Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 496
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Mohle-Boetani J C - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost and health benefits of implementing a risk factor-based prevention strategy for early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, using baseline assumptions and costs from a health maintenance organization. With the risk factor-based strategy, intrapartum antibiotics (IPAs) would be provided to women with fever, prolonged rupture ...
Blessing K - - 1999
Benign melanocytic naevi exhibit a wide spectrum of histological appearances. Some share significant clinical and histological features and are recognized as entities. Included among these are pagetoid/junctional Spitz naevus, pigmented spindle cell naevus, halo naevus, recurrent and traumatized naevus, ultraviolet (UV) irradiated naevus, naevus in infants, acral naevus, genital naevus ...
Ogawa Y - - 1999
Based on the analyses of approximately 1,000 infants with CLD, this condition was classified into 7 types according to the preceding illnesses and the chest X-ray appearance. The profile of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines and chemical mediators supported the relevance of the classification. Since different insults to the lung with different ...
Renfrew M J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Trauma to the genital tract commonly occurs at birth, and can cause short- and long-term morbidity. Clinical measures to reduce its occurrence have not been fully identified. METHODS: A systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to describe the current state of knowledge on reduction of genital ...
Luallen J J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Child fatality review (CFR) by interagency teams can contribute to the prevention of childhood deaths. We investigated the potential usefulness of Georgia's CFR, legislated in 1990 primarily to prevent death from child maltreatment, for identifying preventable deaths from injury and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: Using CFR report ...
Fabra A - - 1998
We have previously shown that fungicide Mancozeb causes a 50% decrease in Bradyhizobium sp USDA 3187 growth rate and affects the bacteria-root symbiotic interaction. In order to elucidate the fungicide toxicity mechanism we determined the effects of Mancozeb on cell chemical composition, glutathione (GSH) content (molecule involved in the detoxification ...
Williams G D - - 1998
Since 1996, south-eastern Australia has been experiencing a pertussis epidemic which has resulted in the deaths of several infants, including four from NSW in the 12 months to July 1997. All were less than six weeks of age and died from overwhelming cardiovascular compromise despite intensive care support. This excessive ...
Lucky A W - - 1998
Acne occurs primarily in the first year of life and at puberty. Neonatal and infantile acne may reflect the relatively high androgens from the adrenal in girls and the adrenal and testes in boys characteristic of this age. Early in puberty, acne in boys and girls is primarily comedonal and ...
Rosenstein N E - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of ACOG and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) consensus strategies for the prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease. METHODS: We evaluated cases of early-onset group B streptococcal disease identified by active surveillance during 1995, in four areas in North America with ...
Pauli R M - - 1997
Transient kyphotic deformity arises in most infants with achondroplasia. In a minority, a fixed and angular kyphosis develops, which can cause serious neurologic sequelae later in life. We assessed a protocol for preventing development of such fixed kyphosis in a sequential, unselected series of 66 infants with achondroplasia. This study ...
Lunn P - - 1997
Out of all the areas of comparative immunological study in the horse, the field of reproductive immunology has proven to be one of the most fertile and exciting. Maternal immunological interactions with the fetus involve a set of events which prevent maternal rejection of trophoblastic tissue invading the uterus, and ...
Volpe J J - - 1997
There are two principal lesions that underlie brain injury and the neurologic manifestations in the premature infant: periventricular hemorrhagic infarction and periventricular leukomalacia. Both of these lesions may be potentially preventable: periventricular hemorrhagic infarction by preventing germinal matrix-IVH, and periventricular leukomalacia by detecting impaired cerebrovascular regulation with near-infrared spectroscopy, preventing ...
Cobelens F G - - 1997
Self-reported compliance with a malaria chemoprophylaxis regimen of proguanil (PG) plus chloroquine (CQ) was assessed in a cohort of 547 Dutch travellers who visited a single travel clinic when travelling to various areas endemic for falciparum malaria. 503 (92%) had taken PG/CQ prophylaxis, but only 326 (60%) reported regular and ...
- - 1997
Arson, the second leading cause of residential fire-associated deaths in the United States, accounts for approximately 700 deaths annually, destroys homes, and destabilizes neighborhoods. In Detroit, Michigan (1990 population: 1,027,974), arson accounted for nearly half (46.3%) of all fire-related deaths since 1984. During the late 1970s, pre-Halloween pranks traditionally associated ...
Stinson V - - 1997
The motion-to-suppress safeguard is designed to prevent false eyewitness identifications from leading to wrongful convictions. This safeguard is effective only if judges are sensitive to factors that influence lineup suggestiveness. The present study assessed judge sensitivity to foil, instruction, and presentation biases. Judges (N = 99) read a description of ...
Azarow KS - - 1997
Between 1974 and 1988, 86 newborns with perforated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) were treated by either laparotomy (usually involving a bowel resection and a temporary stoma) or a peritoneal drain under local anesthesia. The survival of babies in the laparotomy group was 57% versus 59% in the drained group. However, for ...
