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Results 251 - 300 of 1645
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Wells Jonathan C K - - 2012
The WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 mo after birth. However, the time at which breast milk ceases to provide adequate energy and nutrition, requiring the introduction of complementary foods, remains unclear. Most studies that investigated this issue were observational and potentially confounded by variability in social circumstances or ...
Takami Takeshi - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of umbilical cord milking at birth on cerebral perfusion and systemic perfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction were monitored in 50 stable VLBW infants (gestational age <29 weeks, birth weight <1250 ...
- - 2012
Bevot et al. (1) recently reported on motor and cognitive function in a cohort of 20 preterm infants with breast milk acquired human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection compared to 21 controls being HCMV negative from an original cohort of 44 children tested at school age. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © ...
Goldman Armond S - - 2012
Abstract The evolution of immunological agents in milk is intertwined with the general aspects of the evolution of the mammary gland. In that respect, mammalian precursors emerged from basal amniotes some 300 million years ago. In contrast to the predominant dinosaurs, proto-mammals possessed a glandular skin. A secondary palate in ...
Fields D A - - 2012
Numerous appetite, growth, obesity-related hormones and inflammatory factors are found in human breast-milk, but there is little evidence on their relationship with infant body composition. OBJECTVIE: The purpose of the present cross-sectional pilot study was to assess the cross-sectional associations of appetite-regulating hormones and growth factors (leptin, insulin and glucose) ...
Meldrum S J - - 2012
INTRODUCTION: Although omega (n)-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), intakes are important during infancy, the optimal method of increasing infant status remains unclear. We hypothesized that high-dose infant fish oil supplementation would have greater relative effects upon n-3 LCPUFA status at six months of age than ...
Mahmood Syed E - - 2012
Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. To assess the ...
Bode Lars - - 2012
Human milk contains more than a hundred structurally distinct oligosaccharides. In this review, we provide examples of how the structural characteristics of these human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) determine functionality. Specific α1-2-fucosylated HMO have been shown to serve as antiadhesive antimicrobials to protect the breast-fed infant against infections with Campylobacter jejuni, ...
Garrido Daniel - - 2012
Bifidobacteria are commonly used as probiotics in dairy foods. Select bifidobacterial species are also early colonizers of the breast-fed infant colon; however, the mechanism for this enrichment is unclear. We previously showed that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis is a prototypical bifidobacterial species that can readily utilize human milk oligosaccharides as ...
Rudloff Silvia - - 2012
Since the discovery of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) >60 y ago, research has faced major challenges including (i) the development of methods to identify and characterize these components, (ii) the need to use HMO fractions for functional studies because single HMO were not available, (iii) the uncertainty of the purity ...
Kunz Clemens - - 2012
This review focuses on important observations regarding infant health around 1900 when breastfeeding was not considered a matter of importance. The discovery of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria and their relevance for health and disease was an important milestone leading to a decrease in infant mortality in the first year of life. ...
Allen Lindsay H - - 2012
Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 mo of life. However, maternal deficiency of some micronutrients, conveniently classified as Group I micronutrients during lactation, can result in low concentrations in breast milk and subsequent infant deficiency preventable by improving maternal status. This article uses thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, ...
Purdy Isabell B - - 2012
To determine influences on incidence of breast milk feeding (BMF) at time of discharge and 6 months later among infants cared for in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A 2-year prospective descriptive NICU hospital-based cohort design. Academic Center Level III-IV NICU. Five hundred and thirty-five infants cared for in ...
Li Ruowei - - 2012
To better understand the mechanisms behind breastfeeding and childhood obesity, we assessed the association of weight gain with the mode of milk delivery aside from the type of milk given to infants. A longitudinal study of infants followed up from birth to age 1 year. Multilevel analyses were conducted to ...
Sauberan Jason B - - 2012
A case is presented of a breastfeeding mother receiving meropenem treatment for a post-partum urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli. Five milk samples were collected in a 48 hour period during meropenem therapy. The average and maximum meropenem concentrations in milk were 0.48 mcg/mL and 0.64 ...
Bork Kirsten - - 2012
Several studies have shown an association between an infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) in Latin America and Africa. A previous study was unable to reproduce these findings in 500 rural Senegalese 12-42-mo-old children. The relationship of ICFI, dietary diversity index (DDI), food variety index ...
Martysiak-Żurowska Dorota - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of alpha- and gamma-tocopherols in human breast milk samples from different periods of lactation and to compare them with tocopherol content in commercially available formulas for infants at corresponding ages. The study included 93 breast milk samples obtained on the ...
Bode Lars - - 2012
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a family of structurally diverse unconjugated glycans that are highly abundant in and unique to human milk. Originally, HMOs were discovered as a prebiotic "bifidus factor" that serves as a metabolic substrate for desired bacteria and shapes an intestinal microbiota composition with health benefits for ...
