Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1377
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Joseph K S - - 2009
Contemporary fetal growth standards are created by using theoretical properties (percentiles) of birth weight (for gestational age) distributions. The authors used a clinically relevant, outcome-based methodology to determine if separate fetal growth standards are required for singletons and twins. All singleton and twin livebirths between 36 and 42 weeks' gestation ...
Auger Nathalie - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The association between area characteristics and birth outcomes is modified by race. Whether such associations vary according to social class indicators beyond race has not been assessed. METHODS: This study evaluated effect modification by maternal birthplace and education of the relationship between neighbourhood characteristics and birth outcomes of newborns ...
Auger Nathalie - - 2009
CONTEXT: Rural relative to urban area and low socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with adverse birth outcomes. Whether a graded association of increasing magnitude is present across the urban-rural continuum, accounting for SES, is unclear. We examined the association between rural-urban continuum, SES and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: Singleton births ...
Shah Prakesh S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Maternal low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) birth status have been suggested as precursors for an infant being born LBW, PTB or SGA. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the risks of infant LBW/PTB/SGA among mothers who were LBW/PTB/SGA. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, CINAHL and bibliographies ...
Eriksson Lena - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To study the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) in clinical settings and to evaluate the occurrence of long-term neuro-sensory effects such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy (CP). DESIGN: Observational population-based study including all births between gestational weeks 24 and 34 during 1976-1997 in Sweden. Exposure to ACS was evaluated ...
Pezzotti Patrizio - - 2009
Bronchiolitis is a distressing, potentially life-threatening respiratory condition that affects infants. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors of hospitalization for broncholitis in preterm infants (i.e., a gestational age of <36 weeks) born between 2000 and 2006, and the use and impact of Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody that in randomized ...
Djuardi Yenny - - 2009
Exposure to environmental factors during fetal life and infancy is thought to play an important role in the early development of innate and adaptive immunity. The immunological relationship between mother and infant and the effect that environmental exposures have during pregnancy and early childhood have not been studied extensively. Here ...
Narang Shalu - - 2009
Thrombosis in neonates is a rare but serious occurrence, usually associated with central catheterization. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with catheter related thrombosis in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The present retrospective study was performed using data from a randomized trial of ...
Alwan Nisreen - - 2009
Gestational diabetes (GDM) affects 3% to 6% of all pregnancies. Women are often intensively managed with increased obstetric monitoring, dietary regulation, and insulin. However, there has been no sound evidence base to support intensive treatment. The key issue for clinicians and consumers is whether treatment of GDM improves perinatal outcome. ...
Austin Nicola - - 2009
Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in very preterm (< 32 weeks gestation) or very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Clinical uncertainly exists about the effect of prophylactic oral/topical non-absorbed antifungals to reduce mucocutaneous colonisation and so limit the risk of invasive fungal infection in ...
Sotiriadis Alexandros - - 2009
Infants born at term by elective caesarean delivery are more likely to develop respiratory morbidity than infants born vaginally. Prophylactic corticosteroids in singleton preterm pregnancies accelerate lung maturation and reduce the incidence of respiratory complications. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of prophylactic corticosteroid administration before ...
Sinclair John C - - 2009
Among very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, early neonatal hyperglycemia is common and is associated with increased risks for death and major morbidities. It is uncertain whether hyperglycemia per se is a cause of adverse clinical outcomes or whether outcomes can be improved by preventing hyperglycemia. To assess effects on ...
Doyle Lex W - - 2009
Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. To assess the effects of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August ...
Lundqvist Pia - - 2009
AIM: To investigate trends in mortality and morbidity in very preterm infants. METHODS: Population-based perinatal register; liveborn infants 22 + 0 to 31 + 6 gestational weeks were investigated (time period 1995-2004). Time trends for mortality and common morbidities were explored using logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Data from 1614 liveborn ...
