Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 488
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Chico R Matthew - - 2008
In the high malaria-transmission settings of sub-Saharan Africa, malaria in pregnancy is an important cause of maternal, perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) reduces the incidence of low birth-weight, pre-term delivery, intrauterine growth-retardation and maternal anaemia. However, the public health benefits ...
Bhatt D R - - 2007
Hypothermia remains a significant challenge in the initial care of premature infants. Although a number of prevention strategies have been identified, hypothermia is still a common event, especially in extremely low birth weight infants. Using data from four centers, we documented an incidence of hypothermia on admission to the neonatal ...
Brentlinger Paula E - - 2007
New WHO strategies for control of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) recommend intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), bednet use and improved case management. A pilot MiP programme in Mozambique was designed to determine requirements for scale-up. The Ministry of Health worked with a nongovernmental organization and an academic institution to establish and ...
Manzoni P - - 2007
Candida spp is the 3rd most frequent cause of sepsis in preterm infants, with high attributable mortality and poor outcome. Neonatal fugal infections include bloodstream, urine, cerebrospinal and peritoneal infections. Preterm infants display specific, often unavoidable, risk factors for SFI, with fungal colonization being the most significant one. Prompt treatment ...
Yoshimura Naoki - - 2007
The homologous blood prime in cardiopulmonary bypass circuits contributes a significant electrolyte and metabolite load in small infants. The efficacy of hemofiltration and continuous hemodiafiltration of the blood prime in preventing metabolic disturbances in small infants was compared in two groups of 60 patients each. Blood pH, base excess, and ...
Nissen Michael D - - 2007
The greatest risk of death from pneumonia in childhood is in the neonatal period. It is estimated that pneumonia contributes to between 750000-1.2 million neonatal deaths annually, accounting for 10% of global child mortality. Congenital and neonatal pneumonias are often a difficult disease to identify and treat, with clinical manifestations ...
Hylek Elaine - - 2007
Daiichi Sankyo Inc (formerly Daiichi Seiyaku Co Ltd) is developing DU-176b, a direct, orally active Factor Xa inhibitor, as an anticoagulant for the potential treatment of cardiovascular indications, including venous and arterial thrombosis. By January 2005, phase II studies had begun in the US and Europe, and by March 2006, ...
DeJonge Mitchell - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine if INH-A21, an intravenous immune globulin (IGIV) derived from donors with high titers of antibody to surface adhesins of Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus prevents late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, infants with birth weights 500 ...
Tukur Ibrahim U - - 2007
Few studies have documented the effectiveness in west Africa of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in pregnancy. Pregnant Nigerian women were assigned to receive either SP given twice or presumptive chloroquine (CQ) treatment followed by weekly pyrimethamine (CQ + P); 250 were enrolled in each group. Of ...
Khan Khalid S - - 2007
Prevention of viable spontaneous preterm birth before 34 weeks' gestation through screening is one of the key aims of antenatal care as birth below this threshold of prematurity has implications for child, mother and society. If women can be identified to be at high risk of spontaneous preterm birth in ...
Fortes Filho João Borges - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To describe the results of a program for the prevention of blindness caused by retinopathy of prematurity implemented in 2002 at a tertiary-care hospital, according to screening criteria adopted in Brazil, and to compare some aspects with the criteria adopted by other countries. METHODS: Descriptive observational study including all ...
Geller Stacie E - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to measure the reliability of a model that defines preventability in maternal morbidity and death. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred cases of serious morbidity and death among peripartum women were reviewed by 2 independent groups of medical experts to identify potentially preventable provider or ...
Lee Shoo - - 2007
All of the panelists who participated in this conference and contributed to the writing of this statement were identified as having no financial or scientific conflict of interest, and all signed forms attesting to this fact. Unlike the expert speakers who present scientific data at the conference, the individuals invited ...
