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Results 201 - 250 of 1687
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Aguilera Inmaculada - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health. OBJECTIVES: We studied the association of air pollution exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life with respiratory illnesses, ear infections, and eczema during the first 12-18 months of age ...
Christoffersen-Deb Astrid - - 2012
This article addresses birth and the recognition of personhood. It is about the calculated acts of recognition that take place at the beginnings of life when the obligation to protect and extend physical care is uncertain. It examines these dilemmas from the perspective of clinicians and scientists who assist in ...
Paul Siba Prosad - - 2012
Community practitioners play a vital role in child health promotion. The first few months in an infant's life can be a very anxious period for parents. Minor issues, such as hydrocele and haemangiomas, can worry parents and reassurance is all that is required. However, at times community practitioners may be ...
Hillman Noah H NH Division of Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, 3333 Burnet Avenue, ML#7029, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, - - 2012
The transition from fetus to newborn is the most complex adaptation that occurs in human experience. Lung adaptation requires coordinated clearance of fetal lung fluid, surfactant secretion, and onset of consistent breathing. The cardiovascular response requires striking changes in blood flow, pressures, and pulmonary vasodilation. Energy metabolism and thermoregulation must ...
Herba Catherine M - - 2012
Breastfeeding during infancy is associated with a range of short- and long-term health benefits. We examine whether breastfeeding in the first 2 months of life is associated with structural markers of brain development in infants from the general population. This study was embedded within the Generation R study. Cranial ultrasounds ...
Franco Bagnoli - - 2012
Several studies have shown that small for gestational age (SGA) babies have a different hormonal profile than those born with a birth weight appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Thyroid hormones play an important role in growth and neurocognitive development. Only few studies analyzed the concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and ...
van der Gugten Anne C AC Dept of Paediatric Pulmonology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands. - - 2013
Studies of reduced neonatal lung function and wheezing illnesses during childhood show conflicting results. The aim of our study was to assess the association between resistance (Rrs) and compliance (Crs) of the respiratory system by using the single occlusion technique (SOT) and prospectively collected wheezing illnesses during the first 5 ...
Stocks Janet - - 2012
Lung disease begins early in life in cystic fibrosis (CF), yet our understanding of CF lung abnormalities in the first years of life remains limited. By facilitating earlier diagnosis, newborn screening for CF provides the opportunity to understand and characterize presymptomatic lung disease in infants and young children. This could ...
Iwatani Sota - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Extremely premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) are at high risk for death and developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Despite surfactant treatment for RDS at birth, many premature infants with prolonged ventilation will develop respiratory deterioration necessitating increased oxygen and pressure, as early as the second week of life. ...
Eisermann M - - 2013
The important EEG changes that occur throughout childhood are a major challenge for the neurophysiologist. These reflect brain maturation, which is especially fast during the first year of life. This article describes normal EEG features and variants, characteristic patterns of development, as well as some patterns that are unusual for ...
Disilvestro Russell - - 2012
The idea that we human beings have souls that can continue to have conscious experiences after the deaths of our bodies is controversial in contemporary academic bioethics; this idea is obviously present whenever questions about harm at the end of life are discussed, but this idea is often ignored or ...
Wehby George L GL Department of Health Management and Policy, College of Public Health, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2013
To study the effects of altitude on infant neurodevelopment in the first 2 years of life. Data from a unique study of normal infant neurodevelopment in 5 South American countries were used. The sample included 2116 infants 3-24 months of age who were evaluated for neurodevelopmental problems by study physicians ...
Nevéus T - - 2012
This review aims to provide researchers and clinicians involved with the adult lower urinary tract with background knowledge regarding the early development of bladder function and its most common disturbances in childhood. Bladder development begins in weeks 4-6 and the detrusor muscle is formed during weeks 9-12 of gestation. Higher ...
Gurven Michael M University of California-Santa Barbara, Department of Anthropology, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA. - - 2012
Indigenous populations experience higher rates of poverty, disease and mortality than non-indigenous populations. To gauge current and future risks among Tsimane Amerindians of Bolivia, I assess mortality rates and growth early in life, and changes in risks due to modernization, based on demographic interviews conducted Sept. 2002-July 2005. Tsimane have ...
Hoyert Donna L - - 2012
This report presents preliminary U.S. data on deaths, death rates, life expectancy, leading causes of death, and infant mortality for 2011 by selected characteristics such as age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Data in this report are based on death records comprising more than 98 percent of the demographic and ...
Ettema Eric J - - 2012
According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death-death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning ...
Carey John C - - 2012
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: At the time of diagnosis of the trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, parents and care providers face difficult and challenging decisions regarding management. Because of the increased infant mortality and developmental outcome associated with both conditions, the conventional approach to management has been to withhold technological support. ...
