Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1366
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Bell Susan Givens - - 2006
Although rhG-CSF and rhGM-CSF appear to have no adverse side effects, their usefulness in treating and preventing sepsis in preterm infants remains uncertain. Adequately powered, random, controlled clinical trials of neutropenic infants are needed to further evaluate efficacy of these agents as adjuncts to antibiotic therapy. Carr and associates assert ...
Jincharadze N - - 2006
Bacterial sepsis of preterm infants is an urgent problem of pediatrics, as this population is at high risk for the development of sepsis. The aim of the present investigation was the evaluation of significance of C-reactive protein (CRP) test for identification of early-onset sepsis and assessment of the severity of ...
Renner Regina M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Existing guidelines recommend different strategies to prevent early-onset neonatal GBS sepsis. In 1997, using our own data on incidence and risk factors, we established a new prevention strategy which includes GBS screening at 36 weeks' gestation and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in women with positive or unknown GBS colonization ...
Ojukwu Juliana U - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Septicemia is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and it often has a rapid and fulminant course. AIMS: To determine the incidence, predisposing factors, clinical features, bacteriologic pattern and antibiotic sensitivity of neonatal septicemia. DESIGN: A prospective study was undertaken over a ...
Gordon Adrienne - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Late onset neonatal Gram-negative bacillary infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and mortality from late onset Gram-negative bacillary infections in neonatal units. METHODS: An 11-year longitudinal prospective surveillance study. Clinicians in 20 neonatal units in Australia and New Zealand collected data. ...
Clark Reese H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We reported previously that the use of cephalosporin among premature neonates increased the risk of subsequent fungal sepsis. As a result, we recommended that ampicillin and gentamicin be used as empiric coverage for early-onset neonatal sepsis while culture results are awaited. OBJECTIVES: To describe antibiotic use during the first ...
López Sastre José B - - 2006
It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. One hundred infants aged between 4 ...
Kylat R I - - 2006
Sepsis is a common problem in both preterm and term infants. Although the overall incidence of neonatal sepsis has declined over the past decade, mortality remains high. Recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of activity modulating coagulation and has been shown in ...
Bell Y - - 2005
AIM: To determine the incidence and causative organisms of bacterial sepsis in neonates at The University Hospital of the West Indies. METHODS: A retrospective review of all neonates with culture-proven sepsis admitted to the hospital between January 1995 and December 2000 was conducted. Incidence rates and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were ...
Manzoni Paolo - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Despite the promising preliminary results observed in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) populations, the use of fluconazole to prevent fungal colonization and infection in preterm neonates in the NICU is still an open question and not yet recommended as a standard of care. We have reviewed our 6-year series ...
Cetin Hasan - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Fungal sepsis is becoming more frequent in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and has a high mortality rate due to the invasive nature of the disease and to the insufficiency of low doses and high incidence of renal problems with effective doses of amphotericin B. New generation lipid formulated ...
Gessner B D - - 2005
We evaluated all fatal neonatal sepsis and pneumonia cases occurring in Alaska during 1992-2000. Risk factors were evaluated using a database of all births occurring during the study period. Of 32 cases, group B streptococcus (GBS) was isolated from 21% (all 7 days of age), non-GBS Gram-positive bacteria from 50% ...
Harris Mary Catherine - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that cytokines might distinguish critically ill infants with bacterial sepsis or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) from those with sepsis syndrome and that these elevations would be correlated with clinical variables of inflammation and mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We measured plasma and tracheal aspirate (TA) levels of interleukin-8 ...
Capparelli Edmund V - - 2005
Nosocomial or late-onset sepsis is a common complication among premature infants, with a frequency inversely correlated with birth weight. Increased susceptibility to infection is due in part to an immature humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and safety of a donor-selected specific intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) ...
McAdams Ryan M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To report two cases of severe early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, including, to our knowledge, the first reported case of sepsis due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae presenting as early-onset neonatal sepsis. DESIGN: Case reports. SETTING: A level III military and civilian neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Two ...
Schrag Stephanie - - 2005
Neonatal sepsis is a leading infectious cause of infant mortality. While use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis in the United States has led to dramatic declines in perinatal sepsis caused by the bacteria group B streptococcus, interventions to prevent perinatal sepsis due to other causes have not yet been clearly defined. ...
Bizzarro Matthew J - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Yale-New Haven Hospital (Y-NHH) has maintained the longest running, single-center longitudinal database of neonatal sepsis, started in 1928. The objective of this study was to update this database with review of neonatal sepsis cases at Y-NHH to identify longitudinal trends in demographics, pathogens, and outcome. METHODS: Records of infants ...
