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Results 401 - 450 of 488
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Ahmed F - - 1991
Causes of infant deaths were analyzed from the linked vital records of 1988 for the District of Columbia. According to a new cause-of-death classification, 57% of the deaths were attributed to "prematurity and related conditions," as compared with only 31% due to "disorders relating to short gestation and unspecified low ...
Albersheim S G - - 1991
It is important to identify high-risk women abusing drugs in order to provide good care for them and their babies. These infants require close observation after birth for perinatal complications withdrawal, long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities (even with drug use only early in pregnancy), and sudden infant death syndrome. The degree of ...
Iyengar S D - - 1991
Given severe winters at high altitudes, prevention of environmental neonatal hypothermia is of particular importance in Himalayan villages. This is a retrospective study of traditional concepts and practices for the prevention of neonatal hypothermia. 202 babies were studied from a population of 16,425 in three districts of a Himalayan state ...
Ngyuen M M - - 1991
Testicular descent has been reported to be a dihydrotestosterone (DHT) dependent event. To further elucidate the role of DHT in the process of testicular descent, a group of rats were treated with the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, 4-MAPC, from birth to day 28 of age and the incidence of testicular descent ...
Kuchan M J - - 1991
Present studies show the in vitro addition of glutathione (GSH) can significantly alter selenite induced growth inhibition of mammary tumor cell line 13 (CMT-13). Preincubation with 100 microM GSH for 24 h partially prevented the growth inhibition caused by 12.6 microM selenite. Pre-incubation with 100 microM GSH for 48 h ...
Mellberg J R - - 1991
Enamel slabs and thin sections with artificially formed caries lesions were placed in the removable dentures of 15 subjects who brushed them three times daily for 2 weeks with a 1.3% pyrophosphate/1,100 ppm F/1.5% Gantrez dentifrice, a 1,100-ppm F dentifrice without pyrophosphate or Gantrez, or a placebo dentifrice in a ...
Haycock G B - - 1991
Renal function differs in term infants from that in adults, with lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reduced proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium (Na) and water: nevertheless, it is adequate for their needs. This is not true of very preterm infants in whom hyponatraemia is common. Animal studies have shown ...
Hein H A - - 1990
We studied the impact of unwed status on infant mortality in the state of Iowa, where obstetric and newborn care is readily accessible. Our purpose was to document the extent of the contribution of unwed status to infant mortality and to compare unwed gravidas with their married counterparts. We hoped ...
Tulchinsky T H - - 1990
During the 1950s tetanus was a major public health concern in Israel, with incidence rates of up to 2/100,000 occurring predominantly among farmers and infants (tetanus neonatorum). These rates have declined considerably since then, with an average of 2 cases per year in recent years, and 5 cases in 1988. ...
Delport S D SD Department of Paediatrics, University of - - 1990
A prospective analysis of 18 infants with neonatal tetanus treated over a 14-month period showed that the disease could have been prevented in at least 15 cases. These mothers had received antenatal care on a sufficient number of occasions for two tetanus toxoid immunisations to have been given to effect ...
Fraser D - - 1990
Litters of domestic piglets show strong sibling competition, large differences among litter-mates in birth weight and rate of growth, and, in the absence of human intervention, a high mortality rate. This combination of traits suggests that pigs are using a reproductive strategy similar to that of certain bird species which ...
Grujić J - - 1990
The effects of intrauterine hypoxia on the motorial development of forty infants was studied by synthesizing the findings obtained by a team of obstetricians, neonatologists and physiatrists. The pH of the blood of the examinees was measured during delivery to detect hypoxia. Analyses of the results obtained have shown that ...
Herman A - - 1990
We present a method for auditing and evaluating infant mortality with the aid of a preventability grading system, based on national computerized files of livebirths and infant deaths. Diagnostic categories and specific causes of deaths were classified into one of the following three preventability grades: Preventable (P), Possibly Preventable (PP) ...
Vandenplas Y - - 1989
In order to prevent the development of essential fatty acid deficiency, 19 premature babies and term infants needing parenteral nutrition were studied during 14 days. Intralipid 20% was administered to ten and sunflower seed oil was rubbed six times daily on the skin of nine infants. Fatty acid pattern of ...
Saunders E - - 1989
Seven neonaticides were reported during a 14-month period in the State of Iowa. This is an alarming number considering that only one such case was reported in the previous year. The majority of cases involved the birth of a live infant to an adolescent who had reportedly kept her pregnancy ...
Gupta J K - - 1989
Women throughout the ages have preferred to be delivered with their trunks vertical and most delivery positions illustrated in historical texts show birth in an upright posture with abducted thighs. A consumer attitude study in our hospital showed that patients have considerable interest in alternative birth positions. Squatting has been ...
Krishna S - - 1989
Severe malaria is a major cause of infant and childhood death in the tropics. Effective management relies on rapid diagnosis, prompt administration of parenteral schizonticidal antimalarial drugs, careful fluid balance, prevention of convulsions and early recognition of complications such as hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, anemia, pulmonary edema, renal failure, bleeding and ...