Shelor C Phillip - - 2012
Bifidobacteria are the dominant intestinal bacteria in breastfed infants. It is known that they can reduce nitrate. Although no direct experiments have been conducted until now, inferred pathways for Bifidobacterium bifidum include perchlorate reduction via perchlorate reductase. We show that when commercially available strains of bifidobacteria are cultured in milk, ...
Rockova Sarka - - 2012
Human milk (HM) contains as the third most abundant component around 200 different structures of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). HMOs are the first and irreplaceable prebiotics for infants, supporting bifidobacteria as the most important bacterial group in an infant intestine. The aim of our study was to test the growth ...
Elizur Arnon - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To describe the natural course of IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy (IgE-CMA) and to determine risk factors for its persistence in a population-based cohort. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective cohort study, 54 infants with IgE-CMA were identified from a population of 13 019 children followed from birth. Diagnosis of IgE-CMA ...
Islam M Z - - 2012
Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction ...
Keith Douglas R - - 2012
: Maternal breast milk is considered the nutritional "gold standard" for all infants, especially premature infants. However, preterm mothers are at risk of not producing adequate milk. Multiple factors affect the production of milk, including stress, fatigue, and the separation of the breastfeeding dyad-for example, when mother or infant is ...
Carmen Collado Maria - - 2012
Background:Breast milk is an optimal source of nutrition for infants and it contains bioactive components including bacteria which support the microbial colonization and immune system development of the infant. The determinants of human milk composition remain poorly understood, although maternal nutritional and immunological status as well as lifestyle and dietary ...
Rettedal Siren - - 2012
Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) are vulnerable to nosocomial outbreaks caused by multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae, but no reports of NICU outbreaks of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Klebsiella pneumoniae have previously been published from countries with a low level of antimicrobial resistance such as the Scandinavian countries. We describe a clonal outbreak ...
Savilahti Emma M - - 2012
To cite this article: Savilahti EM, Viljanen M, Kuitunen M, Savilahti E. Cow's milk and ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgA in children with eczema: low β-lactoglobulin-specific IgG4 levels are associated with cow's milk allergy. Pediatric Allergy Immunology 2012: 00. ABSTRACT: Tolerance to allergens may partly depend on allergen-specific IgG and IgG ...
Francavilla Ruggiero - - 2012
To cite this article: Francavilla R, Calasso M, Calace L, Siragusa S, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Brunetti L, Mancino G, Tedeschi G, Guerzoni E, Indrio F, Laghi L, Miniello VL, Gobbetti M, De Angelis M. Effect of lactose on gut microbiota and metabolome of infants with cow's milk allergy. Pediatric ...
Sabel K-G - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate any association between infants' early development and PUFA concentrations in early breast milk and infants' plasma phospholipids at 44 weeks gestational age. Fifty-one premature infants were included. The quality of general movement was assessed at 3 months, and motor, mental and behavioral ...
Robinson Siân M SM MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2012
There is a growing literature that links greater duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding to beneficial effects on adult health outcomes. Muscle growth in the neonatal period may be very sensitive to variations in early nutrition, but little is known about long-term effects of infant feeding on muscle strength. In 2,983 ...
Brady June Pauline - - 2012
On 21 May 1981 the WHO International Code of Marketing Breast Milk Substitutes (hereafter referred to as the Code) was passed by 118 votes to 1, the US casting the sole negative vote. The Code arose out of concern that the dramatic increase in mortality, malnutrition and diarrhoea in very ...
Gupta Noopur - - 2012
PURPOSE: To study the clinical spectrum and etiopathogenesis of keratomalacia in infants younger than 6 months. METHODS: Case records of children younger than 6 months presenting with keratomalacia to cornea services of a tertiary care ophthalmic center in India from June 2007 through April 2010 were reviewed. The parameters evaluated ...
Gómez-Gallego Carlos - - 2012
Polyamines play a critical role in the development of intestinal and immune systems during the infant breastfeeding period, but the effect of polyamines on the microbiota has not been reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the impact on the colonization pattern in neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mice after supplementing ...
Simonse Eva - - 2012
OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this trial was to investigate whether breast milk (either breastfed or bottle-fed) has a better analgesic effect than sucrose in newborns born at a postmenstrual age between 32 and 37 weeks.METHODS:We conducted a randomized controlled trial at a secondary care neonatal unit in the Netherlands on 71 ...
Xia Qing - - 2012
ABSTRACT: In this study several populations of intestinal bacteria were quantitatively evaluated in four groups of infants receiving different feedings in three states: human milk, a commercially available milk-based infant formula, and the milk-based infant formula supplemented with 2.0 or 3.0 g/L fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS). Parents were instructed to keep daily diaries ...
