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Wertheim David D Faculty of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, - - 2014
Non-invasive monitoring of breathing is a holy grail in paediatric respiratory, neonatal and sleep medicine. Respiratory rate is a key marker for the surveillance of sick infants and children (1-3), while repeated infant apnoeic episodes are associated with an increased risk of apparent life-threatening events (4). In clinical pulse oximetry, ...
Lloyd Patricia Calderón PC aDepartment of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and bDepartment of Global Health, The George Washington University School of Public Health and Health Services, Washington, DC cDepartment of Emergency Medicine, The George Washington University Medical Faculty Associates, Washington, - - 2014
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of severe respiratory illness in infants. To help direct targeted interventions and future RSV vaccine programs, we examined risk of RSV-related hospitalization by infant age and birth month. We conducted Poisson regression analyses to evaluate birth-month as a risk factor for ...
Cantrill Ruth M - - 2014
Best practice guidelines to promote breastfeeding suggest that (i) mothers hold their babies in naked body contact immediately after birth, (ii) babies remain undisturbed for at least one hour and (iii) breastfeeding assistance be offered during this period. Few studies have closely observed the implementation of these guidelines in practice. ...
Marr Nico N Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia and Children's and Women's Health Centre of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6H 3V4, - - 2014
Newborn infants, including those born at term without congenital disorders, are at high risk of severe disease from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Indeed, our current local surveillance data demonstrate that approximately half of children hospitalized with RSV were ≤3 mo old, and 74% were born at term. Informed by ...
Csont Georgia Lowmaster - - 2014
The revised standard of care for breastfeeding infants at risk of developing hypoglycemia during transitioning to extrauterine life was developed using the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 hypoglycemia guidelines, the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine protocol, and staff input. A pre/postimplementation chart audit indicated support of infant safety by glucose ...
Singhal Atul A The Childhood Nutrition Research Centre, Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, - - 2014
The rapid increase in prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is probably the most important global health problem of the 21st century. Already in every region except Africa, NCDs account for greater mortality than communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions combined. Although modifiable lifestyle behaviors in adult life are the main ...
Haig David D Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, - - 2014
Interbirth intervals (IBIs) mediate a trade-off between child number and child survival. Life history theory predicts that the evolutionarily optimal IBI differs for different individuals whose fitness is affected by how closely a mother spaces her children. The objective of the article is to clarify these conflicts and explore their ...
Sung Valerie V Royal Children's Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
To determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduces crying or fussing in a broad community based sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic aged less than 3 months. Double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. Community based sample (primary and secondary level care centres) in Melbourne, ...
Haig David D Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, - - 2014
Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal ...
Katheria Anup A Division of Neonatology, UCSD Medical Center, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, United States of - - 2014
Umbilical cord milking (UCM) improves blood pressure and urine output, and decreases the need for transfusions in comparison to immediate cord clamping (ICC). The immediate effect of UCM in the first few minutes of life and the impact on neonatal resuscitation has not been described. Women admitted to a tertiary ...
Neu Josef J Department of Pediatrics/Neonatology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla., - - 2014
The microbes in the human intestinal tract interact with the host to form a 'superorganism'. The functional aspects of the host microbe interactions are being increasingly scrutinized and it is becoming evident that this interaction in early life is critical for development of the immune system and metabolic function and ...
Marques Rosa F S V RF Pediatrician, Professor, Department of Integral Health, State University of Pará, Pará, - - 2014
Objective The objective was to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among exclusively breastfed infants from one to six months of life and to identify associated risk factors. Methods This is a cohort study of the hemoglobin and serum ferritin levels of 102 healthy full-term infants, ...
Ziegler Ekhard E EE Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, A136 MTF, 2501 Crosspark Rd., Coralville, IA 52241-8802, USA. - - 2014
The birth iron endowment provides iron for growth in the first months of life. We describe the iron endowment under conditions of low dietary iron supply. Subjects were infants participating in a trial of Vitamin D supplementation from 1 to 9 months. Infants were exclusively breastfed at enrollment but could ...