- - 1997
A dramatic reduction in infant abductions from healthcare facilities nationwide--82% from 1991-1995--has been reported by the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children. For 1996, the NCMEC reports four abductions from healthcare facilities, down from 11 in 1991. It credits concentrated educational efforts and unique electronic security being used by ...
Williams A F - - 1997
It is almost a century since hypoglycaemia (a reduction in the glucose concentration of circulating blood) was first described in children, and over 50 years since the condition was first recognized in infants. Nevertheless, controversy still surrounds the definition, significance, and management of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Technological developments such as bedside ...
Kerr G R - - 1997
Texas' health objectives include reducing the infant mortality rate from 8.1 per 1000 live births in 1990 to no more than 7 per 1000 by the year 2000. To help target potentially preventable causes of infant mortality, we examined the underlying cause of each of the 2545 infant deaths that ...
Laine K - - 1997
AIMS: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of activated charcoal on the absorption of amlodipine, with special reference to delayed charcoal administration. METHODS: Thirty-two healthy volunteers, eight subjects in four parallel groups, ingested 10 mg of amlodipine on an empty stomach. Activated charcoal (25 g in ...
McGregor J A - - 1996
The real cost savings arising from effectively preventing or treating preterm birth ascribable to prevalent reproductive tract infections are demonstrated in the lives of children saved from premature death and personal, biologic and economic impairment. Three meta-analyses demonstrate neonatal and maternal benefits from adjunctive antibiotic treatment of mothers suffering preterm ...
Hill C M - - 1996
We summarize the ethnographic literature illustrating that "abnormal birth" circumstances and "ill omens" operate as cues to terminate parental investment. A review of the medical literature provides evidence to support our assertion that ill omens serve as markers of biological conditions that will threaten the survival of infants. Daly and ...
Dhala A - - 1996
Incessant VTs in infancy are often poorly tolerated. Response to conventional antiarrhythmic therapy is disappointing. The present case involves a 3-week-old infant with an incessant VT of a left bundle branch block, and normal axis morphology. This tachycardia was inducible with both atrial and ventricular pacing, but not by premature ...
Forman R - - 1996
OBJECTIVES: To determine the diffusion of information about preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) through folic acid consumption by examining whether mothers of Canadian children born with spina bifida, who had become pregnant at least a year after evidence of the preventive effect of folic acid had been published, had taken ...
McCarton C M - - 1996
Low-birth-weight (LBW) premature infants are at increased risk for abnormal development. It is unclear whether intervention programs designed to prevent the disabilities in preterm children are efficacious. This paper reviews the settings in which interventions take place (e.g. nursery, home) and to whom they are directed (e.g. infant, parent). One ...
Oyama H - - 1996
Coagulation and fibrinolysis factors were studied in six patients after local thrombolysis with urokinase (720,000 IU). Transient abnormalities, such as prolonged prothrombin time, decreased plasminogen and alpha 2-antiplasmin activities, decreased fibrinogen, and increased fibrin degradation products were seen on the day after thrombolysis, but tended to return to the normal ...
Langer J C - - 1996
Infants with omphalocele and gastroschisis represent a challenging group of patients. Antenatal diagnosis may affect management by stimulating a search for associated anomalies, and by changing the site, mode, or timing of delivery. During the neonatal period, great care must be taken to minimize fluid and heat loss, and to ...
Hide D W - - 1995
Few authorities doubt that here has been a significant rise in IgE mediated diseases in almost all populations in which they have been studied. There is less agreement why this should have occurred and a number of genetic and environmental influences almost certainly play a part. Although the present discussions ...
Burgess A W - - 1995
1. Admitted kidnappers identified four phases involved in stealing an infant as: setting the stage for a baby, planning the abduction, the act of abduction, and post-abduction discovery. 2. Abductors describe personal pressure and interpersonal pressures as motivations in stealing an infant. 3. The act of abducting an infant ranges ...
Shermer R H - - 1995
The beta hemolytic streptococcus group B (GBS) emerged as a major pathologic threat to infants in the 1960s and continues to be the leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity in the 1990s. Current approaches to prevention are directed toward eliminating exposure to the pathogen through chemoprophylaxis or enhancing host ...
Doull I J - - 1995
The reliability of length measurement was determined in 38 infants less than 1 year of age. The SD of a single length measurement was 0.28 cm at birth and 0.42 cm both at 6 weeks and at 8 months of age, comparable with the SD of a single height measurement ...
Kanda T - - 1995
Various vector control measures were applied in different endemic areas in two provinces, Saraburi and Chanthaburi, with comparison among different control measures. Application of IGR (insect growth regurator, pyriproxyfen) was introduced at Wat Tam Pra Pothisat, Tab-Kwang District, Saraburi Province. Some integration measures were performed at villages 6 and 8, ...
Binder H - - 1995
Experience gained over twelve years of treating infants with Osteogenesis Imperfecta is described. Emphasized are the facts that no child, including those with OI Sillence II, is too severely involved to not benefit at least from positioning to prevent severe secondary deformities; the Sillence classification does not predict functional ability, ...