Martinelli Stefano - - 2012
Aim: To evaluate the relationship between arterial saturation values determined by pulse oximetry in the first weeks of life on the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Methods: Randomized and observational studies were sought that compare the incidence of ROP in babies with high or low oxygen saturation targeting assisted ...
Samra Haifa Abou - - 2012
Adverse experiences early in life have the potential to disrupt normal brain development and create stress response channels in preterm infants that are different from those observed in term infants. Animal models show that epigenetic modifications mediate the effects of maternal separation and environmental stress on susceptibility to disease and ...
Fanni Daniela - - 2012
An emerging hypothesis from the recent literature explain how specific adverse factors related with growth retardation as well as of low birth weight (LBW) might influence renal development during fetal life and then the insurgence of hypertension and renal disease in adulthood. In this article, after introducing a brief overview ...
Elser Heather E - - 2012
To assess how different infant positions and peak sound levels affected cerebral oxygen saturation over time. Twenty-four premature infants who were born less than 32 weeks' gestational age without congenital cardiac, neurologic, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Repeated-measures design with the first observation between 2 and 48 hours of life; once again ...
Yaseen Hakam H Department of Pediatric, University Hospital Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab - - 2012
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is a life-threatening neonatal pathology resulting from poor hemodynamic and respiratory transition to extra uterine life. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a current, commonly used treatment of PPHN. However, iNO is not available therapy in many developing countries and around 50% of infants ...
Mohamed W A Wahab - - 2012
Objective: To determine the relationship between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D] concentrations and the subsequent risk of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI) in the first 2 years of life.Patients and Methods: Cord blood from 206 newborns was tested for 25 (OH) D. Medical records covering the first ...
Prusa Andrea-Romana - - 2012
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem, and different screening strategies exist. Testing of toxoplasma-specific antibodies in infants identifies congenital toxoplasmosis during the first year of life. However, experience with commercial available immunoassays is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate both the performance and analytical characteristics of ...
Lutter Chessa K - - 2012
Child undernutrition is a major public health challenge, estimated to be responsible for 2.2 million annual deaths. Implementation of available interventions could prevent one-third of these deaths. Emerging evidence suggests that breast-feeding can lead to improvements in intelligence quotient in children and lower risks of noncommunicable diseases in mothers and ...
Thum Caroline - - 2012
The gastrointestinal microbiota plays an important role in maintaining host health by preventing the colonization of pathogens, fermenting dietary compounds, and maintaining normal mucosal immunity. Particularly in early life, the composition of the microbiota profoundly influences the development and maturation of the GIT mucosa, which may affect health in later ...
Mosek-Eilon Vered - - 2012
The transition to parenthood marks an important developmental stage in adult life, associated with unique challenges to the partners' conflict dialogue in the formation of the family unit. Utilizing a biobehavioral experimental design, we examined the potential positive effects of the infant on the couple's conflict discussion. One hundred forty ...
Gelfand Amy A AA Division of Child Neurology, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA. - - 2012
Childhood periodic syndromes are thought to be early life expressions of the genetic tendency for migraine. The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal migraine is associated with an increased risk of infant colic, because this may indicate that colic is a childhood periodic syndrome. This was a ...
Vilahur Nadia - - 2012
Individuals born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; VPT) are at risk of life-long, neurological impairments, behavioural and other health problems. It is not clear whether these neurodevelomental abnormalities originate prenatally, postnatally or a combination of both. Dermatoglyphics are stable ectodermal markers of neurodevelopmental disruption in the early prenatal period, ...
Liao Sui-Ling - - 2012
NF-κB dysfunction resulting from NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) mutation can lead to significant alterations in cytokine production. However, little is known about changes in the expression of downstream molecules in patients with incontinentia pigmenti (IP). We aim to investigate serial cytokine expressions during the first 2 years of life in ...
Stone Sarah Ahlander - - 2012
Dialogical Self Theory, co-regulation, and foundational movement analysis are used to present a description of the development of the dialogical self during the first five months of life using observations of two mother-infant dyads. Susan and her mother illustrate normative emergence of the dialogical self. Susan's I-positions emerge through positive ...
Izumi H - - 2012
We previously reported that microRNA (miRNA) is present in human breast milk. Recently, other groups have reported that bovine milk also contains miRNA; however, these reports are few. We therefore investigated bovine milk miRNA using microarray and quantitative PCR analyses to identify the differences between colostrum and mature milk. The ...
Leong Pamela Margaret - - 2012
BACKGROUND: Early childhood caries (ECC) describes dental caries affecting children aged 0-71 months. Current research suggests ECC has important aetiological bases during the first year of life. Gaps in knowledge about disease progression prevent the effective and early identification of 'at risk' children. AIM: To conduct a systematic review of research ...
