Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1411
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Rerksuppaphol Sanguansak - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The quantitative measurement of the normal anal position by anal position index (API) has been reported from various institutes. The existing API data appear to vary among the ethnic differences. To date, the normal anal position in Thai children has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study ...
Gill C J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the microbiological consequences of WHO's recommendation for presumptive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for infants with perinatal HIV exposure. METHODS: Using a longitudinal cohort design, we followed HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants trimonthly for up to 18 months per infant. HIV-exposed infants received daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis from 6 weeks to > ...
Kaukola Tuula T Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cord blood proteins and antenatal factors in the prediction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The prospectively collected cohort included 163 infants. All infants were born between 1998-2002 in a single regional hospital before 32 weeks ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2009
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether probiotics might be effective in reducing the risk of infections in infancy. Infants requiring formula before the age of 2 months were recruited from community well-baby clinics. Infant formula supplemented with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 ...
Migirov Lela - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To present medical and surgical aspects of cochlear implantation (CI) in infants and to compare the rate of complications of CI in infants with that of older children. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: Fifteen infants and 57 children aged 1 to 2 years at the time of CI with a ...
Schultz Alyce A - - 2008
This study evaluated the effectiveness of gel pillows for reducing bilateral head molding (plagiocephaly) in preterm infants, as determined by the cephalic index (CI). Eighty-one infants weighing <1,500 g were randomly assigned at birth to usual care on a standard mattress (n = 40) or to placement on a gel ...
Reedman Lisa Armstrong - - 2008
The authors hypothesized increased emergency department (ED) visits for heart failure (HF) during a 2-week Christmas holiday period similar to a recent study showing increased cardiac death rates. A retrospective analysis was performed from a database of 18 EDs in New Jersey and New York from January 1, 1996, to ...
Asplund Chad A - - 2008
PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the predictive value of percentage change in antenatal maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to macrosomia, as well as to compare change in pregnancy BMI with existing weight gain guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6 months of consecutive deliveries, focusing on first ...
Maimburg Rikke Damkjaer - - 2008
In a previous study, we found that infants transferred to a neonatal ward after delivery had an almost twofold increased risk of being diagnosed with infantile autism later in childhood in spite of extensive controlling of obstetric risk factors. We therefore decided to investigate other reasons for transfer to a ...
Habib N Abu - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest known perinatal mortality rates in the World, but few studies have assessed the importance of parental sociodemographic characteristics on perinatal mortality in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate how sociodemographic patterns affect perinatal mortality in Northern Tanzania. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: ...
Wang Jing - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The cause of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is poorly understood. This descriptive study of IHPS focuses on the effect of maternal nativity, maternal Hispanic ethnicity, subtypes of maternal Asian ethnicity, and the timing of the infant's surgery, that is, pyloromyotomy. METHODS: All cases of IHPS born in Texas ...
Messer Lynne C LC Health Inequalities Program, Center for Health Policy, Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA. - - 2008
The racial disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology. Its consistency is not only an outcome of reproductive interest but may function as a persistent inequality to which women are exposed over time. Herein we sought to analyze exposure to area-level PTB disparity and its ...
Heywood Richard E - - 2009
We sought to determine the detection (clinical or sonographic) rate of macrosomic newborns (at least 4000 g) and the peripartum factors among those who were or were not identified accurately. We retrospectively reviewed all deliveries over 1 year and all maternal and neonatal charts of macrosomic newborns delivered during that ...
Lawson Christina C CC National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA. - - 2009
We evaluated first-trimester exposures and the risk of preterm birth in the most recent pregnancy of participants of the Nurses' Health Study II. Log binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) for preterm birth in relation to occupational risk factors, such as work schedule, physical factors, and ...
Chen Hsiu-Lin - - 2009
Early diagnosis of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in young infants is a difficult problem by clinical symptoms and signs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of plasma IP-10 levels for early diagnosis of SBI in young infants <4 months of age. We enrolled pediatric patients ...
Levy Itzhak - - 2009
Urinary tract infection (UTI) differs between preterm and older infants and children in terms of prevalence, clinical presentation, causative organism, and rate of underlying renal anomalies. Data on risk factors of UTI in preterm infants are limited. The aim of this study was to characterize UTI both clinically and microbiologically ...
Simchen Michal J - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the role of infant and maternal thrombophilia in a cohort of mothers and infants presenting with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. METHODS: Forty-seven infants with clinically and radiologically confirmed perinatal arterial ischemic stroke underwent thrombophilia workup: factor V Leiden (FVL), PII20210A mutation, Methylene-tetrahydrofolate ...