Dye T - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the published literature on the effectiveness of amnioinfusion in reducing meconium below the vocal cords and meconium aspiration syndrome among infants born to women presenting with more than trace meconium-stained fluid. STUDY DESIGN: A literature search was conducted to evaluate clinical trials of amnioinfusion and meconium aspiration. ...
Teshima T - - 1994
A modified ovoid applicator for intracavitary radiotherapy was developed for Japanese and other Asian women. It has more variations of smaller sized ovoids than the original rigid standard applicator of the Selectron-MDR and microSelectron-HDR. In addition, application of the ovoid pair and tandem flange is easy due to the flat ...
Houlihan C M - - 1994
Meconium-stained amniotic fluid is commonly found in obstetrics: it occurs in 9-20% of deliveries. Meconium passage into the amniotic fluid may be an antepartum or intrapartum event. Meconium aspiration may occur antepartum or intrapartum or at the infant's first breath. The prognosis in neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome appears to ...
Suresh G K - - 1994
A total of 3472 deliveries were studied over a year to evaluate (i) the importance of thin meconium stained liquor (MSL) in the causation of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), and (ii) the efficacy of intrapartum plus endotracheal suction at birth in the prevention of MAS due to thin meconium. Two ...
Pérez-Sánchez R - - 1994
For some time it has been known that the tick Ornithodoros erraticus might be one of the causes of the persistence of African swine fever in the Iberian Peninsula since its introduction in 1960. In the province of Salamanca serological methods have been used to study the relationship between the ...
Starnes V A - - 1994
The surgical management of tetralogy of Fallot has undergone important changes in recent years. Earlier repair of tetralogy of Fallot is now favored by many institutions. At Stanford University Medical Center, we have performed definitive repair of tetralogy of Fallot at the time of presentation, regardless of the child's age, ...
Sahdev P - - 1994
India reported nearly 50,000 traffic accident deaths in 1989. Yet, literature addressing the causes, timing, and preventability of these deaths is sparse. We undertook an autopsy study of road traffic fatalities in South Delhi to determine the injury patterns and incidence of deaths that could be prevented by optimal utilization ...
Toombs R E - - 1994
This article contains a brief overview of the magnitude and causes of perinatal calf mortality (PCM). A PATH model chart of the risk factors of PCM is presented as a foundation for preparation of herd-management programs to prevent PCM, for herd investigations to control excessive PCM, or to plan seminars ...
Bell T A - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of commonly used forms of eye prophylaxis for newborns with no prophylaxis in the prevention of nongonococcal conjunctivitis. DESIGN: Randomized doubly masked clinical trial. SETTING: University of Washington Hospital and affiliated clinics, Seattle, between 1985 and 1990. SUBJECTS: The medical records of 8499 women were ...
Richards F O FO - - 1993
Permethrin-impregnated bed nets were evaluated as a control measure for malaria in northern Guatemala. Twelve hundred forty participants were allocated to one of three experimental groups (impregnated bed nets [IBN], untreated bed nets [UBN], and controls) and followed up for a period of 13 months. The incidence density of malaria ...
Antikainen T - - 1993
The interposition of various materials to complete suturectomy for the treatment of craniosynostosis has been used by many surgeons to prevent early postoperative reunion. Convincing scientific proof of the value of this procedure is still required, however. In this study a previously described model of experimental craniosynostosis was employed to ...
Ji X C - - 1993
A study on the incidence and high risk factors of hypothermia in the newborn was carried out in a period of four months (Nov. 1988-Feb. 1989) in 6 counties of 3 provinces. Totally 14,809 newborns were studied, in whom 100 cases were found to be ill with sclerema, having an ...
Czeizel A E - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of preventable congenital abnormalities in Hungary. DESIGN: Analysis of available Hungarian data-bases and of the effectiveness of primary, secondary, and tertiary preventive methods. SETTING: Databases of ad hoc epidemiological studies and of the Hungarian congenital abnormality registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence at birth and prevalence ...
Kosloske A M - - 1992
One possible complication in infant pneumonectomy is mediastinal shift that can fatally kink or compress airways and vessels. Rigid prostheses have been used to prevent these problems; however, they cannot be adjusted as the child grows. We report a case of expandable prosthesis implantation in a 24-day-old infant. During the ...
Kaplan C - - 1992
Neonatal thrombocytopenia affects 20-40% of the infants in intensive care units. The frequency of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) is estimated at 1/1500 to 1/5000 live births. The risk of morbidity is significant with 20% neurological sequelae and the death rate is estimated at 10% of affected infants. During recent years ...
Halken S - - 1992
A total of 105 "high-risk" infants born in 1988 were studied prospectively from birth to 18 months of age. The infants were recommended breastfeeding and/or hypoallergenic formula (Nutramigen or Profylac) combined with avoidance of solid foods during the first 6 months of life. All mothers had unrestricted diet. Avoidance of ...
Pearlman S A - - 1992
We report a case of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage in an infant whose mother received immunizations of paternal mononuclear cells. This therapy is designed to prevent unexplained first trimester miscarriages. No previous cases of platelet autoimmunization associated with maternal immunization with paternal mononuclear cells has been reported. Treatment ...
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