Chandra M - - 1989
In an open comparative study in endoscopically proven cases of duodenal ulcer, concomitant therapy of H2 antagonist was initiated in two randomly allocated, homogenous patient groups, ie, H2 A + RF alginate antacid (Riflux Forte, Sol Pharmaceuticals Ltd) or H2 A + S non-alginate antacid (Siloxogene, Searle Ltd), both Riflux ...
Campbell D E - - 1988
Metabolic bone disease in the growing premature infant is an important disorder owing to inadequate intake of calcium or phosphorus over an extended period of time. Prevention of serious bone disease is an important goal in the care of the VLBW infant. Attempts to reproduce intrauterine bone accretion rates in ...
Moya F R - - 1988
RDS continues to be a major problem for premature infants despite a better understanding of its pathophysiology and of ways to try to prevent it. To date, prenatal administration of glucocorticoids has been the most widely used method of accelerating fetal lung development. However, several limitations of this therapy have ...
Heikkila R E - - 1988
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is a potent dopaminergic neurotoxin that causes biochemical, pharmacological, and pathological deficits in experimental animals similar to those seen in human parkinsonian patients. All of the deficits can be prevented by treating mice with selective inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), including deprenyl, prior to MPTP administration. We ...
D'Amico J C - - 1988
An overview of the normal and abnormal functional equilibrium of the lower extremity has been presented. The biomechanical and pathomechanical implications of activity and inactivity on this system have been discussed. Special emphasis has been placed on the effects of musculoskeletal imbalances on foot function. Evaluation and management guidelines for ...
Gruss B - - 1988
A trial was conducted in an area where organophosphate resistance to the green blowfly of sheep, Lucilia curpina WIED had been reported. Three formulations containing Propetamphos, namely an oil based pour-on, a grease based smear-on, and an emulsifiable concentrate were applied to 300 sheep in an attempt to compare the ...
Anderson I D - - 1988
One thousand consecutive deaths from injury in 11 coroner's districts in England and Wales were reviewed by four independent assessors, who studied necropsy reports to identify deaths in hospital that might have been preventable. Of 514 patients admitted to hospital alive, 102 deaths (20%) were judged by all four assessors ...
Bullock M R MR Department of Neurosurgery, University of Natal, - - 1988
A detailed review of 100 consecutive head injury deaths in the Natal area was undertaken after forensic autopsies had been performed; neurohistological examination was carried out in 69 cases. It was found that one-third of deaths could have been prevented by medical treatment. Hypoxic and ischaemic brain damage was judged ...
Adachi N - - 1988
The effects of 4 proteolytic enzymes, alpha-chymotrypsin, bromeline, collagenase, and lysozyme on amyloid tissue sections from a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) were evaluated. Degradation of amyloid fibrils was significant with alpha-chymotrypsin, moderate with bromeline and collagenase, and slight with lysozyme. All of these proteases except collagenase are used ...
Falciglia H S - - 1988
To determine the impact of routine naso-oropharyngeal DeLee and tracheal suction on the prevention of meconium aspiration syndrome, we compared 755 infants with meconium-stained fluid, born during a 12-month period (1983), with a similar group of 742 infants born in a previous year (1975) when these suctioning techniques were not ...
Dooley P C - - 1988
3 major assumptions provided the basis to Malthus' theory of population: food is necessary to human existence; passion between man and woman is necessary and will continue nearly in its present state; and the power of population is indefinitely greater than the earth's power to produce subsistence for humans. With ...
Schuurman R K - - 1988
The genetic transmission of X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) can be determined with high probability using closely linked DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP's). In a family known to be at risk for XLA in male offspring, RFLP analysis demonstrated that the mother was an XLA carrier and her newborn son was ...
Konishi Y - - 1987
The effects of body position during the neonatal period on subsequent functional and postural behaviours were examined in relatively low-risk preterm infants. 44 infants were nursed in the supine position and 37 in a prone position throughout their admission period. Persistent head-turning to the right was observed more often and ...
Lanphear B P - - 1987
The purpose of this study is to review retrospectively the deaths that have occurred in the Shelby County detention center from 1970 to 1985. The Shelby County data are compared and contrasted with other studies to discern significant and preventable causes of death in custody. This study confirmed natural causes ...
Combs-Orme T D - - 1987
This study examines whether 72 infant deaths in one urban neighborhood in one year could have been prevented and if so, how. The neighborhood was targeted for a Maternal and Child Health Block Grant demonstration project because of its combination of low income and high rates of unemployment, teenage births, ...
Emami A - - 1987
An unsuccessful attempt was made to lyse a large aortic thrombus in a newborn using systemic high-dose streptokinase and urokinase therapy and subsequently the use of heparin failed to prevent the propagation of thrombus. The patient was a seven-day old premature, sick neonate in whom an aortic thrombosis developed following ...
Belcher M A - - 1987
Infantile scoliosis has a potential for progression. This paper discusses the use of a soft material to correct scoliosis in a medically stable, at-risk infant. It illustrates that early intervention is desirable in preventing the progression of the lateral curve of the trunk. It also illustrates that the three-point positioning ...
