Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1645
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Halliday H L - - 2008
In 1929 Kurt von Neergaard performed experiments suggesting the presence of pulmonary surfactant and its relevance to the newborn's first breath. Almost 25 years later, Richard Pattle, John Clements and Chris Macklin, each working on the effects of nerve gases on the lungs, contributed to the understanding of the physiology ...
McEvoy Cindy - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compare the pulmonary function (respiratory compliance) of infants who were < or = 32 weeks' gestation and delivered > 7 days after a single course of antenatal steroids versus infants who were delivered 1 to 7 days after a single course of antenatal steroids. METHODS: ...
Qian Liling - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: In the past decade, neonatal special care services in China have been established, during which time various therapies for neonatal respiratory failure have been introduced. The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, management, outcome, and cost of neonatal respiratory failure treated by mechanical ventilation in 23 ...
Kugelman A - - 2008
AIM: To evaluate the effects of nasal respiratory support on physiologic parameters and comfort of premature infants, when compared to spontaneous breathing without nasal respiratory support. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, cross-over clinical study. Infants were enrolled into the study when in 'stable' condition (when discontinuation of nasal ...
Narang Indra - - 2008
RATIONALE: There are limited longitudinal data about respiratory morbidity and lung function after preterm birth into adulthood. OBJECTIVES: To determine the evolution of respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and airway hyperresponsiveness of ex-preterm subjects from childhood into adulthood. METHODS: Ex-preterm subjects (median birth weight, 1,440 g; median gestation, 31.5 wk), recruited at ...
Helminen Merja - - 2008
We analyzed polymorphisms of IL-10 -1082 G/A, IL-18 -137 G/C, TLR4 +896 A/G, and IFNG +874 T/A in 139 infants under 6 months of age hospitalized with bronchiolitis and 400 unselected blood donors. Causative viruses were determined by PCR. Infants with bronchiolitis associated with a virus other than respiratory syncytial ...
Canducci Filippo - - 2008
A prospective 2-year analysis including 322 infant patients with acute respiratory disease (ARD) hospitalized in a pediatric department in northern Italy was carried out to evaluate the role as respiratory pathogens or co-pathogens of recently identified viruses. The presence of respiratory syncitial virus (RSV), human Metapneumoviruses (hMPVs), human Bocaviruses (hBoVs), ...
Short E J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective analysis assessed the relationship between medical treatment (postnatal steroids, surfactant) received neonatally and outcomes at 3 and 8 years using a longitudinal sample of children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). STUDY DESIGN: Four groups were formed retrospectively based on the type of neonatal medical treatment received: no drug ...
Frogel M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The Palivizumab Outcomes Registry contains data on infants and young children who received palivizumab for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) that causes serious lower respiratory tract illness. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational registry enrolling those who received >or=1 dose of palivizumab during any RSV season (2000 to 2004) ...
Clarisse Bénédicte - - 2009
As the natural history of respiratory and allergic manifestations is unclear, our ongoing Paris birth cohort study prospectively assesses the onset of these symptoms in early childhood. Data were collected by five questionnaires sent at regular intervals during the first year of life. Partitioning around medoids (PAM) was used to ...
Wiedemann Jeanne Ray - - 2008
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is one of the most common conditions associated with aspiration during the newborn period. MAS can be defined as respiratory distress in a neonate born through meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAE) with symptoms that cannot otherwise be explained. It can be characterized by early onset of respiratory ...
Yeboah-Antwi K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Young infant mortality has remained high and relatively unchanged compared with deaths of older infants. Strategies to reduce infant mortality, however, are mostly targeted at the older child. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical profile of sick young infants presenting to a hospital and to define important signs and symptoms ...
Kribs Angela - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the experience with a method to administer surfactant during spontaneous breathing with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as primary respiratory support in infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) influences the frequency of its use and affects the outcome of patients. METHODS: All inborn extremely low ...
Eick Angelia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants have respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization rates 2-5 times that of the general U.S. infant population. To evaluate whether these high rates can be attributable to low concentrations of maternally derived RSV neutralizing antibodies, we conducted a case-control study. METHODS: Study subjects enrolled ...
Richard Nathalie - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in early childhood worldwide. The presence of more than one pathogen may influence the natural history of acute bronchiolitis in infants. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of dual viral infection in infants with severe bronchiolitis hospitalized in a short-term unit ...
von Bismarck Philipp - - 2008
RATIONALE: In acute inflammatory lung disease in newborn infants, exogenous surfactant only transiently improves lung function. We hypothesized that the transient nature of this protection is in part explained by elevated acid sphingomyelinase (a-SMase) activity that may inactivate surfactant and promote proinflammatory responses. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the intermediate-term effects (>12 ...
Engle William A - - 2008
Respiratory failure secondary to surfactant deficiency is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Surfactant therapy substantially reduces mortality and respiratory morbidity for this population. Secondary surfactant deficiency also contributes to acute respiratory morbidity in late-preterm and term neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia/sepsis, and perhaps pulmonary ...
