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Results 201 - 250 of 1645
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Fogel Jessica M - - 2012
First-line antiretroviral treatment regimens in resource-limited settings used in breastfeeding mothers often include stavudine (d4T). Limited data describing d4T concentrations in breast milk are available. We analyzed d4T concentrations in 52 mother-infant pairs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (lower limit of quantification: 5 ng/mL in plasma, 20 ng/mL in ...
Symon Andrew G - - 2012
BACKGROUND: breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different ...
Thomsen P T - - 2012
High mortality among dairy cows constitutes a problem both financially and in relation to animal welfare. Knowledge about causes of death is a fundamental step toward reducing cow mortality. Several studies have evaluated causes of dairy cow deaths. However, the vast majority of studies describing causes of death are based ...
Jeong Kyunghun - - 2012
Human milk, which nourishes the early infants, is a source of bioactive components for the infant growth, development and commensal formulation as well. Human milk oligosaccharide is a group of complex and diverse glycans that is apparently not absorbed in human gastrointestinal tract. Although most mammalian milk contains oligosaccharides, oligosaccharides ...
Ruhaak L Renee - - 2012
Milk is an important fluid in glycobiology because it contains a number of short carbohydrate chains either free or as glycoconjugates. These compounds as a class are the most abundant component and benefit the infant by developing and maintaining the infant's gut flora. New and emerging methods for oligosaccharide analysis ...
Parker Leslie A - - 2012
: Care of the very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infant is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased hospital costs. Specific complications of prematurity, including necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), late-onset sepsis (LOS), and feeding intolerance, contribute to increased cost and length of hospitalization in this population. The provision of breast milk to VLBW infants ...
Froh Elizabeth B - - 2012
The majority of what is known in the recent literature regarding human milk studies in the neonatal intensive care setting is specific to term and/or preterm infants (including very-low-birth-weight preterm infants). However, there is a lack of human milk and breastfeeding literature concerning infants with congenital anomalies, specifically infants diagnosed ...
Koletzko S S Division of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Dr von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany. - - 2012
This guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of suspected cow's-milk protein allergy (CMPA) in Europe. It presents a practical approach with a diagnostic algorithm and is based on recently published evidence-based guidelines on CMPA. If CMPA is suspected by history and examination, then strict allergen avoidance is initiated. ...
Cabrera-Rubio Raul - - 2012
Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. The factors influencing the milk microbiome and the potential impact of microbes on infant health have not yet been uncovered. Our objective was to identify pre- and postnatal factors that can ...
Wilde Parke - - 2012
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the USDA implemented an interim rule that changed the prescribed foods in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Options for mother and infant dyads include a full breastfeeding package with no infant formula, a partial breastfeeding package with some infant formula, and ...
Davanzo Riccardo - - 2012
Background: Human milk is the optimal form of nutrition for infants, especially sick or compromised infants, yet international data suggest that breastfeeding (feeding at the breast) and the use of expressed human milk (mother's and donor's milk) are limited in patients cared for in the Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). ...
Malhotra Atul - - 2012
Prematurity and low birth weight adds to the risk of serious congenital heart disease in infants. It may also delay surgical intervention, especially when cardiopulmonary bypass is required, or where an aortopulmonary shunt is necessary to maintain adequate oxygenation. In this setting, neonatologists are faced with the challenge of accelerating ...
Cui Chang - - 2012
The use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is increasing annually in China. Although several studies have reported significant contamination by these compounds in biological samples in China, little is known about the factors that may influence the levels of exposure and the potential health risk for infants. We investigated PBDE ...
Radaelli Giovanni - - 2012
Aim:  The aim of this study was to examine attitudes and practices of family paediatricians in Italy towards infant feeding. Methods:  A questionnaire was sent to 850 paediatricians across Italy, asking about attitudes and practices towards infant feeding with focus on the World Health Organization's criteria. Results:  The response rate ...
Nasreddine L - - 2012
Suboptimal feeding patterns during the first two years of life are key determinants of malnutrition in children and constitute an important predictor of health in later years. Early-childhood nutritional factors, stunting, and obesity have been highlighted as prominent core underlying factors of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) development whereas the improvement of ...
Khan Sadaf - - 2012
Background: Data regarding the association between breast milk composition and infant feeding patterns (frequency and amount of breast milk taken) would help in understanding the regulation of food intake in breastfed infants.Objective: This study examined the relationship between breast milk macronutrient concentration and patterns of milk intake in breastfeeding infants ...
Dörnemann Jenny - - 2012
In Haiti, initiation of breastfeeding is high, but early mixed feeding is the norm. In a situation of crisis, mothers' worries about insufficiency of breast milk, disruption of social networks and free unmonitored distribution of breast milk substitutes impact feeding practices. This study was conducted to explore the attitudes, practices ...
