococcus and S. pneumoniae sepsis, the latter appears to be more virulent and of marked severity, ...
Niv A A Departments of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, BeerSheva, Box 151, 84101 - - 2004
Acute mastoiditis (AM) is an uncommon but serious complication of acute otitis media (AOM). In the pre-antibiotic era, AM was seen more frequently than it is today, but it was rare in infants. However, in the last two decades an increase in the incidence of AM in infancy has been ...
Andersen J - - 2004
AIM: To elucidate the clinical and biochemical features, and to estimate the incidence and outcome of invasive culture-verified group B streptococcal (GBS) septicaemia/meningitis in neonates in Denmark. METHODS: Clinical microbiology laboratory records in patients 0-3 mo of age were searched for culture-verified GBS during 1992-2001 in Copenhagen County. Clinical records ...
Healy C Mary - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Most clinical descriptions of invasive staphylococcal disease (ISD) in neonates date from before the mid-1980s, when neonatal viability and intensive care differed substantially from current standards. We aimed to describe the contemporary incidence, clinical features, and outcome of infants with ISD in a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A ...
Short Mary A - - 2004
Sepsis continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized newborns and premature infants. The pathophysiology and disease state of sepsis appear to be similar between adults and children. Both groups display symptoms that indicate a systemic inflammatory response leading to coagulopathy, hypotension, inadequate perfusion of peripheral ...
Doran Kelly S - - 2004
The process of human infection by group B Streptococcus (GBS) is complex and multifactorial. While this bacterium has adapted well to asymptomatic colonization of adult humans, it remains a potentially devastating pathogen to susceptible infants. Advances in molecular techniques and refinement of in vitro and in vivo model systems have ...
Jiang Jia-Horng - - 2004
Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of death in newborns despite sophisticated neonatal intensive care. This retrospective study reviewed the clinical characteristics of cases of culture-proven sepsis in a neonatal intensive care unit from January 1992 to December 2001. Patients were divided into those with onset of sepsis in the ...
Dermer Peggy - - 2004
The history of neonatal sepsis related to early onset group B streptococcus (GBS) emerged in the early 1970s. The neonatal mortality rate was 55% for those neonates with invasive GBS disease. The first adopted guidelines by the medical community to prevent early onset GBS were developed in the 1990s. One ...
Ng Pak C - - 2004
This prospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utilities of neutrophil CD64 expression for the identification of early-onset clinical infection and pneumonia in term infants and to define the optimal cutoff value so that it may act as a reference with which future studies can be compared. Term newborns in ...
Shet Anita - - 2004
Group B Streptococcus is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. The last two decades have seen intensified efforts in the Western hemisphere in the prevention of this devastating infection by identifying and treating pregnant women who carry group B streptococci ...
Haque Khalid N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors associated with the first culture-proven episode of sepsis among neonates in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). SETTING: Level-II NICU in the United Kingdom. PATIENTS: Neonates with their first culture-proven sepsis between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2000. METHODS: ...
Shetty Avinash K - - 2004
Septic arthritis in children remains a serious disease with the potential for significant systemic and musculoskeletal morbidity. Staphlococcus aureus is the most common cause of bone and joint infections in all age groups. Microbial invasion of the synovial space occurs typically results from hematogenous seeding. Diagnosis in neonates and young ...
Palmer Ayo - - 2004
The diagnosis of severe bacterial infection in young infants in developing countries is difficult because of the lack of sensitivity and specificity of the presenting symptoms and signs. Whether C-reactive protein (CRP) might help with the early detection of neonatal sepsis was investigated in a prospective study in The Gambia, ...
De Dooy Jozef - - 2004
The possible association between mediators of inflammation such as cytokines and perinatal colonization of the respiratory tract remains unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated endotracheal colonization in 141 ventilated preterm infants at birth. The relation with cytokine response in the airways and C-reactive protein (CRP) in umbilical blood was investigated. ...
Buttow Nilza Cristina - - 2004
A morphological and quantitative study in the ileal and colonic myenteric and submucous plexuses of rats after BAC denervation was performed. Four groups were employed: SI--ileum control; CBI--denervated ileum; SC--colon control; and CBC--denervated colon. We used the Myosin-V immunohistochemistry technique to study the myenteric and submucous plexuses. In the submucous ...
Norman Keith E - - 2004
The acronym DIC is commonly interpreted as "death is coming." This pessimistic view emphasizes the deficiency of available treatment options following diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Clinically, DIC manifests as a systemic hemorrhagic disorder associated with widespread activation and eventual exhaustion of the coagulation system, although events underlying DIC also ...
Selim K - - 2004
Several pharmacological agents have been found to alter systemic concentrations and/or the activity of different cytokines via a variety of mechanisms, including changes in biosynthesis, secretion, and/or stability. Pentoxifylline (PTX), which is a methylxanthine derivative for example, has multiple effects on the immune system, but inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release ...
Lin Feng-Ying C - - 2004
The present study estimates the level of maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) G anti-group B streptococcus (GBS) type III required to protect neonates against early-onset disease (EOD) caused by this pathogen. Levels of maternal serum IgG anti-GBS type III, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in 26 case patients (neonates with EOD caused ...
Picard F J - - 2004
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae emerged in the 1970s as the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Today, GBS remains one of the leading causes of sepsis and meningitis in newborns despite important prevention efforts, including the issuance of recommendations for prevention of perinatal GBS disease by ...
Cerikçio─člu Nilgün - - 2004
Premature infants are at high risk of developing candidal infections originating from their own normal flora or from the hospital environment. This study involves the surveillance cultures and blood cultures of candidemic preterm infants with low birth weights who have been analyzed for colonization period and status, and for virulence ...
