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Cardoso M Jorge - - 2012
Advances in neonatal care have improved the survival of infants born prematurely although these infants remain at increased risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. The measurement of white matter structure and features of the cortical surface can help define biomarkers that predict this risk. The measurement of these structures relies upon ...
Murray-Davis Beth - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: the aim of this study was to increase our understanding of why Canadian women choose to give birth at home. Despite on-going debate regarding the safety of home birth, a small number of Canadian women choose home as a place to give birth. The factors influencing a woman's decision ...
Nischal Ken K - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonatal corneal opacification (NCO) describes the loss of corneal transparency at or soon after (<4 weeks) birth. Historically, the literature is strewn with terminology that has been at best misleading and at worst, a hindrance to selecting the appropriate treatment plan for, accurate genotype-phenotype correlation of and ...
Wehby George L GL Department of Health Management and Policy, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2012
Previous studies of very low birth weight (VLBW) hospital volume effects on in-hospital mortality have used standard risk-adjusted models that only account for observable confounders but not for self-selection bias due to unobservable confounders. To assess the effects of hospital volume of VLBW infants on in-hospital mortality while explicitly accounting ...
Gupta Arun - - 2012
Optimal breastfeeding not only saves the lives of children under 5 years, but also improves children's quality of life. In spite of proven benefits and repeated emphasis, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding among children less than 6 months of age is only 36% globally. The Global Strategy for Infant and ...
Robertson Steven S - - 2012
Young infants actively gather information about their world through visual foraging, but the dynamics of this important behavior is poorly understood, partly because developmental scientists have often equated its essential components, looking and attending. Here we describe a method for simultaneously tracking spatial attention to fixated and nonfixated locations during ...
Parra Juan - - 2012
Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that is caused by degeneration of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord anterior horns. This degeneration can lead to progressive atrophy of proximal muscles, weakness, respiratory failure and death in severe cases. SMA is the most common neuromuscular ...
Lábadi Beatrix - - 2012
Geometric form perception and its role in reorienting process have been studied extensively in children, but little is known about its early origin in infancy. Here, we present findings of three experiments that used looking-time paradigm to test infants' sensitivity to geometric and feature information in two-dimensional visual display. One-year-old ...
Toivonen Elli - - 2012
Objective: To compare the neonatal outcome between planned vaginal or planned cesarean section (CS) breech delivery and planned vaginal vertex delivery at term with singleton fetuses. Design: A cohort study. Setting: Delivery Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, with 5200 annual deliveries. Population: The term breech deliveries over a period of ...
Johnson Scott P - - 2012
We investigated oculomotor anticipations in 4-month-old infants as they viewed center-occluded object trajectories. In two experiments, we examined performance in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) dynamic occlusion displays and in an additional 3D condition with a smiley face as the moving target stimulus. Rates of anticipatory eye movements were not ...
Pittiruti Mauro - - 2012
Ultrasound guided central venous cannulation is rapidly becoming the standard technique for achieving a central line in neonates, infants and children. Older techniques such as surgical cutdown and 'blind'percutaneous venipuncture have many disadvantages: they are time consuming, vein consuming and/or associated with dangerous immediate or late complications. On the other ...
Shaw Paul P School of Healthcare, University of Leeds, UK. - - 2012
Positioning and maintaining the subject's head at the calibration point (CP) of the sound field (SF) during SF assessment remains a challenge. The purpose of this study was to investigate the sound pressure level (SPL) at head positions likely to be encountered in routine audiological practice. Eight National Health Service ...
Triven Bashambu Monuj - - 2012
Aim:  To review the evidence for optimal oxygen use in preterm infants. Results:  Clinicians have embraced lower saturation targets to minimize retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Large randomized trials now have shown that while such targets reduce ROP, neonatal mortality is increased significantly. Conclusions:  Preterm infants should be resuscitated with blended ...
Sehgal Arvind - - 2012
Although ongoing patency of the ductus arteriosus is common in small extremely preterm infants, consensus is lacking regarding its clinical significance and treatment strategies. Literature regarding likelihood of spontaneous closure, impact on neonatal morbidity and long-term outcomes, and adverse effects of intervention has led to uncertainty as to the best ...
Prodhomme Olivier - - 2012
ObjectiveTo assess the accuracy of a semiautomated 3D volume reconstruction method for organ volume measurement by postmortem MRI.MethodsThis prospective study was approved by the institutional review board and the infants' parents gave their consent. Postmortem MRI was performed in 16 infants (1 month to 1 year of age) at 1.5 ...
Kahrs Björn Alexander BA Department of Psychology, Tulane University, 6823 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, LA 70118, USA. - - 2012
Throughout the first year, infants are known to engage in repetitive motor behaviors. The current study examines the changes in the hand trajectory of one such behavior, banging, during the second half-year and the implications of these changes for tool use development. Fourteen (7- to 14-month-old) infants were seated at ...