Casas E - - 2012
The objective of this study was to characterize breeds representing diverse biological types for birth and weaning traits in crossbred cattle. Gestation length, calving difficulty, percentage of unassisted calving, percentage of perinatal survival, percentage of survival from birth to weaning, birth weight, weaning weight, weight at 205 d, and ADG, ...
Schwartz Camille - - 2012
Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the ...
Quinn Ea - - 2012
Aims:  Human milk is the primary source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for most infants, an important fatty acid for neurological development. Milk DHA is largely incorporated from the maternal diet. Little is known about whether milk DHA varies within populations with differences in maternal fish consumption. Here, we investigate this ...
Bouwman Hindrik - - 2012
We investigated presence and levels of DDT in 163 breast milk samples from four South African villages where, in three of them, malaria is controlled with DDT-sprayed indoors. Mean ΣDDT levels in breast milk were 18, 11, and 9.5 mg/kg mf (milk fat) from the three DDT-sprayed villages, respectively, including the ...
Rossman Beverly - - 2012
In this qualitative descriptive study we examined the perceptions of 17 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) healthcare providers (nurses, neonatologists, lactation consultants, and dietitians) about the role of breastfeeding peer counselors who were mothers of former NICU infants and who provided primary lactation care in the NICU. Findings revealed that ...
Minino Arialdi M - - 2012
KEY FINDINGS: Data from the National Vital Statistics System (Mortality) Life expectancy at birth is 78.7 years. Hispanic females have the longest life expectancy (83.8 years) followed by non-Hispanic white females (81.1 years). The largest decrease in mortality between the years 2000 and 2010 occurred in the age group under ...
Marcobal A - - 2012
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) constitute the third most abundant class of molecules in breast milk. Since infants lack the enzymes required for milk glycan digestion, this group of carbohydrates passes undigested to the lower part of the intestinal tract, where they can be consumed by specific members of the infant ...
Garrido Daniel - - 2012
Breastfeeding is one of the main factors guiding the composition of the infant gut microbiota in the first months of life. This process is shaped in part by the high amounts of human milk oligosaccharides that serve as a carbon source for saccharolytic bacteria such as Bifidobacterium species. Infant-borne bifidobacteria ...
Loui Andrea - - 2012
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors regulate angiogenesis. The soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sFlt-1) binds VEGF as a potent antagonist.Objective: The objective of this study was to compare VEGF and sFlt-1 levels in milk from mothers of preterm (n = 50) versus term (n = 49) infants ...
Bonet Mercedes - - 2012
Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, ...
Reitsema Laurie J - - 2012
This research investigates the potential of a new, noninvasive method for determining age of weaning among primates using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in feces. Analysis of stable isotope ratios in body tissues is a well-established method in archeology and ecology for reconstructing diet. This is the first study ...
Agarwal Kailash Nath - - 2012
OBJECTIVE: To assess if linear growth in infant is optimal, with exclusive breast feeding for 6 mo as advised by the WHO. METHODS: This prospective follow up study included 71 full term babies of middle socio economic group healthy mothers. The mothers were instructed to breast feed the babies who were ...
Batan Marilyn - - 2012
Many lactating mothers participate in the workforce and have their infants cared for outside of their home, yet little is known about their child care providers' (CCPs') support of breastfeeding. This study examines the association between CCPs' breastfeeding support as reported by mothers at 3 months and mother's breastfeeding at 6 months. ...
Stoller Jason Z - - 2012
The ductus arteriosus (DA) shunts blood away from the lungs during fetal life, but at birth this shunt is no longer needed and the vessel rapidly constricts. Postnatal persistence of the DA, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), is predominantly a detrimental condition for preterm infants but is simultaneously a condition required ...
Gordon Jeffrey I - - 2012
Childhood malnutrition is a global health problem that cannot be attributed to food insecurity alone. The gut microbiota may contribute to this devastating health disorder. In this Perspective, we call for the application of tools and concepts emerging from studies of the human gut microbiota to better understand the nutritional ...
Sundekilde Ulrik K - - 2012
Free oligosaccharides are key components of human milk and play multiple roles in the health of the neonate, by stimulating growth of selected beneficial bacteria in the gut, participating in development of the brain, and exerting antipathogenic activity. However, the concentration of oligosaccharides is low in mature bovine milk, normally ...
Flaherman Valerie J VJ Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143-0503, USA. - - 2012
Milk supply concern is the most common reason given by mothers for discontinuing breastfeeding. OBJECTIVES. To describe maternal experiences of interactions with health care providers related to milk supply. Ten focus groups (N = 56 participants) were conducted among mothers who had had milk supply concern in the first month ...