Tom-Revzon Catherine - - 2004
Infection is one of the most common causes of infant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal intensive care unit, despite the availability of various therapeutic medical interventions, such as mechanical ventilation, that allow premature infants a better chance of survival. In fact, many of these therapeutic interventions violate the natural ...
Daley Andrew J - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum antibiotics have reduced the incidence of neonatal early onset (EO) group B streptococcal (GBS) disease. Some surveillance data suggest that this success may be at the cost of increasing rates of non-GBS infection, especially in premature neonates. OBJECTIVE: To examine rates of EOGBS infection and EO Escherichia coli ...
Lukacs Susan L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In the United States, bacterial sepsis affects up to 32,000 live births annually. In the 1990s, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) was recommended to prevent maternal-infant transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS), a leading cause of sepsis occurring in the first week of life (early onset sepsis). Since IAP has ...
De Paepe Monique E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of histologic fetoplacental inflammation in fetuses and newborns with fatal perinatal Group B-Streptococcus (GBS) infection. STUDY DESIGN: Autopsy files (1990 to 2002) were searched for fetuses and newborns with GBS-positive post-mortem blood and/or lung cultures. The rate of histological fetoplacental inflammation in preterm (< 36 ...
Chung Mei-Yung - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This retrospective study was designed to determine the trend of neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) infection during the past 7 years at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital of Kaohsiung, as well as to assess the risk factors, clinical features and patient outcomes. METHODS: Medical records of infants with neonatal ...
Kaufman David - - 2004
Twenty percent of very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) preterm infants experience a serious systemic infection, and despite advances in neonatal intensive care and antimicrobials, mortality is as much as threefold higher for these infants who develop sepsis than their counterparts without sepsis during their hospitalization. Outcomes may be improved by preventative strategies, ...
- - 2004
Increased use of intrapartum antibiotics to prevent perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease during the 1990s led to substantial declines in the incidence of GBS disease in newborns. Despite this success, at the end of the 1990s, early-onset GBS disease (in infants aged <7 days) continued to be a leading ...
Short Mary A - - 2004
This article provides the resources for the bedside caregiver to conduct a focused physical assessment of the infant with suspected sepsis. The importance of obtaining a complete history to identify associated obstetric and neonatal risk factors is emphasized. Further evaluation of the infant's clinical presentation for signs and symptoms suggestive ...
Hussein J - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To identify new and underutilized technologies to reduce maternal mortality related to puerperal sepsis in developing countries. METHOD: Review of current medical literature. RESULT: The literature indicates that infection-control protocols and evidence-based procedures--including prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section or preterm rupture of membranes, and updated antibiotic regimens--should be widely ...
Chanta Chulapong - - 2004
A 20 day old male infant presented with fever, respiratory distress and poor feeding for 7 days. He was referred from a community hospital and diagnosed as sepsis. Physical examination revealed hepatosplenomegaly. A chest radiograph showed miliary infiltration of both lungs. Smear of gastric washing for AFB was positive. Congenital ...
Poindexter Brenda B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids in both plasma and human milk, yet it is not included in standard intravenous amino acid solutions. Previous studies have suggested that parenteral nutrition (PN) supplemented with glutamine may reduce sepsis and mortality in critically ill adults. Whether glutamine supplementation ...
van Lingen R A - - 2004
AIM: This study assesses the improvement in outcome for newborn infants by decreasing major complications associated with intravenous fluid therapy by using an in-line filter, and evaluates the economical impact this might have in relation to daily changing of i.v. lines. METHODS: In a prospective controlled study, 88 infants were ...
Hedberg Curtis L - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Sepsis commonly complicates the clinical course of critically ill very low birth weight infants, with as many as 30% developing hospital-acquired bacteremia. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) -- 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with adverse outcome in septic adult patients. METHODS: One hundred seventy-three mechanically ...
Ahmed Mansoor - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Parenteral nutrition (PN) is an essential component of neonatal care for those infants who are unable to tolerate adequate enteral feeding. Its use is not without complications such as biochemical derangements, sepsis, thrombosis, extravasation of fluid, and death. Such complications can be reduced by meticulous management of PN in ...
Andresen D N - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and Queanbeyan region prior to the introduction of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines. METHODOLOGY: Residents with sterile site isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 1998 to 2000 were identified from a prospective bacteraemia surveillance project involving all ACT ...
Alarcon Ana - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has lowered the incidence of early onset group B Streptococcus (GBS) sepsis, there are concerns that the increased use of antibiotics may raise the incidence of non-GBS antimicrobial-resistant infections. The objective of this study was to determine trends in the incidence and antimicrobial resistance of ...
Devlin Lori A - - 2004
Extremely low-birth-weight infants are susceptible to invasion by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS). This article reviews the epidemiology, immunology, and microbiology of CONS and describes recent clinical trials of immunoenhancing agents such as intravenous immunoglobulin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and mouse humanized chimeric anti-lipoteichoic acid antibody. Potential avenues of ...
Alain Karine - - 2004
A pluri-disciplinary in situ colonization experiment was performed to study early stages of colonization in deep-sea vent Alvinella spp. worm habitats. Four colonization devices were deployed onto Alvinella spp. colonies of different chimneys of the East-Pacific Rise (EPR 13 degrees N), for two different periods: a short (less than a ...
Juul Sandra E - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the time course of changes in neutrophil counts, and to draw comparisons across four gestational age groups with respect to incidence of neutropenia and neutrophilia over the first months of life in a single center. STUDY DESIGN: Weekly complete blood counts (CBC) were collected on all NICU ...
Raskind Craig H - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of conjunctival colonization, identify the colonizing flora, and correlate culture results with physical findings in infants in a NICU. DESIGN: Surveillance study. SETTING: Level III NICU of a large university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: All infants admitted for longer than 24 hours during a 26-week period. ...
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