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Results 301 - 350 of 488
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Greenwood Brian - - 2003
Maternal immunisation could help to prevent the 2-3 million neonatal and early infant deaths that occur in the developing world each year. Determining the causes of neonatal and early infant deaths in developing countries is difficult as most occur at home. However, it is likely that at least half are ...
Spong C Y - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Stillbirth affects a large portion of the population and results in mortality rates comparable to those of preterm delivery and sudden infant death syndrome combined. Despite the large burden, little information is available to offer patients regarding etiology, treatment or prevention for a subsequent pregnancy. METHODS: We surveyed a ...
Chen Chin-Der - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of coasting to prevent ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) with i.v. albumin and to determine if different timing of gonadotropin coasting would affect the IVF outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University hospital-based IVF program. PATIENT(S): One hundred sixty-two women undergoing IVF treatment cycles who were considered ...
Bradley Darlene - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: The goals of this study were to identify the socioeconomic influences that may lead to newborn abandonment and the attributes common to individuals who abandon their infants, to develop an understanding of the legislative issues affecting the abandonment of newborns by state, and to describe an emergency care program ...
Kim Yoon - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the International Classification of Diseases-based Injury Severity Score (ICISS) to detect preventable deaths, and to compare the performance of trauma care facilities. METHODS: For 2 years, from 1997 to 1998, 131 trauma deaths and 1,087 blunt trauma inpatients ...
Burns Annette L - - 2003
Metropolitan Methodist Hospital, a 279-bed facility, had an electronic infant security system frequently in need of repairs. The vendor became increasingly difficult to locate, and so the decision was made to replace the system. A literature search of vendors and agencies supporting hospitals in the prevention of infant abductions; solicitation ...
Stephen F. Ferrari
An adult Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja) attacked and killed an infant collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) at a site in eastern Amazonia. The eagle appeared to have been prevented from removing its prey immediately by surviving members of the peccary herd. Circumstantial evidence suggests that a set of specific factors, including ...
al-Qahtani Ali S - - 2003
There are different approaches for the repair of congenital choanal atresia. A stent is usually inserted in the nostrils to prevent restenosis. We describe a case of an infant who was presented with recurrent choanal stenosis and was managed by a stent made of reinforced silicone rubber tracheal tube. The ...
Krapp Andrea - - 2003
The fission yeast septation initiation network (SIN) triggers the onset of septum formation and cytokinesis. SIN proteins signal from the spindle pole body (SPB), to which they bind in a cell cycle-dependent manner, via the scaffold proteins sid4p and cdc11p. cdc11p becomes hyperphosphorylated during anaphase, when the SIN is active. ...
Kuyoh M A - - 2003
The contraceptive vaginal sponge was developed as an alternative to the contraceptive diaphragm. Unlike the diaphragm, the sponge can be used for more than one coital act within 24 h without the insertion of additional spermicide, and it does not require fitting or a prescription from a physician. We conducted ...
Grammatikopoulos Tassos - - 2003
There is no consensus regarding which type of endotracheal tube or method of fixation should be employed in neonates. We use oral endotracheal tubes held in place by a flange tied to a bonnet. In three very preterm infants the ligatures holding the bonnet to the flange caused pressure necrosis ...
Chaggu Esnati - - 2002
The sociocultural and socioeconomic situation of sanitation in Dar-es-Salaam (Dsm), Tanzania, was studied with explicit emphasis on pit-latrines. Without considering the sociocultural conditions, the so-called best solution might not be the right one. Therefore, in order to achieve the intended goal, a literature review, a questionnaire survey, and personal visits ...
Selo-Ojeme D O - - 2002
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. In the developing countries, it is responsible for the death of about 125 000 women each year. Death from postpartum haemorrhage is eminently preventable. It is essential that first-line staff are able to prevent, make early diagnosis and provide ...
Cartwright Cathy C - - 2002
The number of infants with cranial asymmetry has increased since the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended that infants sleep on their backs or sides. Here, learn to distinguish positional molding (positional plagiocephaly) from premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis). A clinical examination and x-rays aid diagnosis, allowing initiation of interventions ...
Vogel A M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To establish the preterm infant hospitalization risks from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in New Zealand and the net cost per hospitalization averted by palivizumab. METHODS: The 437 infants born < 32 weeks' gestation in 1997 and treated at five major neonatal units were identified. Subsequent admissions during the next ...
Wang Wen-Qiao - - 2002
The preventive activity of 1:8 mixture of cymoxanil and mancozeb against Phytophthora infestans was higher than that of either the two single ingredients or the other nine mixtures. The synergistic interaction existed (synergy ratio 2.01) between the two at the mixing ratio of 1:8, whereas additive interaction (synergy ratios ranged ...
López-Jaramillo P - - 2001
Preeclampsia is the main cause of maternal mortality and is associated with a five-fold increase in perinatal mortality in developing countries. In spite of this, the etiology of preeclampsia is unknown. The present article analyzes the contradictory results of the use of calcium supplementation in the prevention of preeclampsia, and ...