Orün Emel - - 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate mercury (Hg) levels in breast-milk in the postpartum 2nd month and to determine the relationship between Hg levels and sociodemographic parameters, maternal nutritional habits, presence of dental amalgam, maternal depression, maternal anemia, and growth status of infants. One hundred forty-four mothers residing ...
Indyk Harvey - - 2012
After a review of data from a single-laboratory validation (SLV) study published in the International Dairy Journal 21, 783-789 (2011), a method for folate in infant formula and adult/pediatric nutritional formula was submitted for consideration of adoption by AOAC as an automated assay that is rapid and simple. The method ...
Moimaz Suzely Adas Saliba - - 2012
The purpose of this paper was to study the pattern of breast-feeding and harmful sucking habits (pacifier- and thumb-sucking) from birth to 12-months-old. A prospective cohort study with 80 newborn infants and their mothers was conducted. A semi-structured questionnaire on breast-feeding and pacifier- and thumb-sucking behavior was administered during monthly ...
Cheng Shao-Wen - - 2012
Hyperbilirubinemia is a common disorder during the neonatal period. Severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (NH) carries a potential for permanent neurological impairment. The current study analyzed possible etiologies leading to NH. A retrospective cohort of neonates with total serum bilirubin (TSB) ≥ 20 mg/dL was surveyed from 1995 to 2007. Subjects with ...
Strok Marko - - 2012
After the closure of the former Žirovski Vrh uranium mine in Slovenia, mining and milling wastes were deposited on two waste piles, which are located close to the mine. These wastes contain elevated levels of natural radionuclides from the uranium decay chain. Due to different migration processes (erosion, aerial deposition, ...
- - 2012
Breastfeeding and human milk are the normative standards for infant feeding and nutrition. Given the documented short- and long-term medical and neurodevelopmental advantages of breastfeeding, infant nutrition should be considered a public health issue and not only a lifestyle choice. The American Academy of Pediatrics reaffirms its recommendation of exclusive ...
Ergin Ahmet - - 2012
The aim of this study was to determine the compliance status of product labels regarding Article 9 of the International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) in Denizli province, Turkey. A cross-sectional study design was employed to determine the compliance status. The product labels were obtained from a ...
Qian Linxi - - 2012
The variability of breast-milk zinc concentration is high among breastfeeding women, and it is known to be independent of dietary zinc intake. As a result, transient neonatal zinc deficiency is not rare in the breastfed infants due to low milk zinc concentration in their breastfeeding mothers. Up to now, SLC30A2 ...
Ventura Alison K - - 2012
We recently discovered that infants randomly assigned to a formula high in free amino acids (extensive protein hydrolysate formula; ePHF) during infancy consumed less formula to satiation and gained less weight than did infants fed an isocaloric formula low in free amino acids (cow milk formula; CMF). Because ePHF and ...
González-Chica David A - - 2012
We assessed the influence of season of birth on duration of breastfeeding and other feeding patterns in three population-based birth cohort studies in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In 1982, 1993 and 2004, all hospital-born children in the city were enrolled in three cohort studies (n = 5914, 5249 and 4287, ...
Caterina Coviello - - 2012
Abstract Adverse reactions to cow's milk in the first year of life occur in 2-7%. There is an increase in the incidence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) in newborn population including premature infants. We report two cases of CMA in preterm twins.The first one developed recurrent episodes of proctocolitis ...
Paech Michael J - - 2012
Background:Multimodal analgesia, including nonopioid analgesics, is usually used for several days after cesarean delivery. Because the breastfed infant receives transitional milk during this same period, it is important to know how much of a maternal analgesic drug is received by the infant. We designed this study to estimate infant exposure ...
Cesur Gokhan - - 2012
Ghrelin and adiponectin have been found in breast milk and are considered to take part in the regulation of growth and energy metabolism of infants. Our aims were to determine ghrelin and adiponectin levels in breast milk and serum samples of mothers and their infants, and to investigate the relationship ...
Gale Chris - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Early-life nutrition may influence later body composition. The effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on infant body composition is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that examined body composition in healthy, term infants in relation to breastfeeding or formula feeding. DESIGN: PubMed was searched ...
Negayama Koichi - - 2012
Background: Breastfeeding and weaning are strongly connected with infant-mother mutual autonomy, and hence are good touchstones to examine the characteristics of the mother-child relationship. Comparison of the weaning practice gives a framework to understand characteristics of the mother-infant relationship. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare three industrialised ...
Black Amanda - - 2012
Research indicates that feeding preterm infants at the breast is physiologically less stressful than bottle-feeding. Poor sucking reflexes make it difficult to initiate breastfeeding for these high-risk infants. Mothers need to understand the difficulties of breastfeeding, as well as the advantages for herself and her baby. It is important for ...
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