Meyer-Marcotty P - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: Unilateral positional plagiocephaly is the most common deformity of the head in infants. As part of a prospective controlled clinical study, the pathomorphology of the positional plagiocephaly in early infancy was examined. The goal was to use noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) imaging to generate, for the first time ever, a ...
Rohlfing Katharina J - - 2012
Pointing, like eye gaze, is a deictic gesture that can be used to orient the attention of another person towards an object or an event. Previous research suggests that infants first begin to follow a pointing gesture between 10 and 13 months of age. We investigated whether sensitivity to pointing could ...
Foroud Afra - - 2012
Reaching-to-eat (skilled reaching) is a natural behaviour that involves reaching for, grasping and withdrawing a target to be placed into the mouth for eating. It is an action performed daily by adults and is among the first complex behaviours to develop in infants. During development, visually guided reaching becomes increasingly ...
Beier Jonathan S JS Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, Biology/Psychology Building, College Park, MD 20742, USA. - - 2012
Young infants are sensitive to self-directed social actions, but do they appreciate the intentional, target-directed nature of such behaviors? The authors addressed this question by investigating infants' understanding of social gaze in third-party interactions (N = 104). Ten-month-old infants discriminated between 2 people in mutual versus averted gaze, and expected ...
Hiner Jacqueline - - 2012
Ensuring the safety of infants born in a hospital is a top priority and, therefore, requires a solid infant security plan. Using an interdisciplinary approach and a systematic change process, nursing leadership in collaboration with clinical nurses and security personnel analyzed the infant security program at this community hospital to ...
Ozkan Hasan - - 2012
A wet nurse can be used if a baby's natural mother is unable or chooses not to breastfeed her infant. The practice of using wet nurses is ancient and common to many cultures. We hypothesize that infants breastfeeding from the same woman may develop consanguinity even in cases in ...
Crowther Caroline A - - 2012
Uncertainty exists about benefits and harms of a planned vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) compared with elective repeat caesarean (ERC). We conducted a prospective restricted cohort study consisting of a patient preference cohort study, and a small nested randomised trial to compare benefits and risks of a planned ERC with ...
Bar-Zeev Sarah J - - 2012
Australia is a wealthy developed country. However, there are significant disparities in health outcomes for Aboriginal infants compared with other Australian infants. Health outcomes tend to be worse for those living in remote areas. Little is known about the health service utilisation patterns of remote dwelling Aboriginal infants. This study ...
Bain Emily - - 2012
The effectiveness of antenatal magnesium sulphate for neuroprotection of the fetus, infant, and child prior to very preterm birth, when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth, has been established. There is currently no consensus as to the regimen to use in terms of the dose, duration, the ...
Verschoor Stephan - - 2011
It has been shown that, when observing an action, infants can rely on either outcome selection information (i.e., actions that express a choice between potential outcomes) or means selection information (i.e., actions that are causally efficient toward the outcome) in their goal attribution. However, no research has investigated the relationship ...
Rutherford M D - - 2011
Mothers' actions are more enthusiastic, simple, and repetitive when demonstrating novel object properties to their infants than to adults, a behavioral modification called "infant-directed action" by Brand and colleagues (2002). The current study tested whether fathers also tailor their behavior when interacting with infants and whether this modification differs from ...
Hamlin J Kiley - - 2011
Although adults generally prefer helpful behaviors and those who perform them, there are situations (in particular, when the target of an action is disliked) in which overt antisocial acts are seen as appropriate, and those who perform them are viewed positively. The current studies explore the developmental origins of this ...
Gerson Sarah A - - 2012
Understanding the intentional relations in others' actions is critical to human social life. Origins of this knowledge exist in the first year and are a function of both acting as an intentional agent and observing movement cues in actions. We explore a new mechanism we believe plays an important role ...
Loucks Jeff - - 2012
Recent evidence suggests that adults selectively attend to features of action, such as how a hand contacts an object, and less to configural properties of action, such as spatial trajectory, when observing human actions. The current research investigated whether this bias develops in infancy. We utilized a habituation paradigm to ...
Knudsen Birgit - - 2012
Much of human communication and collaboration is predicated on making predictions about others' actions. Humans frequently use predictions about others' action mistakes to correct others and spare them mistakes. Such anticipatory correcting reveals a social motivation for unsolicited helping. Cognitively, it requires forward inferences about others' actions through mental attributions ...
Rakison David H - - 2012
Previous research has established that infants are unable to perceive causality until 6¼ months of age. The current experiments examined whether infants' ability to engage in causal action could facilitate causal perception prior to this age. In Experiment 1, 4½-month-olds were randomly assigned to engage in causal action experience via ...
Carver Leslie J - - 2011
Previous research has shown that reminders can be effective for extending and enhancing a variety of kinds of memory in infants. We investigated the effects of viewing pictorial representations of actions that were included in imitation events used to measure long-term memory in young infants. Infants who saw the pictures ...