Donn Steven M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has been demonstrated to be both safe and highly effective in the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). However, administration of the various available suspensions has required endotracheal intubation and its inherent risks. Delivery of aerosolized SRT would be a laudable goal. ...
Regamey Nicolas - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are a major cause of morbidity in infancy worldwide, with cough and wheeze being alarming symptoms to parents. We aimed to analyze in detail the viral aetiology of ARI with such symptoms in otherwise healthy infants, including rhinoviruses and recently discovered viruses such as human ...
Hand Ivan L - - 2008
Prophylaxis with palivizumab has been shown to decrease hospitalizations in at-risk infants. Compliance was higher with a home-based rather than a clinic-based system and was associated with decreased hospitalizations and unscheduled medical visits. Home-based delivery of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis may be more efficacious in preventing disease through increased compliance ...
Bissinger R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate blood gases and ventilatory parameters before and after two doses of surfactant in premature infants with respiratory decompensation after recovery from primary respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). STUDY DESIGN: This prospective pilot study enrolled infant's > or =500 g birth weight, from 7 days to 3 months of ...
Karjalainen Minna K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporter A3 (ABCA3) gene mutations cause fatal respiratory failure in term infants, but common ABCA3 polymorphisms have remained uncharacterized at the population level. AIM: To define a subset of tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) which capture most of the variation within the ABCA3 gene, and to ...
Reis Alexanda Dias - - 2008
A total of 316 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate from infants up to two years of age with acute respiratory-tract illnesses were processed for detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) using three different techniques: viral isolation, direct immunofluorescence, and PCR. Of the samples, 36 (11.4%) were positive for RSV, considering the ...
Mingarro Ismael - - 2008
Pulmonary surfactant is a lipid-protein complex that coats the interior of the alveoli and enables the lungs to function properly. Upon its synthesis, lung surfactant adsorbs at the interface between the air and the hypophase, a capillary aqueous layer covering the alveoli. By lowering and modulating surface tension during breathing, ...
Gouyon Jean-Bernard - - 2008
Few prospective population-based studies of respiratory diseases have been conducted in term neonates. We aimed to describe mechanically ventilated respiratory disorders in term neonates and associated risk factors in a regional-based study of livebirths between 37 and 41 weeks. The study was prospective for epidemiological data recording, and retrospective for ...
Simões Eric A F - - 2008
The aim of this study, conducted in Europe, was to develop a validated risk factor based model to predict RSV-related hospitalisation in premature infants born 33-35 weeks' gestational age (GA). The predictive model was developed using risk factors captured in the Spanish FLIP dataset, a case-control study of 183 premature ...
Aziz Abdul - - 2008
In the late 1960's and 1970's, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full term infants with severe pre-existing illness. The incidence of PH was quoted as 1.3 per 1,000 live births. In the older medical literature, the risk factors associated with PH included the severity of the associated illness, intrauterine ...
Ko Hong Ki - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Because the major problems of respiratory difficulties in newborn infants are due to cardiopulmonary problems, improving the early detection and referral of newborn infants with cardiovascular problems has been considered one of the primary goals of care in the neonatal intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether rapid plasma ...
Marguet Christophe - - 2008
Acute bronchiolitis is the main cause of emergency visits and hospitalizations in infants. Recent data suggest that neutrophil- and eosinophil-mediated inflammations were part of bronchiolitis pathophysiology. Apart from the defined risk factors, few was known on the underlying pathophysiology, which might point out the differences observed in the severity of ...
Walsh Michele C - - 2007
Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a common problem that most pediatricians will encounter in the delivery room and normal newborn nursery. Approximately 13% of all live births are complicated by meconium stained amniotic fluid (MSAF). MAS is defined as respiratory distress in an infant born through MSAF whose symptoms cannot ...
Smyth Rosalind L - - 2007
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a serious and distressing illness, which occurs almost exclusively in infants under one year of age. Although the majority of all children will have experienced an infection with RSV by the time they reach their second birthday, only a minority develop bronchiolitis. It is ...
Sinha Sunil K - - 2008
Infants born prematurely have underdeveloped lungs characterised by both morphological and biochemical abnormalities. Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Both surfactant replacement therapy with mechanical ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) have been shown to be of benefit. However, considerable ...
Scagnolari Carolina - - 2007
To determine whether there is an airway IFN response in infants with acute bronchiolitis and to establish whether the rate of such a response is related to the severity of illness, the expression of some IFN-induced genes was measured in nasopharyngeal washes from 39 infants with acute bronchiolitis. The results ...
Olmsted K - - 2007
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) causes significant hypoxia in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. We report an ELBW infant with RDS and pulmonary hypertension whose hypoxia did not respond to inhaled nitric oxide but improved with inhaled prostacyclin. We propose that inhaled prostacyclin alleviated the hypoxia by stimulating surfactant secretion.