Eckart Robert E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA) may be confounded by the presence of lower-risk idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias with left bundle-branch block (LBBB) morphology. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether right bundle-branch block (RBBB)-morphology EIVA was associated with increased mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic medical center. ...
Cherif Ahmed - - 2008
We sought to identify risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with the failure of the INSURE method ( INtubation- SURfactant- Extubation) during nasal continuous positive airway pressure for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. We used a retrospective analysis of the prenatal histories, clinical courses, and laboratory data of all ...
Bizzarro Matthew J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast the epidemiology of polymicrobial and monomicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in newborn intensive care unit (NICU) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, matched case-control study. SETTING: The Yale-New Haven Hospital NICU from 1989 through 2006. SUBJECTS: NICU patients with BSIs. METHODS: Each neonate with polymicrobial BSI (case patient) was ...
Boo N Y - - 2008
This study aimed to identify the risk factors which were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) infants among the Malaysian population. This was a case-control study carried out at the Tuanku Jaafar Hospital, Seremban, Malaysia over a five-month period. Cases were all infants born with birth weight ...
Quigley M A - - 2009
Most infants in the UK start solids before the recommended age of 6 months. We assessed the independent effects of solids and breast feeding on the risk of hospitalisation for infection in term, singleton infants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 15,980). For both diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract ...
Amiruddin Ridwan R Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. - - 2008
Inadequate antenatal care and nutrition, gene variation (CYP2A6), and poor placental growth are associated with low birthweight (LBW). The objective for this study was to analyze risk factors for LBW, including antenatal care, gene variation CYP2A6 and placental weight. A case control of infants with a birthweight less than 2500 ...
Glass Hannah C HC Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0137, - - 2008
The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, demographic risk factors, and malformations associated with agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum diagnosed in infancy. Using a large population-based registry of birth defects, we ascertained 630 cases of agenesis (ACC) and hypoplasia (HCC) of the corpus callosum diagnosed ...
Alm B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema in infants has increased in western societies. Environmental factors and the introduction of food may affect the risk of eczema. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of eczema among infants in western Sweden, describe patterns of food introduction and assess risk factors for eczema at 1 year of ...
Held-Egli Katrin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence, duration and risk factors for benign neonatal sleep myoclonus (BNSM) in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) treated with opioids or sedatives, compared with control infants. METHODS: This is a single centre observational case control study. Seventy-eight near term ...
Brettell Rachel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible reasons why a male fetus constitutes a risk factor for preterm delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of deliveries from hospital database in a UK teaching hospital. The population comprised all deliveries >23 weeks over an 11-year period, excluding multiples, terminations and pregnancies with major abnormalities including ...
Auger Nathalie - - 2008
Evidence points to an association between a mother's place of residence and her newborn's health, independent of individual characteristics. Neighbourhood constructs such as immigrant density, deprivation and crime have all been separately associated with birth outcomes. Little research has considered the joint influence of variables representing a spectrum of neighbourhood ...
McManus Beth M - - 2008
Dolichocephaly, narrow width and long anterior-posterior cranial distance, is more commonly seen in preterm than in term infants. It seems to persist after NJCU discharge and may be a marker for adverse neurodevelopment. This article reports a case of cranial molding in one extremely low birth weight infant. He was ...
Johnson Kimberly J - - 2008
Neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common infant malignancy. The etiology of NB is largely unknown. We explored the association between birth record variables and subsequent NB development in a population-based case-cohort study in Minnesota by linking the birth and cancer registries. NB cases ...
Sharma Vandana V Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205-2103, - - 2008
To investigate the relationship between adolescent pregnancy and neonatal mortality in a nutritionally deprived population in rural Nepal, and to determine mechanisms through which low maternal age may affect neonatal mortality. Nested cohort study using data from a population-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing with ...
Wickens Kristin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The role of probiotics in prevention of allergic disease is still not clearly established, although early reports suggested Lactobacillus GG halved the risk of eczema at 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether probiotic supplementation in early life could prevent development of eczema and atopy at 2 years. METHODS: Double-blind, ...
De Felice Claudio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recurrent otitis media with effusion (OME) is a leading cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood. Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an important cause of preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Here, we tested the hypothesis of an association between recurrent OME during the first 3 years of life ...
Olusanya B O - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the role of non-hospital delivery and other risk factors for permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) in a developing country. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Four primary healthcare centres in inner-city Lagos, Nigeria. POPULATION: Fifty-six infants with PCEHL and 280 ...