Noughabi Z S ZS Department of Maternal and Child Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of - - 2014
Exclusive breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants in the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in the first 6 months of life, and the factors that influence it. In ...
Pacifici Gian Maria GM Section of Pharmacology, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Medical School, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, - - 2014
Midazolam is a benzodiazepine with rapid onset of action and short duration of effect. In healthy neonates the half-life (t 1/2) and the clearance (Cl) are 3.3-fold longer and 3.7-fold smaller, respectively, than in adults. The volume of distribution (Vd) is 1.1 L/kg both in neonates and adults. Midazolam is hydroxylated ...
Rincón-Cortés Millie M Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sackler Institute for Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine , New York, NY , USA ; Emotional Brain Institute, Nathan Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research , New York, NY , USA ; New York University Child Study Center, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine , New York, NY , - - 2014
Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups' sensory systems (i.e., olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory) embedded in mother-infant ...
de Kloet E Ronald ER Department of Medical Pharmacology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden University , Leiden , Netherlands ; Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Leiden University Medical Center , Leiden , - - 2014
Prematurely born infants may be at risk, because of inadequate maturation of tissues. If there are signs of preterm birth, it has become common practice therefore to treat either antenatally the mother or postnatally the infant with glucocorticoids to accelerate tissue development, particularly of the lung. However, this life-saving early ...
Mirochnick Mark M *Department of Pediatrics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA; †Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; ‡HIV/AIDS Research Department, Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; §Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; ‖Malawi College of Medicine, Blantyre, Malawi; ¶Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado, Rio de Janiero, Brazil; #Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil; **Serviço de Infectologia, Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; ††Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ‡‡Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA; §§Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention, Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; ‖‖Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; ¶¶Family Health International, Durham, NC; ##Makerere University-Johns Hopkins University Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda; ***National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; and †††Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, - - 2014
Data describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir in neonates are lacking. The HIV Prevention Trials Network 057 protocol was a phase 1, open-label study of the pharmacokinetics and safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in HIV-infected women during labor and their infants during the first week of life with ...
Paviotti Giulia G Division of Neonatology, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Via dell'Istria 65/1, 34137 Trieste, - - 2013
Background. Although twin gestation is well recognized to be associated with impaired fetal and postnatal growth, specific data about body composition of twins in the first month of life are scarce. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the body composition of twins, evaluated with air-displacement plethysmography, to ...
Tinnion Robert R Department of Neonatal Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, , Newcastle upon Tyne, - - 2013
The incidence of preterm birth is increasing worldwide. Evidence suggests that in later life these children are at increased risk of 'metabolic syndrome', which is itself associated with reduced insulin sensitivity (IS). We carried out a systematic review to examine whether preterm birth is associated with later changes in IS ...
Lusyati Setyadewi - - 2013
Novel methods for cytokine analysis allow for the simultaneous measurement of 25 cytokines in 50 muL serum or plasma. Data on values of most of these cytokines in non-infected newborn infants are lacking. We analyzed levels of 25 cytokines in the first week of life in non-infected preterm and term ...
Collins Jennifer J P JJ Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Regenerative Medicine Program, 501 Smyth Road, Room CCW6.137, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, K1H8L6 ; - - 2013
Significance: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of the developing lung that afflicts extreme preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Follow-up studies into adulthood show that BPD isn't merely a problem of the neonatal period, as it also may predispose to early-onset emphysema and poor lung function ...
Shapira Moshe M Maccabi Health Services, Nave Sha'anan Clinic/Pediatrics, Haifa, - - 2013
Oral mucoceles are common lesions that normally appear in the second decade of life. They are uncommon in neonates and infants. We present a case of a mucocele in a 10-month-old infant and review the literature regarding the epidemiology and treatment in this age group.