Kerr J R - - 2001
Human infection with Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis causes significant morbidity and mortality. While universal immunisation represents the mainstay of prevention, the purpose of this review is to summarise the current options for antimicrobial chemotherapy of pertussis. Several chemotherapeutic approaches have an important place in therapy and in infection control. ...
Cummings J H - - 2001
BACKGROUND: Prebiotic carbohydrates selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human colon. These bacteria form part of the gut's inherent defence against invading pathogens. AIM: To test the effectiveness of fructo oligosaccharides in preventing travellers' diarrhoea. METHODS: A total of 244 healthy subjects, travelling to high and ...
Cowden A J - - 2001
PURPOSE: To assess potential impact of programs to prevent adolescent pregnancy on infant mortality. METHODS: Infants (n = 247,503) born alive to Alabama residents from 1991 to 1994 were identified from birth cohort files and linked to infant death records. Deliveries funded by Medicaid, private insurance, and self-payers were studied ...
Tanaka T - - 2001
We examined the child-rearing environmental factors that affect the occurrence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) using a nationwide survey. Infants who died due to SIDS between January 1996 and June 1997 in Japan were identified from death certificates. Controls of the same gender, birthplace, and birth months as the ...
Winkler E - - 2001
Previously it was concluded (1) that, differently from UCP1, on expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, UCP3, and UCP3 short (UCP3s) are in a deranged state, allowing for unregulated uncoupling. Here we show that the bulk of UCP3 and UCP3s is in extramitochondrial aggregates whether expressed with high or medium expression vectors. ...
Huang Y C - - 2001
Maternal chickenpox around the time of delivery can cause severe and even fatal illness in the newborn but an effectively preventive method has not yet been established. We proposed that a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and acyclovir (ACV) intravenously could effectively prevent perinatal varicella. A group of 24 newborn ...
Saitoh M - - 2001
A case of connatal tuberculosis in an extremely low birth weight infant is reported. The patient was a female with a birth weight of 973 g born in the 27th week of pregnancy. She developed respiratory distress and signs of infection immediately after birth, which did not respond to mechanical ...
Pickering L K - - 2001
Human milk contains many factors that act synergistically or with redundancy in protecting suckling infants from infectious diseases. The rigorous application of the scientific method has shown significant beneficial effects of these specific factors. The beneficial effects of biotherapeutic agents, including prebiotics and probiotics, on the alteration of intestinal microflora ...
Diaz L M. - - 2001
Our aim was to identify preventable risk factors for very low birth weight (VLBW) in our urban patient population in order to target intervention programs toward those areas. Retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who delivered VLBW infants between March 1, 1995 and February 28, 1996 at the ...
Okamoto T - - 2001
In order to elucidate electromyographic characteristics of infant walking at the onset of independent gait, we longitudinally recorded electromyograms from muscles of both legs during the learning process of walking in an infant, from ten months after birth until about three years of age. We found electromyographic characteristics of infant ...
Tselios T - - 2000
In this report the rational design, synthesis and pharmacological properties of an amide-linked cyclic antagonist analogue of the guinea pig myelin basic protein epitope MBP(72-85) are described. Design of the potent cyclic analogue was based on 2D NOESY nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies carried out in the linear ...
Neufeld S - - 2000
Across Canada there has been an increasing incidence of positional occipital flattening. This increase appears to be related to the recent change in infant sleep position to supine. In this paper, two patterns of positional occipital flattening, positional plagiocephaly and positional brachycephaly, are outlined. While there is no evidence of ...
Renzi M J - - 2000
Sensory axons extend from the chick olfactory epithelium to the telencephalon well before the maturation of their target, the olfactory bulb. During a waiting period of several days, olfactory axons arrive and accumulate outside the CNS while the bulb differentiates beneath them. Semephorin-3A is expressed in the tel-encephalon during this ...
Halliday E - - 2000
Group B streptococcal infection is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Data obtained in our region suggest that the incidence in the UK may be higher than previously reported, and together with the results of a pilot study indicate that preventive strategies based on ...
YaramiƟ A - - 2000
Although neonatal tetanus (NT) can be prevented by immunization of expectant mothers and by good hygiene and asepsis during delivery, it is still a common cause of neonatal mortality in developing countries. The objective of this study was to determine indicators in NT. We reviewed the clinical records of 73 ...
Wilhelm G W - - 2000
The presentation of shock in an infant can be subtle, yet must be recognized and treated very quickly to prevent decompensation and cardiopulmonary arrest. Treatment must begin as soon as shock is noted and before or along with the evaluation to establish the etiology of the shock. This case report ...
Xiang Y - - 2000
AIM: To study the influence of angiotensin (Ang) II receptor antagonist (AT1) valsartan and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor fosinopril on the cardiac hypertrophy induced by catecholamine. METHODS: A cardiac hypertrophy model was produced by i.p. norepinephrine (NE) 1.5 mg.kg-1.d-1 x 15 d. The animals were divided into four groups: 1) ...