Brown R O - - 1987
We report that the bursting pacemaker neuron R15 has central actions on other identified neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia california. The follower cells are located on the dorsal surface of the left lower quadrant of the ganglion and include members of the LC cell cluster. A spontaneous burst ...
McGregor J - - 1986
Pertussis (whooping cough), a highly contagious disease of childhood, is increasingly recognized among reproductive-age adults and neonates. Described are three cases of maternal-infant pairs in which mother-to-newborn transmission probably occurred and was the cause of extensive morbidity and cost. Means of recognition, treatment, handling, and prevention of this potentially lethal ...
Robillard T A - - 1986
After recalling some notions of embryology, the authors review in the light of recent literature the main causes of prenatal acquired hypoacusias (of viral, bacterial, parasitic, endocrinologic, toxic or other origins) and of perinatal acquired hypoacusias (prematurity, neonatal hypoxia, obstetrical traumatism, nuclear icterus, toxicity and others) by following a systematic ...
Moore A - - 1986
A retrospective survey was undertaken of all deaths in children under 5 in the borough of Wolverhampton over the years 1976-82. Cause of death was classified in terms of preventability and possibly preventable deaths studied in more detail. Birth weight in the study group was significantly lower than that of ...
Baskett T F - - 1986
A program to reduce the incidence of erythroblastosis fetalis was started in Nova Scotia in 1964. Up to the end of 1984, 120 fetuses received 247 intrauterine transfusions. The survival rate was 45.6% in the first 10 years of the program and 66.7% in the next 11 years. For fetuses ...
Buck C - - 1986
We have made a preliminary comparison of infant mortality with the preventable causes of death proposed by Rutstein and colleagues, as indicators of the quality of health care. Two analyses were carried out. The first analysis compared the correlations of infant mortality and of the preventable deaths with four health ...
Stavrakaki C - - 1985
The author outlines the recent advances in the field of developmental disabilities and discusses how these advances have expanded the role and scope of various professional groups. Genetic conditions and chromosomal aberrations, prenatal diagnosis, the infant at risk, and trends in assessing intelligence are detailed within the context of prevention. ...
Giedke H - - 1985
Daily uptake of lithium salt (LiCl) in the drinking water at a rate of over 100 micrograms/g b.wt (or 2.4 mEq/kg) reduced or suppressed natural torpidity (hibernation) in the Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti). The data indicate a direct influence of lithium on clock-related functions controlling the hibernation process rather than ...
Robertson R L - - 1985
Cost-effectiveness studies were carried out in The Gambia to estimate costs of preventing childhood morbidity and mortality through immunization. For the four priority diseases--neonatal tetanus, pertussis, measles and poliomyelitis--costs per case prevented ranged from $1.30 for pertussis to $655.54 for poliomyelitis. In terms of preventing childhood deaths through immunization, measles ...
Källenius G - - 1985
Theoretically there are several ways to prevent pyelonephritis and renal scarring caused by P-fimbriated Escherichia coli. Screening for individuals at risk, e.g. those carrying P-fimbriated pyelonephritogenic E. coli or those with high receptor density on their uroepithelial cells, could perhaps define a population where prophylaxis with a receptor analogue or ...
Kraus J F - - 1985
Unintentional deaths from suffocation and strangulation account for about 20 percent of all nontransport-related infant and child fatalities in the United States. In the late 1950s, some preventive countermeasures were introduced to reduce the number of deaths resulting from refrigerator or freezer entrapment. A few years later, countermeasures were introduced ...
Benson D W DW - - 1985
Transesophageal atrial pacing was used to initiate and terminate tachycardia in 24 infants (seven female and 17 male, aged 1 to 34 days) with ECG documentation of supraventricular tachycardia. Six infants received no chronic treatment, and chronic oral digoxin prophylaxis was administered to 18 infants in an effort to prevent ...
Donn S M - - 1985
Argininosuccinic aciduria, due to deficiency of argininosuccinic acid lyase, is generally associated with severe neonatal hyperammonaemia and its neurological sequelae. The cases of two siblings with this autosomal recessive disorder are presented. Both infants were preterm and delivered by Caesarean section for maternal pre-eclampsia. The first infant was not diagnosed ...
Ganley J V - - 1984
With the exception of talipes equinovarus, there has been an unfortunate tradition of treating infant foot deformities with benign neglect. Most often the physician who confidently assures the trusting parent that the problem will be outgrown is not present at a later time when symptoms develop and someone else must ...
Scheibelhofer W - - 1984
In several modern pacemakers, end-of-life (EOL) is indicated by a single-step rate drop, which is initiated by a voltage-sensitive electronic switch. This switch may also be activated by other causes, such as very short voltage drops, low temperatures, and electrocautery. We report a case in which a Cordis 233 F ...
Zola E M - - 1984
Administration of silver nitrate 1% solution into the eyes of the newborn has proven effective in the prophylaxis of gonococcal neonatal conjunctivitis. Silver nitrate, however, is not active against Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. Also, silver nitrate commonly is associated with substantial chemical irritation. For these ...
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