Maduell Francisco - - 2007
Hemodiafiltration with larger amounts of substitution fluid offers an optimal way to remove uremic substances. Hemodiafiltration could be indicated for all hemodialysis patients. Large observational studies have shown an association of a lower mortality risk with hemodiafiltration using more than 15 liters of substitution fluid. Specific indications should be considered ...
Falade Catherine O - - 2007
Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPT-SP) is currently the recommended regimen for prevention of malaria in pregnancy in endemic areas. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of IPT-SP in the prevention of maternal and placental malaria in parturient mothers in Ibadan, Nigeria, where the risk of malaria is ...
Polli Nicoletta - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Silent pericardial effusion is frequently observed in patients with anorexia nervosa. The nature of the pericardial fluid could never be established, as pericardiocentesis was ethically unfeasible. METHOD: We describe the case of a girl with anorexia nervosa in whom an initial, clinically irrelevant pericardial effusion increased rapidly, making pericardiocentesis ...
Konrad Gerhard G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: A massive rotator cuff tear leads to poor shoulder function as evidenced by diminished glenohumeral abduction and superior translation of the humeral head compared to its normal position. The inclination angle of the glenoid has been associated with rotator cuff tears. The objective of this study was to quantify ...
Somers Gino R - - 2006
Bathtub drownings are a significant cause of mortality in the pediatric population. Infants and preambulatory children are disproportionately affected, and several studies have suggested that preventative campaigns have been ineffective in the prevention of such deaths. To obtain a better understanding of the factors associated with bathtub drownings, a retrospective ...
Khailova Lyudmila S - - 2006
In experiments on isolated kidney and liver mitochondria, it is shown that oleate hydroperoxide induces a much smaller increase in the controlled respiration rate and DeltaPsi decrease than the same concentrations of oleate. Palmitate appears to be less efficient than oleate but more efficient than oleate hydroperoxide. In all cases, ...
Velaphi Sithembiso - - 2006
The article reviews and critically evaluates the available evidence to determine whether the current recommendations for the management of infants born through meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) should be maintained. Authors provide evidence-based recommendations regarding the benefits of amnioinfusion prior to delivery, oral suctioning of the newborn prior to delivery ...
Yoshida Kazuko - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Previously, we found a clear decrease in the incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia in C3H/HeMs mouse caused by caloric restriction (CalR). In this report, CalR before and after irradiation was examined to determine whether they exert different effects on the prevention of radiation-induced myeloid leukemogenesis and the consequent extension ...
Vidaeff Alex C - - 2006
Under the new cervical insufficiency postulate, the final common pathway theoretically may be influenced by multiple interventions including not only cerclage, but also antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, or progesterone. Since the late 1970s, accumulating evidence has implicated intrauterine infection as a cause of preterm labor. The use of antimicrobial therapy for ...
Luznik Marijan - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To present our innovative surgical method for prevention of early preterm delivery in women with cervical dilatation and membrane herniation. STUDY DESIGN: A woman in the 24th gestational week, with membrane herniation due to a 2-3 cm dilatation of the cervix, is presented. The surgical technique for occlusion and ...
Shafik Ahmed - - 2006
Identification of an electrophysiologic sign before defecation can prevent fecal soiling in infants. To identify such a sign, the contractile activity of sigmoid colon was recorded percutaneously in 48 healthy infants. The recorder was equipped with a digital clock synchronized to the recorder so as to set off an alarm ...
Baer E L - - 2006
Napkin dermatitis is a common condition that occurs in otherwise healthy infants. It causes discomfort to infants, anxiety to parents and caregivers and contributes to the load on the health care system. A large variety of napkins, both disposable and non-disposable, are available. Evidence is required to assist carers and ...
Hung Deborah T - - 2005
Increasing antibiotic resistance requires the development of new approaches to combating infection. Virulence gene expression in vivo represents a target for antibiotic discovery that has not yet been explored. A high-throughput, phenotypic screen was used to identify a small molecule 4-[N-(1,8-naphthalimide)]-n-butyric acid, virstatin, that inhibits virulence regulation in Vibrio cholerae. ...