Traudt Christopher M CM Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, - - 2013
Background:Cerebellar hypoplasia is common problem for preterm infants, and infants that suffer intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). To evaluate the effects of IVH on cerebellar growth and development, we used a neonatal rabbit model of systemic glycerol to produce IVH.Methods:New Zealand White rabbit kits were surgically delivered 2 d preterm, and treated ...
Skerry Amy E - - 2013
Identifying the goal of another agent's action allows an observer to make inferences not only about the outcomes the agent will pursue in the future and the means to be deployed in a given context, but also about the emotional consequences of goal-related outcomes. While numerous studies have characterized the ...
O'Brien Frances - - 2013
The physiology of the neonate is ideally suited to the transition to extrauterine life followed by a period of rapid growth and development. Intravenous fluids and electrolytes should be prescribed with care in the neonate. Sodium and water requirements in the first few days of life are low and should ...
Rog-Zielinska Eva Alicia - - 2013
Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones, essential in mammals to prepare for life after birth. Blood levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol in most mammals including humans; corticosterone in rats and mice) rise dramatically shortly before birth. This is mimicked clinically in the routine administration of synthetic glucocorticoids to pregnant women threatened by a ...
O'Reilly Megan - - 2013
Background: Supplemental oxygen is necessary in the respiratory support of very preterm infants, but it may contribute to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and an increased risk of poor lung function in later life. It is well established that hyperoxia can inhibit alveolarization, but effects on the developing conducting airways, which are important ...
Loo Evelyn X L - - 2013
Background: Healthy gut microflora is essential for oral tolerance and immunity. A promising approach to preventing allergic diseases in genetically at-risk infants is to introduce administration of probiotics early in life when their immune system is still relatively immature. Objective: In this follow-up study, we aim to determine if early-life ...
Sonnenberg Amnon - - 2013
To test the long-term time trends of mortality from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), for the presence of birth-cohort phenomena. We analyzed mortality data from the national statistical offices of Canada, England and Wales, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the USA for the ...
- - 2013
An increasing number of deaths are preceded by end-of-life decisions liable to provoke or hasten death.
Merchant Nazakat M NM Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, UK; Centre for the Developing Brain, Imperial College, London, UK; Division of Neonatology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; Division of Neonatology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Trust, London, - - 2013
Preterm infants are deprived of the normal intra-uterine exposure to maternal melatonin and may benefit from replacement therapy. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to guide potential therapeutic trials. Melatonin was administered to 18 preterm infants in doses ranging from 0.04-0.6 μg kg(-1) over 0.5-6 h. Pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed individually and by population ...
Lobo M A - - 2013
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) to track development and classify delays in low- and high-risk infants across the first two years of life. We assessed cognitive, language, and motor development in 24 low-risk full-term and ...
Koul Roshan - - 2013
A five month old infant is reported with Eating Epilepsy (feeding epilepsy/feeding related epilepsy). This is an uncommon type of reflex epilepsy in children, and should be considered if the history and investigations for gastro esophageal reflux and apparent life threatening event are negative. A clear stepwise history helps in ...
Turco Rossella - - 2013
This multicenter prospective study sought to establish possible risk factors for Functional Constipation (FC) in the first year of life. At the infant's age of 3, 6 and 12 months, parents of all included infants complete two questionnaires: one about the presence of FC and the second screened the possible ...
Wyckoff Myra H - - 2013
Chest compressions are rarely needed in newly born infants with an estimated occurrence of 0.08% for near-term and term deliveries; however, the consequences of a hypoperfused state on the brain and other organ systems can be devastating(1). Newborns that require prolonged cardiac compressions with no signs of life beyond 10 ...
Brandone Amanda C - - 2013
The ability to interpret and predict the actions of others is crucial to social interaction and to social, cognitive, and linguistic development. The current study provided a strong test of this predictive ability by assessing (1) whether infants are capable of prospectively processing actions that fail to achieve their intended ...