Song Kyoung-Ho - - 2009
The whole-blood interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold [QFT-G]; Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia) has been studied mainly for diagnosing active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or latent TB. We prospectively evaluated its diagnostic usefulness in patients suspected with extrapulmonary TB (EP-TB). Of the 100 adult patients with suspected EP-TB, 43 were classified as ...
Field D D Neonatal Unit, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Infirmary Square, Leicester LE1 5WW, UK. - - 2009
To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in 10 European regions. Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a 1-year period (7 months in one region). All births that occurred between ...
Rerksuppaphol Sanguansak - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The quantitative measurement of the normal anal position by anal position index (API) has been reported from various institutes. The existing API data appear to vary among the ethnic differences. To date, the normal anal position in Thai children has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: Aim of the present study ...
Gill C J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the microbiological consequences of WHO's recommendation for presumptive co-trimoxazole prophylaxis for infants with perinatal HIV exposure. METHODS: Using a longitudinal cohort design, we followed HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants trimonthly for up to 18 months per infant. HIV-exposed infants received daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis from 6 weeks to > ...
Kaukola Tuula - - 2009
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of cord blood proteins and antenatal factors in the prediction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The prospectively collected cohort included 163 infants. All infants were born between 1998-2002 in a single regional hospital before 32 weeks ...
Rautava Samuli - - 2009
A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to determine whether probiotics might be effective in reducing the risk of infections in infancy. Infants requiring formula before the age of 2 months were recruited from community well-baby clinics. Infant formula supplemented with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 ...
Migirov Lela - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To present medical and surgical aspects of cochlear implantation (CI) in infants and to compare the rate of complications of CI in infants with that of older children. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHOD: Fifteen infants and 57 children aged 1 to 2 years at the time of CI with a ...
Schultz Alyce A - - 2008
This study evaluated the effectiveness of gel pillows for reducing bilateral head molding (plagiocephaly) in preterm infants, as determined by the cephalic index (CI). Eighty-one infants weighing <1,500 g were randomly assigned at birth to usual care on a standard mattress (n = 40) or to placement on a gel ...
Reedman Lisa Armstrong - - 2008
The authors hypothesized increased emergency department (ED) visits for heart failure (HF) during a 2-week Christmas holiday period similar to a recent study showing increased cardiac death rates. A retrospective analysis was performed from a database of 18 EDs in New Jersey and New York from January 1, 1996, to ...
Asplund Chad A - - 2008
PURPOSE: We wanted to evaluate the predictive value of percentage change in antenatal maternal body mass index (BMI) as it relates to macrosomia, as well as to compare change in pregnancy BMI with existing weight gain guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from 6 months of consecutive deliveries, focusing on first ...
Maimburg Rikke Damkjaer - - 2008
In a previous study, we found that infants transferred to a neonatal ward after delivery had an almost twofold increased risk of being diagnosed with infantile autism later in childhood in spite of extensive controlling of obstetric risk factors. We therefore decided to investigate other reasons for transfer to a ...
Habib N Abu - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest known perinatal mortality rates in the World, but few studies have assessed the importance of parental sociodemographic characteristics on perinatal mortality in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate how sociodemographic patterns affect perinatal mortality in Northern Tanzania. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: ...
Wang Jing - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The cause of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is poorly understood. This descriptive study of IHPS focuses on the effect of maternal nativity, maternal Hispanic ethnicity, subtypes of maternal Asian ethnicity, and the timing of the infant's surgery, that is, pyloromyotomy. METHODS: All cases of IHPS born in Texas ...
Messer Lynne C - - 2008
The racial disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology. Its consistency is not only an outcome of reproductive interest but may function as a persistent inequality to which women are exposed over time. Herein we sought to analyze exposure to area-level PTB disparity and its ...
Heywood Richard E - - 2009
We sought to determine the detection (clinical or sonographic) rate of macrosomic newborns (at least 4000 g) and the peripartum factors among those who were or were not identified accurately. We retrospectively reviewed all deliveries over 1 year and all maternal and neonatal charts of macrosomic newborns delivered during that ...