Glasgow Tiffany S - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Recommendations to prevent vertical transmission of group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections have resulted in many women's receiving antibiotics during labor with an associated reduction in early-onset GBS infections in their newborn infants. However, a potential relationship of intrapartum antibiotics (IPA) to the occurrence of late-onset (7-90 days) serious bacterial ...
El Beitune Patrícia - - 2005
We reviewed colonization by group B Streptococcus beta-haemolyticus of Lancefield (SGB), or Streptococcus agalactiae, in pregnant women, and the consequences of infection for the mother and newborn infant, including factors that influence the risk for anogenital colonization by SGB. We also examined the methods for diagnosis and prophylaxis of SGB ...
Park Hee-Kyung - - 2005
The complex ecosystem of intestinal microflora is estimated to harbor approximately 400 different microbial species, mostly bacteria. However, studies on bacterial colonization have mostly been based on culturing methods, which only detect a small fraction of the whole microbiotic ecosystem of the gut. To clarify the initial acquisition and subsequent ...
Kaufman David - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that twice weekly prophylactic dosing of fluconazole prevents invasive candidiasis without promoting resistant Candida species in high-risk, preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: We compared our previous dosing schedule (Group A) to a less frequent dosing schedule of twice a week (Group B) of fluconazole prophylaxis for ...
Subair O - - 2005
An audit was undertaken of the prevention of early-onset Group B streptococcus (EOGBS) disease in neonates. The prevention strategy in use involved offering Intra-partum Antibiotic Prophylaxis (IAP) to mothers with identified risk factors, which include maternal fever in labour > 38 degrees C, previous baby with GBS disease, prolonged rupture ...
Stoll Barbara J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Early onset neonatal sepsis (EOS, occurring in the first 72 hours of life) remains an important cause of illness and death among very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. We previously reported a change in the distribution of pathogens associated with EOS from predominantly gram-positive to primarily gram-negative organisms. ...
Moore Kelly L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Rates of sepsis exceeding 50% in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Cairo, Egypt, were not controlled by routine antimicrobial therapy. We investigated these conditions in September 2001. METHODS: Case series and retrospective cohort studies were conducted on 2 groups of NICU infants admitted to an academic medical ...
Vazzalwar Ramesh - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To compare the utility of procalcitonin (PCT) vs C-reactive protein (CRP) as indicators of late-onset neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: PCT and CRP levels were measured in VLBW infants with suspected sepsis and controls. Comparisons were made between infected vs noninfected infants. Using cutoff ...
Aly Hany - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a significant cause of morbidity and death encountered in the NICU. The rates of BSIs vary significantly in NICUs across the nation. However, no attempt has been made to correlate this variation with specific infection-control practices and policies. We experienced a significant increase in BSIs ...
Kim David D - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infection. Neonatal morbidity and mortality can be reduced by appropriate prenatal screening and intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. CASE: A 20-year-old primigravida was treated with oral antibiotics at 35 weeks for a recurrent urinary tract infection. Her GBS screen following the ...
Mayor-Lynn Kathleen - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare maternal characteristics and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates that are associated with early-onset neonatal sepsis that is caused by group B Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of newborn infants with a positive blood culture (and/or ...
Puopolo Karen M - - 2005
BACKGROUND: With the widespread implementation of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), the rate of early-onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) has decreased dramatically, especially in term infants. However, cases of GBS disease continue to occur despite IAP and incur significant morbidity and mortality. Inaccurate ...
Vergnano S - - 2005
Neonatal infections currently cause about 1.6 million deaths annually in developing countries. Sepsis and meningitis are responsible for most of these deaths. Resistance to commonly used antibiotics is emerging and constitutes an important problem world wide. To reduce global neonatal mortality, strategies of proven efficacy, such as hand washing, barrier ...
Spitzer Alan R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: The most common admission to intensive care nurseries is the infant with suspected neonatal sepsis. To determine the clinical practice of neonatologists with respect to this diagnosis, we examined a large neonatal database during a 2-year period of time. The goal of this study was to define whether there ...
Cinar Asli - - 2005
We report for the first time, a premature infant with multiple intracardiac thrombi and sepsis, who was heterozygous for the G20210A prothrombin gene variant. Anticoagulant treatment with low molecular weight heparin resulted in the complete disappearance of the thrombi. It may be suggested that prothrombin gene variant associated with sepsis, ...
Dempsey E - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to determine the short-term outcome of newborns less than 30 weeks gestation when there is definite placental histologic chorioamnionitis. A retrospective analysis was performed of records of all neonates delivered at our institution from January 1989 through January 1999. This information was retrieved from ...
Hwang Jong Hee - - 2005
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of clinical strategies to reduce nosocomial sepsis (NS) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI) less than 1,000 g. Data from the period before (P1, 1995-2000) and after (P2, 2001-2002) implementation of the strategies were collected and analyzed. The intervention ...