Campoy Cristina - - 2012
The aim of this review is to evaluate the effects of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women and infants during postnatal life, on the visual acuity, psychomotor development, mental performance and growth of infants and children. Eighteen publications (11 sets of randomized ...
Isolauri Erika - - 2012
A healthy intestinal microbiota profile in early life is related to health later in life. An aberrant composition is associated with risks of systemic problems, such as obesity, diabetes and allergic diseases, including asthma and enteric inflammatory conditions, sometimes manifesting at 7 years of age. A healthy and balanced gut microbiota ...
Pandey Prashant K - - 2012
The micro-eukaryotic diversity from the human gut was investigated using universal primers directed towards 18S rRNA gene, fecal samples being the source of DNA. The subjects in this study included two breast-fed and two formula-milk-fed infants and their mothers. The study revealed that the infants did not seem to harbour ...
Abul-Fadl Azza M A M - - 2012
Abstract Background: Despite the proven effectiveness of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI), its impact on community practices in Egypt has yet to be assessed. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) of Egyptian mothers towards the ...
Tsuji H - - 2012
The faecal microbiota of 166 healthy Japanese newborns was analysed periodically from day 1 after birth until the age of 3 years by using the reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Faecal pH and the organic acid concentration were also examined. Colonisation by both facultative anaerobes and strict anaerobes was confirmed in 95% ...
Neville Margaret C - - 2012
This paper resulted from a conference entitled "Lactation and Milk: Defining and refining the critical questions" held at the University of Colorado School of Medicine from January 18-20, 2012. The mission of the conference was to identify unresolved questions and set future goals for research into human milk composition, mammary ...
Trabulsi Jillian C JC Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. - - 2012
Diet in early infancy has an impact on early growth and the formation of flavour preferences, as well as on later life health outcomes. Although breast milk is the preferred source of nutrition during infancy, more than half of American infants receive infant formula by the age of 4 months. ...
Savino F - - 2012
Aims:  to determine human breast milk adiponectin concentration and to investigate its relationship with serum adiponectin concentration in lactating mothers and their infants; to evaluate the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and anthropometric parameters in nurses and infants. Methods:  We enrolled 60 healthy term breastfed infants and their lactating mothers. ...
Andres Aline - - 2012
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:Although soy formula has been reported to support normal development, concerns exist regarding potential adverse developmental effects of phytochemicals associated with soy protein. This study characterized developmental status (mental, motor, and language) of breastfed (BF), milk-based formula-fed (MF), or soy protein-based formula-fed (SF) infants during the first year ...
Savino Francesco - - 2012
BACKGROUND: The role of adipokines in early life is considered an emerging topic issue in nutritional researches. AIMS: To evaluate serum resistin and leptin concentrations and their relations in infants and in breast milk. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled 41 term, AGA, healthy infants, of which 23 exclusively breast-fed (BF) and ...
Obladen Michael - - 2012
Treatment of sick neonates originated in maternity and foundling hospitals in the 19th century. Nosocomial infections and difficult logistics of wet-nursing prevented admission of neonates in most children's hospitals well into the 20th century. In this article, 31 hospitals are described, all located in large cities, in which preterm and ...
Gerrard Stephen E - - 2012
A new drug delivery method for infants is presented which incorporates an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-loaded insert into a Nipple Shield Delivery System (NSDS). The API is released directly into milk during breastfeeding. This study investigates the feasibility of using the NSDS to deliver the microbicide sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ...
Geraghty Sheela R SR Center for Breastfeeding Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. - - 2013
The past characterisations of breastfeeding as being only at the breast of the mother may no longer be applicable in the United States as mothers now frequently express their milk. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with women who visited the Cincinnati Children's Breastfeeding Medicine Clinic to understand breast milk ...
Tanaka K - - 2012
Aim: This study was a randomised control trial to examine the effects of sphingomyelin (SM), on the mental, motor and behavioural development of premature infants. Patients and methods: Randomised, double-blind controlled trial, enroling infants born with a birth weight of less than 1500g between January 2004 and October 2007 at ...
Ward Laura - - 2012
Abstract Objective: Human milk has well-established health benefits for preterm infants. We conducted a multidisciplinary quality improvement effort aimed at providing at least 500 mL of human milk/kg in the first 14 days of life to very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1,500 g) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects and ...
Johnson Sally - - 2012
johnson s., leeming d., williamson i. & lyttle s. (2012) Maintaining the 'good maternal body': expressing milk as a way of negotiating the demands and dilemmas of early infant feeding. Journal of Advanced Nursing00(0), 000-000.doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012.06035.x ABSTRACT: Aim.  To report a descriptive study of early infant feeding experiences focusing on accounts ...
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