Pandey Ragini - - 2013
Diastolic dysfunction is common in infants and neonates with left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction and may lead to low-cardiac output in the postoperative period. We present a management strategy for severe postrepair diastolic dysfunction in an infant with critical congenital aortic stenosis and LV hypertrophy, employing β-blockade and levosimendan.
Barros Marina Carvalho de Moraes MC Division of Neonatal Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista de Medicina (UNIFESP-EPM), São PauloSP, - - 2013
Objective: To compare the neurobehavior of neonates born to adolescent mothers with and without depression during gestation. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study included healthy term neonates born to adolescent mothers with untreated depression during gestation, without exposure to legal or illicit drugs, and compared them with infants born to adolescent ...
Gökçe Selim S Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children's Health and Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Babür Caddesi, No:40, 06080, Altındağ/ Ankara, - - 2013
Background/aims:To determine the underlying causes and short-term prognosis of patients with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the etiology, course, and shortterm prognosis of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia observed in newborn infants in a tertiary neonatal intensive care units. Results: Of a total ...
Lulic-Botica Mirjana - - 2013
We compared gentamicin pharmacokinetics among neonates born small-for-gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA). We further compared gentamicin pharmacokinetics in subgroups of AGA and SGA neonates born preterm and term and treated within and after the initial week of age. Steady state peak and trough serum gentamicin concentrations ...
Medoff Marshall - - 2013
In the United States, pro-choice supporters contend that the desire of pro-life supporters to protect the life of the fetus ends at birth and that thereafter they ignore the health and well-being of infants and children. This study examines the question of whether infants and children fare better in U.S. ...
Taniuchi Mami M Division of Infectious Diseases and International Health, Department of - - 2013
Diarrhea causes enormous morbidity and mortality in developing countries, yet the relative importance of multiple potential enteropathogens has been difficult to ascertain. We performed a longitudinal cohort study from birth to 1 year of age in 147 infants in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, we analyzed 420 episodes ...
Al-Maawali Almundher A - - 2013
Infants with phosphomannomutase 2 - congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG), formerly known as CDG1a, present with failure to thrive, visceral dysfunction, thromboembolic events and developmental delays noted before 6 months of age. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the considerable variability in phenotype. Characteristic, but not universal, features include inverted nipples ...
McLeod-Sordjan Renee - - 2013
To report analysis of the concept death preparedness in the context of end-of-life shared decisions and communication. Forty percent of older people require decision-making and communication in the final days of life. Elaborate defence mechanisms have yielded a public consciousness that no longer passively views death acceptance, but instead has ...
Dani Carlo - - 2013
The relationship between cord arterial pH (CA-pH) >7.000 and the neonatal outcome is not clear. To evaluate if asymptomatic infants born with unexpected cord arterial pH (CA-pH) between 7.000 and 7.100 develop clinical, biochemical, and instrumental signs of hypoxic cerebral, renal, and heart failure more frequently than symptomatic infants. Term ...
Bornstein Marc H MH Child and Family Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, Bethesda, Maryland 20892; email: - - 2014
Human infancy has been studied as a platform for hypothesis and theory testing, as a major physiological and psychological adjustment, as an object of adults' effects as well as a source of effects on adults, for its comparative value, as a stage of life, and as a setting point for ...
Din Osmun Laila - - 2013
Objectives To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context ...
Prosser Amy - - 2013
Background:Deficiencies in phagocytosis may contribute to the increased susceptibility of infants to early life infections. Data on phagocytosis of the major neonatal pathogens Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) by preterm infant leucocytes are inconsistent.Methods:Cord and <24h peripheral blood were collected from very preterm (<30.1 weeks ...
Prosser Amy - - 2013
Background:Deficiencies in phagocytosis may contribute to the increased susceptibility of infants to early life infections. Data on phagocytosis of the major neonatal pathogens Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Escherichia coli (EC) by preterm infant leucocytes are inconsistent.Methods:Cord and <24h peripheral blood were collected from very preterm (<30.1 weeks ...
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