Nigro Kelly G - - 2005
Neonatologists use immature granulocytes (IG) in manual differential counts as an indicator of sepsis. This study was designed to compare the predictive ability of automated vs manual IG counts for neonatal sepsis. Infants undergoing sepsis evaluation were identified prospectively for study if a CBC count was obtained in temporal proximity ...
Cohen Steven B - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (ATL146e) might augment the current treatment regimen of antibiotics plus irrigation and debridement to prevent the arthritic effects associated with joint sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were injected into knees of rabbits, which were divided into 4 ...
John Baier R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: This study compared the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphisms on the incidence and outcome of sepsis in ventilated very low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN: Infectious complications were retrospectively determined in 295 (234 African-American, 58 Caucasian and three Hispanic) mechanically ventilated very low birth weight ...
Simiyu D E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the burden of infection among low birth weight (LBW) infants at the new born unit (NBU) of Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), identify any risk factors, causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivities. DESIGN: Retrospective study utilising case notes. SETTING: New born unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS: All ...
Bang Abhay T - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To further evaluate our earlier findings on the feasibility and effectiveness of home-based management of neonatal sepsis by analysing 7 years data (1996 to 2003) from the field trial in Gadchiroli, India. STUDY DESIGN: Neonates in 39 villages were monitored by trained village health workers (VHWs) from 1995 onwards. ...
Glass Nina E - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To identify opportunities to reduce overuse of antibiotics for prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease and management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (pPROM). METHODS: An anonymous written questionnaire was sent to each of 1031 Fellows of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the responses ...
Sobko T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonization of the intestine early in life might have implications for allergy development. We studied early host-bacterial interactions in the gut by simultaneous measurements of hydrogen gas (H(2)) and faecal short chain fatty acid pattern (SCFAs), i.e. bacterial products, as well as of nitric oxide (NO), a marker ...
Sutkin Gary - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of increased use of intravenous penicillin for group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae, GBS) antibiotic prophylaxis on non-GBS neonatal sepsis and antibiotic resistance. METHODS: We undertook a nonconcurrent cohort study. Microbiology cultures originating from infants with early-onset neonatal sepsis in our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) ...
Stricker T - - 2005
AIM: To evaluate the clinical features and microbiological findings in young infants with mastitis. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of 18 infants with breast inflammation during the first 3 mo of life seen in the paediatric emergency department between 1992 and 2002. RESULTS: All were full-term infants with female-male ...
Könönen Eija - - 2005
Development of the indigenous microbiota begins on the surfaces of the human body after birth when infants are exposed to continuous person-to-person and environmental contacts with microbes. Anaerobes constitute a significant part of indigenous bacterial communities at different body sites. Pioneering anaerobic commensals are able to colonize and survive in ...
Breisch Eric A - - 2005
A wandering or ectopic spleen, a rare congenital condition caused by improper fixation of the ligamentous attachments, was identified during a postmortem examination of a 10-month-old female who had died of Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis. The wandering spleen was autoinfarcted and adherent to the left hepatic lobe, with resultant functional hyposplenism.
Chacko Betty - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To study the maternal risk factors and clinico-bacteriological profile of early onset sepsis (EOS), in a tertiary care neonatal unit. METHODS: Relevant data of neonates born during the study period were obtained from their case records. A diagnosis of early onset sepsis was made if either clinical sepsis developed ...
Eren Aynur - - 2005
The prevalence of group B streptococci (GBS) colonization was studied in 500 pregnant women and their newborn infants by collecting vaginal and rectal swabs from mothers, and umbilical and throat swabs from their infants. Forty-six isolates of GBS were obtained from mothers' specimens and eight from neonates. Maternal and infant ...
Lingvall M - - 2005
To investigate the effect of sepsis upon the volume of distribution (Vd) of gentamicin in neonates. A retrospective chart review was conducted of neonates admitted to Dunedin Hospital who had gentamicin concentrations performed between 1st January 2000 and 30th October 2003. Data from 277 neonates, including a total of 576 ...
Lawrence Sarah L - - 2005
Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS) is the main cause of late-onset sepsis in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). Although CONS rarely causes fulminant sepsis, vancomycin is frequently used as empiric therapy. Indiscriminate use of vancomycin has been linked to the emergence of vancomycin resistant organisms. The objective of this study was ...
Gordon A - - 2005
Late onset neonatal sepsis (systemic infection after 48 hours of age) continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Early treatment with antibiotics is essential as infants can deteriorate rapidly. It is not clear which antibiotic regimen is most suitable for initial treatment of suspected late onset sepsis. ...
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