De Leoz Maria Lorna A - - 2012
Breast milk is the ideal nutrition for term infants but must be supplemented to provide adequate growth for most premature infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are remarkably abundant and diverse in breast milk and yet provide no nutritive value to the infant. HMOs appear to have at least two major ...
Soto-Ramirez Nelis - - 2012
Background: Controversies regarding infant feeding and childhood wheezing may result from insufficient differentiation among various feeding modes.Objectives: We conducted prospective analyses of associations between the repeated ascertainment of feeding mode and wheezing in infancy.Methods: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2833 infants) provided data on coughing/wheezing episodes (CWEs) at 8 ...
Welborn Jessica Marie - - 2012
Background: The continued ability for a mother to produce breast milk following the death of her baby in utero, at birth, or during the postpartum period is an aspect of perinatal loss that is rarely acknowledged.Objectives: To explore the lived experience of bereaved mothers who chose to express and donate ...
Hoa Nguyen Phuong - - 2012
To report methods and results from a national sample mortality surveillance programme implemented in Viet Nam in 2009. A national sample of 192 communes located in 16 provinces and covering a population of approximately 2.6 million was selected using multi-stage cluster sampling. Deaths for 2009 were identified from several local data ...
Abdelhamid Adel Elsayed - - 2012
BACKGROUND:: We have previously reported evidence of in-vitro sensitisation to cow's milk protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in preterm infants with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). In this study we document the changes in the PBMC responses to stimulation with mitogen ((phytohaemagluttinin, (PHA)) and cow's milk proteins ß-lactoglobulin (ß-lg) and ...
Fogel Jessica M - - 2012
First-line antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings used in breastfeeding mothers often include stavudine (d4T). Limited data describing d4T concentrations in breast milk are available. We analyzed d4T concentrations in 52 mother-infant pairs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lower limit of quantification: 5 ng/mL in plasma, 20 ng/mL in ...
Symon Andrew G - - 2012
BACKGROUND: breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different ...
Thomsen P T - - 2012
High mortality among dairy cows constitutes a problem both financially and in relation to animal welfare. Knowledge about causes of death is a fundamental step toward reducing cow mortality. Several studies have evaluated causes of dairy cow deaths. However, the vast majority of studies describing causes of death are based ...
Jeong Kyunghun - - 2012
Human milk, which nourishes the early infants, is a source of bioactive components for the infant growth, development and commensal formulation as well. Human milk oligosaccharide is a group of complex and diverse glycans that is apparently not absorbed in human gastrointestinal tract. Although most mammalian milk contains oligosaccharides, oligosaccharides ...
Ruhaak L Renee - - 2012
Milk is an important fluid in glycobiology because it contains a number of short carbohydrate chains either free or as glycoconjugates. These compounds as a class are the most abundant component and benefit the infant by developing and maintaining the infant's gut flora. New and emerging methods for oligosaccharide analysis ...
Parker Leslie A - - 2012
: Care of the very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased hospital costs. Specific complications of prematurity, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late-onset sepsis (LOS), and feeding intolerance, contribute to increased cost and length of hospitalization in this population. The provision of breast milk to VLBW infants ...
Froh Elizabeth B - - 2012
The majority of what is known in the recent literature regarding human milk studies in the neonatal intensive care setting is specific to term and/or preterm infants (including very-low-birth-weight preterm infants). However, there is a lack of human milk and breastfeeding literature concerning infants with congenital anomalies, specifically infants diagnosed ...
Koletzko S S Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dr von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. - - 2012
This guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of suspected cow's-milk protein allergy (CMPA) in Europe. It presents a practical approach with a diagnostic algorithm and is based on recently published evidence-based guidelines on CMPA. If CMPA is suspected by history and examination, then strict allergen avoidance is initiated. ...
Cabrera-Rubio Raul - - 2012
Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can ...
Wilde Parke - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the USDA implemented an interim rule that changed the prescribed foods in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Options for mother and infant dyads include a full breastfeeding package with no infant formula, a partial breastfeeding package with some infant formula, and ...
Davanzo Riccardo - - 2012
Background: Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants, especially sick or compromised infants, yet international data suggest that breastfeeding (feeding at the breast) and the use of expressed human milk (mother's and donor's milk) are limited in patients cared for in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). ...
Malhotra Atul - - 2012
Prematurity and low birth weight adds to the risk of serious congenital heart disease in infants. It may also delay surgical intervention, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass is required, or where an aortopulmonary shunt is necessary to maintain adequate oxygenation. In this setting, neonatologists are faced with the challenge of accelerating ...
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