Moritz Michael L - - 2005
Dysnatremias are among the most common electrolyte abnormalities encountered in hospitalized patients. In most cases, a dysnatremia results from improper fluid management. Dysnatremias can occasionally result in death or permanent neurological damage, a tragic complication that is usually preventable. In this manuscript, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis and prevention and ...
Klein Klouwenberg Peter M C - - 2005
We determined the incidence of both malaria and asymptomatic parasitaemia in infants under the age of 3 months within the framework of a longitudinal cohort study in Lambaréné, Gabon, between December 2002 and July 2004. Of 878 infants who were included at birth, we identified malaria in three infants and, ...
Dunn P M - - 2005
At the start of the 20th century, 15% of all infants in England and Wales died in the first year of life. Newman's classic work Infant mortality, published in 1906, identified the causes of these deaths, the significance of the period immediately after birth, the social problems underlying mortality, and ...
Asher Richard A - - 2005
A high proportion of NG2 in the adult rat spinal cord is saline-soluble and migrates slightly faster than intact NG2 on SDS-PAGE, suggesting that it represents the shed ectodomain of NG2. In the injured cerebral cortex, much of the overall increase in NG2 is due to the saline-soluble (shed), rather ...
Martín A R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We have evaluated the efficacy of the selective cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, rofecoxib, for the prevention of experimental colitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To induce colitis BALB/c mice received 5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in their drinking water continuously for 7 days. Rofecoxib (2.5-10 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) was administered throughout ...
Gieron-Korthals Maria - - 2005
The subject of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is hardly new and yet remains an every day challenge to clinicians, mainly neonatologists and child neurologists. However, technological advances in neuroimaging do help in the diagnosis, but prevention of hypoxic-ischemic insults, ability to change the course of the disease, and treatment of the ...
Simkin S - - 2005
Restricting means for suicide is a key element in suicide prevention strategies of all countries where these have been introduced. Preventing deaths from analgesic overdoses is highlighted in the National Suicide Prevention Strategy for England. The problem of self-poisoning with the prescription-only drug co-proxamol (dextropropoxyphene plus paracetamol) has received attention ...
Atiyeh Ghassan N - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate healthcare seeking behaviors of mothers for themselves and their infants in the Bekaa Valley, Lebanon, to identify attitudes and beliefs towards the preventive healthcare of infants and to assess whether a healthcare-based intervention program would be accepted by the population. METHODS: Ninety-two interviews were ...
Losee Joseph E - - 2005
The "Back to Sleep" campaign has dramatically decreased the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome; however, its sequelae of deformational plagiocephaly have today reached epidemic proportions. In the last decade, we have learned to distinguish deformational plagiocephaly clinically from craniosynostosis, thereby preventing its unnecessary surgical correction. Primary care providers must ...
Nahirny Cathy - - 2005
Infant kidnapping in healthcare facilities has been sharply reduced since the 1990s when educational programs and tagging systems were introduced. However, infant abductors in recent years have changed their methods of operation to meet improved nursery safeguards. In this updated report, the author warns of some new dangers posed by ...
Tsai Susan - - 2005
PURPOSE: Gallstone formation is a common problem in neonates on prolonged courses of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The authors hypothesized that the use of cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK), given at the time of TPN administration, would prevent gallstone formation in a high-risk group of patients with TPN. METHODS: A prospective, randomized, blinded, ...
Fillinger Ulrike - - 2004
Control of aquatic-stage Anopheles is one of the oldest and most historically successful interventions to prevent malaria, but it has seen little application in Africa. Consequently, the ecology of immature afrotropical Anopheles has received insufficient attention. We therefore examined the population dynamics of African anopheline and culicine mosquitoes using operationally ...