Semple M G - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal secretions aspirated from infants with bronchiolitis (NPA) are a valuable resource for the study of virus dynamics and local inflammatory responses, however samples are small and difficult to manipulate. OBJECTIVES: To improve yield of NPA from infants. To establish if removal of the cellular component of NPA affects ...
Ersch Joerg - - 2007
AIM: To document the change in the incidence of respiratory distress (RD), related interventions and mortality in neonates admitted to primary, secondary and tertiary neonatal units within a geographically defined population over a period of 30 years. METHODS: RD was defined as a clinical picture irrespective of the etiology. Information ...
Embleton Nicholas D - - 2007
Respiratory syncytial virus is the most common cause of bronchiolitis, a lower respiratory tract infection occurring in infancy. It is responsible for several rehospitalizations, substantial morbidity and occasional deaths in the UK every year. Palivizumab is a recombinant monoclonal antibody that has been shown to reduce hospitalizations in infected infants. ...
Corsello G - - 2007
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization for lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in young children worldwide. RSV is an important cause of LRTI in infants and a variety of factors, such as gender, age at admission, gestational age, birth weight, and exposure to tobacco smoke and ...
Puddu M - - 2007
Recent literature has provided evidence of a link between early RSV infection and chronic respiratory morbidity (recurrent wheezing, reactive airway disease and asthma). The mechanism of this association is not well understood but both genetic and environmental factors are involved. The classical studies from Sweden, Tucson and Finland are briefly ...
Hermansen Christian L - - 2007
The most common etiology of neonatal respiratory distress is transient tachypnea of the newborn; this is triggered by excessive lung fluid, and symptoms usually resolve spontaneously. Respiratory distress syndrome can occur in premature infants as a result of surfactant deficiency and underdeveloped lung anatomy. Intervention with oxygenation, ventilation, and surfactant ...
Cohn Leah A - - 2007
Every breath holds the potential to introduce infectious organisms and irritating particulates into the respiratory tract. Despite this continuous exposure, the lungs usually remain sterile. Further, potential pathogens are distinguished from innocuous particulates, thus sparing the respiratory tract from damaging inflammation. The article reviews the complex defenses used to protect ...
Awomoyi Agnes A - - 2007
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Although anti-RSV Ab prophylaxis has greatly reduced infant mortality in the United States, there is currently no vaccine or effective antiviral therapy. RSV fusion (F) protein activates cells through TLR4. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encoding Asp299Gly and ...
Milian Alexyz A Mote Marine Laboratory, Sarasota, FL 34236, USA. - - 2007
Florida red tides are naturally occurring blooms of the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. K. brevis produces natural toxins called brevetoxins. Brevetoxins become part of the marine aerosol as the fragile, unarmored cells are broken up by wave action. Inhalation of the aerosolized toxin results in upper and lower airway irritation. ...
Ballard Philip L - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that inhaled nitric oxide treatment of premature infants at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia would not adversely affect endogenous surfactant function or composition. METHODS: As part of the Nitric Oxide Chronic Lung Disease Trial of inhaled nitric oxide, we examined surfactant in a subpopulation of enrolled infants. Tracheal ...
Kerrey Benjamin - - 2007
Infants with respiratory distress commonly present to a pediatric emergency department. There are rare but serious conditions that need to be considered in the differential diagnosis. We report the history of an infant that presented to our institution with respiratory distress ultimately diagnosed with a mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest ...
Bruder Elisabeth - - 2007
Pulmonary surfactant is essential to maintain alveolar patency, and invariably fatal neonatal lung disease has been recognized to involve mutations in the genes encoding surfactant protein-B or ATP-binding cassette transporter family member ABCA3. The lipid transporter ABCA3 targets surfactant phospholipids to lamellar bodies that are lysosomal-derived organelles of alveolar type ...
Simoes Eric A F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Children who experience respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) early in life have high rates of subsequent recurrent wheezing. Palivizumab, an anti-RSV monoclonal antibody, has 78% to 80% efficacy in preventing RSV hospitalization in premature infants without chronic lung disease. We hypothesized that palivizumab, by ameliorating ...
Cincotta Domenic R - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The histopathologic pattern of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP) has been described recently in cases of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in adults and differs from the well-recognized pattern of classic diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). The objective of this study was to determine whether similar appearances can be ...
Erickson Jeffery T - - 2007
Serotonin (5HT) is a powerful modulator of respiratory circuitry in vitro but its role in the development of breathing behavior in vivo is poorly understood. Here we show, using 5HT neuron-deficient Pet-1 (Pet-1(-/-)) neonates, that serotonergic function is required for the normal timing of postnatal respiratory maturation. Plethysmographic recordings reveal ...
Somaschini Marco - - 2007
Genetic abnormalities of pulmonary surfactant were identified by DNA sequence analysis in 14 (12 full-term, 2 preterm) of 17 newborn infants with fatal respiratory distress of unknown etiology. Deficiency of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette protein, member A3 (n = 12) was a more frequent cause of this phenotype than deficiency of ...
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