Dye C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is still amongst the most important causes of human morbidity and mortality, killing approximately two million people each year. Standard short-course chemotherapy (SSCC) can rapidly control illness and dramatically reduce the chance of death, but the impact of treatment has rarely been evaluated in these terms. METHOD: ...
Farmer J A - - 2000
The advent of statin therapy has revolutionized the ability of the clinician to manage patients at risk for the development of an ischemic event due to dyslipidemia. Large-scale clinical trials involving thousands of patients in both primary and secondary prevention have clearly demonstrated that statin therapy will reduce cardiovascular mortality ...
Craig S - - 2000
It has been suggested that routine antenatal prophylactic anti-D should be introduced for prevention of Rhesus D (RhD) haemolytic disease. Before making changes to the current prevention program it is important, therefore, to have up-to-date data on affected infants. Pregnant women with anti-D antibodies between September 1994 and February 1997 ...
Nogami H - - 2000
Balloon digits were found in two neonates with congenital constriction ring syndrome. The affected digits were the right long finger and right great toe. They were surgically treated at the age of 10 and 9 days, respectively. Morphologic improvement was dramatic after surgery. In cases with extensive enlargement, severe cyanosis, ...
von Kulajta P - - 2000
There have been no comprehensive investigations of striae after LASIK. The ophthalmic literature has few reports, and no one consistent therapy has been recommended. Striae are relatively uncommon; nevertheless, refractive surgeons need a systematic approach in prevention and therapy for striae. Careful flap handling and positioning can prevent many striae. ...
Klingner M C - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Despite the common occurrence of intrauterine meconium passage and resultant meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), controversies regarding the pathophysiology and use of appropriate preventive strategies abound. METHODS: Databases from MEDLINE, MD Consult, and the Science Citation Index were searched from 1964 to the present to find relevant sources of information. ...
Lincoln J M - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the United States Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Act of 1988 in reducing the high occupational death rate (200/100,000/year in 1991-2) among Alaska's commercial fishermen. METHODS: Comprehensive surveillance of deaths in commercial fishing was established by our office during 1991 and 1992 for Alaska. ...
Ohls R K - - 1999
Human recombinant erythropoietin was first cloned in 1985, and is currently available for clinical use for a variety of anemias. Following successful clinical trials using erythropoietin to treat adults with the anemia of end-stage renal disease, the first clinical trial evaluating the use of erythropoietin in preterm infants to treat ...
Mohle-Boetani J C - - 1999
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost and health benefits of implementing a risk factor-based prevention strategy for early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) disease, using baseline assumptions and costs from a health maintenance organization. With the risk factor-based strategy, intrapartum antibiotics (IPAs) would be provided to women with fever, prolonged rupture ...
Blessing K - - 1999
Benign melanocytic naevi exhibit a wide spectrum of histological appearances. Some share significant clinical and histological features and are recognized as entities. Included among these are pagetoid/junctional Spitz naevus, pigmented spindle cell naevus, halo naevus, recurrent and traumatized naevus, ultraviolet (UV) irradiated naevus, naevus in infants, acral naevus, genital naevus ...
Ogawa Y - - 1999
Based on the analyses of approximately 1,000 infants with CLD, this condition was classified into 7 types according to the preceding illnesses and the chest X-ray appearance. The profile of inflammatory enzymes, cytokines and chemical mediators supported the relevance of the classification. Since different insults to the lung with different ...
Renfrew M J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Trauma to the genital tract commonly occurs at birth, and can cause short- and long-term morbidity. Clinical measures to reduce its occurrence have not been fully identified. METHODS: A systematic review of the English language literature was conducted to describe the current state of knowledge on reduction of genital ...
Luallen J J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Child fatality review (CFR) by interagency teams can contribute to the prevention of childhood deaths. We investigated the potential usefulness of Georgia's CFR, legislated in 1990 primarily to prevent death from child maltreatment, for identifying preventable deaths from injury and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS: Using CFR report ...
Fabra A - - 1998
We have previously shown that fungicide Mancozeb causes a 50% decrease in Bradyhizobium sp USDA 3187 growth rate and affects the bacteria-root symbiotic interaction. In order to elucidate the fungicide toxicity mechanism we determined the effects of Mancozeb on cell chemical composition, glutathione (GSH) content (molecule involved in the detoxification ...
Williams G D - - 1998
Since 1996, south-eastern Australia has been experiencing a pertussis epidemic which has resulted in the deaths of several infants, including four from NSW in the 12 months to July 1997. All were less than six weeks of age and died from overwhelming cardiovascular compromise despite intensive care support. This excessive ...
Lucky A W - - 1998
Acne occurs primarily in the first year of life and at puberty. Neonatal and infantile acne may reflect the relatively high androgens from the adrenal in girls and the adrenal and testes in boys characteristic of this age. Early in puberty, acne in boys and girls is primarily comedonal and ...
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