Lindley Keith J - - 2005
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a genetically and phenotypically diverse syndrome. Key management issues involve early diagnosis by ensuring that appropriate samples are taken at the point of hypoglycaemia, prevention of recurrent hypoglycaemia, and detailed characterisation of the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of each case. Infants with persistent diazoxide resistant ...
Petrikovsky Boris - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To assess usefulness of in utero meconium suctioning using endoscopic approach. Materials and METHODS: In utero meconium suctioning under direct endoscopic visualization was successfully performed in 11 fetuses in whom thick meconium was detected upon rupture of the membranes. A gas-sterilized flexible fiberoptic scope with an operational channel was ...
Bhutani Vinod K - - 2004
Kernicterus, thought to be due to severe hyperbilirubinemia, is an uncommon disorder with tragic consequences, especially when it affects healthy term and near-term infants. Early identification, prevention and treatment of severe hyperbilirubinemia should make kernicterus a preventable disease. However, national epidemiologic data are needed to monitor any preventive strategies. Recommendations ...
Cai Gang - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Distraction-resisting force is generated in the soft tissues and callus during limb lengthening. Monitoring this force may offer a method of studying the behaviour of soft tissue and detecting the distraction osteogenesis related problems, and help to prevent complications. Changes in the post distraction period have not been previously ...
Bashir Tarig - - 2004
By keeping the levels of Skp2 and Cks1 low during G(1) progression, APC/C(Cdh1) prevents unscheduled degradation of SCF(Skp2) substrates and premature entry into S phase. Thus, APC/C(Cdh1), a ubiquitin ligase involved in mitotic exit and maintenance of G(0)/G(1) phase, directly controls SCF(Skp2), a ubiquitin ligase involved in the regulation of ...
Tissot-Dupont Hervé - - 2004
Q fever, a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, can be transmitted from animal reservoirs to humans by the inhalation of infected aerosols. We investigated the epidemiology of Q fever in the Bouches-du-Rhone district of southern France, particularly the role of wind and rainfall in C. burnetii transmission. During the ...
Kwok Lisa - - 2004
Ximelagatran (Exanta (TM)) is the first oral agent in a new class of anticoagulants called direct thrombin inhibitors. Most of the available evidence regarding venous thromboembolism is from studies focusing on its prevention after major orthopedic surgery. Ximelagatran's efficacy is comparable to that of warfarin and low-molecular-weight heparin in this ...
Butterfoss Frances D - - 2004
Coalition staff, leaders, and members need training to promote coalition building and maintenance as well as ongoing technical assistance. The Coalition Technical Assistance and Training Framework uses a 6-step process to diagnose coalition strengths and challenges and provide a prescription for action. Re-evaluation after a specified time period helps determine ...
Kubo S - - 2004
We have developed a disposable plastic introducer sheath for use with a flexible endoscope during intraventricular procedures. The sheath is composed of a thin polypropylene tube passing through the center of a plastic stopper. The tube serves as a sheath through which the fiberscope is introduced into the ventricle. The ...
Pisani Margaret A - - 2003
Delirium is a frequent complication in older patients in the ICU and often persists beyond their ICU stay. Delirium in older persons in the ICU is a dynamic and complex process. There is a high prevalence of pre-existing cognitive impairment in patients who are admitted to the medical ICU. This ...
Benjamin Daniel K DK - - 2003
Neonatal candidemia is poorly understood and is a leading cause of nosocomial infectious mortality in the nursery. Prevention of candidemia has been difficult, although a combined approach of antifungal prophylaxis and targeted empirical therapy may eventually reduce morbidity and mortality. Multicenter prospective testing of an integrated approach to early diagnosis ...
Weale Robert Alexander - - 2003
Limitations in existing studies of the epidemiological aspects of refraction are attributed to both technical and statistical procedures. Early influences of ocular parameters on refraction are identified accordingly as prematurity and may or may not be involved. Attention is paid to familial and genetic influences, and infants and toddlers are ...
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