Simard Julia F JF Department of Epidemiology, Harvard University School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. - - 2008
Some evidence suggests that perinatal factors, including birth weight and breastfeeding, may influence the occurrence of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. However, few studies have investigated these factors in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Therefore, we evaluated the role of birth weight, being breastfed, and preterm birth on the incidence of ...
Schlapbach Luregn Jan - - 2009
Respiratory infections cause considerable morbidity during infancy. The impact of innate immunity mechanisms, such as mannose-binding lectin (MBL), on respiratory symptoms remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate whether cord blood MBL levels are associated with respiratory symptoms during infancy and to determine the relative contribution of ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We evaluate the impact of the Healthy Start intervention program on feto-infant morbidity within a community setting. METHODS: Prospective data from 2002 to 2007 within the ongoing Federally funded Healthy Start intervention project in Central Hillsborough County were merged with corresponding birth outcomes data from the Florida Department of ...
Jahan S - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that poverty is associated with infant mortality in Eastern Mediterranean countries and to measure the strength of the association. METHODS: A bibliographic search was conducted. The studies including data regarding deaths during the first year of life, socioeconomic status of the household and/or maternal literacy ...
Bitsko Rebecca H - - 2008
BACKGROUND:: Weight loss products are frequently used by reproductive-aged women and these products may be taken (inadvertently or intentionally) during pregnancy. This study assessed the association between periconceptional use of weight loss products and major structural birth defects. METHODS:: Mothers of infants with birth defects (case infants) and a random ...
Généreux M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Residential proximity to highways is a potential proxy for exposure to traffic-related pollution that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. We evaluated whether proximity to highway interacts with individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status (SES) to influence birth outcomes. METHODS: The study population consisted of all live singleton births ...
Gueorguieva Ralitza - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between length of prenatal participation in WIC and a marker of infant morbidity. By focusing on small for gestational age, we consider one of the possible pathways through which prenatal nutrition affects fetal growth. DESIGN/METHODS: The study sample consists of 369,535 matched mother-infant pairs drawn ...
Bruckner Tim A - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether postterm gestational age increases the risk of neonatal mortality. STUDY DESIGN: We retrieved data from 1,815,811 liveborn infants in California from 1999 to 2003. We excluded multiple births and congenital anomalies, as well as infants with a gestational age of ...
Mendes E W - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of maternal massage therapy on hospital stay in very-low-birth-weight infants who were already submitted to skin-to-skin care. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized study was performed including infants of birth weight >or=750 and <or=1500 g and gestational age <or=32 weeks. The exclusion criteria were as follows: death ...
Moster Dag - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Advances in perinatal care have increased the number of premature babies who survive. There are concerns, however, about the ability of these children to cope with the demands of adulthood. METHODS: We linked compulsory national registries in Norway to identify children of different gestational-age categories who were born between ...
Karkos Christos D - - 2008
The Hardman index, which has five variables, has been recommended as a predictor of outcome after open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs). It has been reported that the presence of three or more variables is uniformly fatal. The aim of this study was to test the same model ...
Janjua Naveed Zafar - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To identify determinants of low birth weight (LBW) in Karachi, Pakistan, including environmental exposures and nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.ParticipantsFive hundred and forty mother-infant pairs. We interviewed mothers about obstetric history, diet and exposure to Pb. We measured birth weight and blood lead level ...
Puig Carme - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the incidence rate, viral respiratory agents and determinants of lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) in infants younger than 1 year. METHODS: A total of 487 infants were recruited at birth for the Asthma Multicenter Infant Cohort Study in Barcelona (Spain). Cases of LRTIs were ascertained through an ...
Wojcicki J M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors for macrosomic infant birth among Latina women. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study of Latina women recruited during pregnancy from prenatal clinic at San Francisco General Hospital. Information was obtained through a structured interview and review of medical records. RESULT: A total of 11% of women delivered ...
Kalter Henry D - - 2008
Obstetric complications and newborn illnesses amenable to basic medical interventions underlie most perinatal deaths. Yet, despite good access to maternal and newborn care in many transitional countries, perinatal mortality is often not monitored in these settings. The present study identified risk factors for perinatal death and the level and causes ...
van Eijsden Manon - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Maternal folate depletion has been proposed as a primary explanation for the excess risk of fetal growth restriction associated with short interpregnancy intervals. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the folate depletion hypothesis in a community-based cohort of pregnant women. DESIGN: Using a subsample of the cohort (multiparous participants who ...
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