Bhattacharyya Agnihotri - - 2011
Integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness (IMNCI) was already operational in many states of India, but there were very few studies in Indian scenario comparing its validity and reliability with the decisions of pediatricians. The general objective of the study is to compare the IMNCI decisions with the decisions ...
Cannon Erin N - - 2012
Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others' actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. Containment activity, infants' spontaneous engagement in producing containment actions; and gaze ...
Tee John - - 2011
Productive tests are unsuitable for measuring infants' earliest understanding of pretence, because performance demands may render infants unable to produce the actions required to pass the test. Recently, Onishi, Baillargeon and Leslie (2007) used the violation-of-expectation (VOE) paradigm as a measure of infants' understanding of others' pretence that is free ...
Morgante James D - - 2011
Twelve- and 18-month-old infants participated in a study designed to investigate the quality of their manual action when relating an object to the surface on which it is explored. Specifically, infants' perception-action routines were observed when they were presented with multiple objects (wooden scoop, Velcro block, and crayon) on surfaces ...
Paulus Markus - - 2011
In two experiments, it was investigated how preverbal infants perceive the relationship between a person and an object she is looking at. More specifically, it was examined whether infants interpret an adult's object-directed gaze as a marker of an intention to act or whether they relate the person and the ...
Chan Cheri C Y - - 2011
Research based on naturalistic and checklist methods has revealed differences between English and Chinese monolingual children in their trajectories of learning nouns and verbs. However, studies based on controlled laboratory designs (e.g., Imai et al., 2008) have yielded a more mixed picture. Guided by a multidimensional view of word learning ...
Boyer Ty W - - 2011
Recent research suggests that 9-month-old infants tested in a modified version of the A-not-B search task covertly imitate actions performed by the experimenter. The current study examines whether infants also simulate actions performed by mechanical devices, and whether this varies with whether or not they have been familiarized with the ...
Henderson Annette M E - - 2011
Collaboration is fundamental to our daily lives, yet little is known about how humans come to understand these activities. The present research was conducted to fill this void by using a novel visual habituation paradigm to investigate infants' understanding of the collaborative-goal structure of collaborative action. The findings of the ...
Gweon Hyowon - - 2011
Sixteen-month-old infants (N = 83) rationally used sparse data about the distribution of outcomes among agents and objects to solve a fundamental inference problem: deciding whether event outcomes are due to themselves or the world. When infants experienced failed outcomes, their causal attributions affected whether they sought help or explored.
Rosander Kerstin - - 2011
We asked whether people's actions are understood by projecting them onto one's own action programs, according to the direct matching hypothesis, and whether this mode of control functions in infants. Adults' and infants' gaze and hand movements were measured in two live situations. The task was either to move an ...
Monagle Paul - - 2011
Heparin is one of the most commonly used drugs in tertiary paediatric centres. Across the last decade, targeted research has been directed towards improving the level of evidence supporting paediatric-specific recommendations for the use and management of heparin in infants and children. In contrast, little effort has been directed towards ...
Paulus Markus - - 2011
The present study investigates the contribution of 2 mechanisms to imitation in infancy. The principle of rational action suggests that infants normatively evaluate the efficiency of observed actions. In contrast, it has been proposed that motor resonance (i.e., the mapping of others' actions onto one's own motor repertoire) plays a ...
Hauf Petra - - 2011
In contrast to previous findings, this study demonstrates that 11-month-old infants are able to learn the relationship between object material and object weight when exploring different objects that provided a systematic covariation of both object features. This guides their action in a subsequent preferential-reaching task.
Geraci Alessandra - - 2011
The problem of how to distribute available resources among members of a group is a central aspect of social life. Adults react negatively to inequitable distributions and several studies have reported negative reactions to inequity also in non-human primates and dogs. We report two experiments on infants' reactions to equal ...
Myowa-Yamakoshi Masako - - 2011
In the present study, we investigated whether infants' own visual experiences affected their perception of the visual status of others engaging in goal-directed actions. In Experiment 1, infants viewed video clips of successful and failed goal-directed actions performed by a blindfolded adult, with half the infants having previously experienced being ...
Paulus Markus - - 2011
This study investigates the contribution of frequency learning and teleological reasoning to action prediction in 9-month-old infants and adults. Participants observed how an agent repeatedly walked to a goal while taking the longer of 2 possible paths, as the shorter and more efficient path was impassable. In the subsequent test ...
Brandon Melissa M University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Center 1500 Highland Ave., Madison, WI 53705, USA. - - 2011
Many studies have demonstrated that infants exhibit robust auditory rhythm discrimination, but research on infants' perception of visual rhythm is limited. In particular, the role of motion in infants' perception of visual rhythm remains unknown, despite the prevalence of motion cues in naturally occurring visual rhythms. In the present study, ...
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