Lawson Christina C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated first-trimester exposures and the risk of preterm birth in the most recent pregnancy of participants of the Nurses' Health Study II. STUDY DESIGN: Log binomial regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) for preterm birth in relation to occupational risk factors, such as work schedule, ...
Chen Hsiu-Lin - - 2009
Early diagnosis of serious bacterial infection (SBI) in young infants is a difficult problem by clinical symptoms and signs. The goal of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of plasma IP-10 levels for early diagnosis of SBI in young infants <4 months of age. We enrolled pediatric patients ...
Levy Itzhak - - 2009
Urinary tract infection (UTI) differs between preterm and older infants and children in terms of prevalence, clinical presentation, causative organism, and rate of underlying renal anomalies. Data on risk factors of UTI in preterm infants are limited. The aim of this study was to characterize UTI both clinically and microbiologically ...
Simchen Michal J - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the role of infant and maternal thrombophilia in a cohort of mothers and infants presenting with perinatal arterial ischemic stroke. METHODS: Forty-seven infants with clinically and radiologically confirmed perinatal arterial ischemic stroke underwent thrombophilia workup: factor V Leiden (FVL), PII20210A mutation, Methylene-tetrahydrofolate ...
Eckart Robert E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The prognostic importance of exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA) may be confounded by the presence of lower-risk idiopathic right ventricular outflow tract arrhythmias with left bundle-branch block (LBBB) morphology. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether right bundle-branch block (RBBB)-morphology EIVA was associated with increased mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Academic medical center. ...
Cherif Ahmed - - 2008
We sought to identify risk factors and neonatal outcomes associated with the failure of the INSURE method ( INtubation- SURfactant- Extubation) during nasal continuous positive airway pressure for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. We used a retrospective analysis of the prenatal histories, clinical courses, and laboratory data of all ...
Bizzarro Matthew J - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare and contrast the epidemiology of polymicrobial and monomicrobial bloodstream infections (BSIs) in newborn intensive care unit (NICU) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective, matched case-control study. SETTING: The Yale-New Haven Hospital NICU from 1989 through 2006. SUBJECTS: NICU patients with BSIs. METHODS: Each neonate with polymicrobial BSI (case patient) was ...
Boo N Y - - 2008
This study aimed to identify the risk factors which were significantly associated with low birth weight (LBW, <2500 g) infants among the Malaysian population. This was a case-control study carried out at the Tuanku Jaafar Hospital, Seremban, Malaysia over a five-month period. Cases were all infants born with birth weight ...
Quigley M A - - 2009
Most infants in the UK start solids before the recommended age of 6 months. We assessed the independent effects of solids and breast feeding on the risk of hospitalisation for infection in term, singleton infants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 15,980). For both diarrhoea and lower respiratory tract ...
Glass Hannah C - - 2008
The objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence, demographic risk factors, and malformations associated with agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum diagnosed in infancy. Using a large population-based registry of birth defects, we ascertained 630 cases of agenesis (ACC) and hypoplasia (HCC) of the corpus callosum diagnosed ...
Amiruddin Ridwan R Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia. - - 2008
Inadequate antenatal care and nutrition, gene variation (CYP2A6), and poor placental growth are associated with low birthweight (LBW). The objective for this study was to analyze risk factors for LBW, including antenatal care, gene variation CYP2A6 and placental weight. A case control of infants with a birthweight less than 2500 ...
Alm B - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema in infants has increased in western societies. Environmental factors and the introduction of food may affect the risk of eczema. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of eczema among infants in western Sweden, describe patterns of food introduction and assess risk factors for eczema at 1 year of ...
Held-Egli Katrin - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the incidence, duration and risk factors for benign neonatal sleep myoclonus (BNSM) in infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) treated with opioids or sedatives, compared with control infants. METHODS: This is a single centre observational case control study. Seventy-eight near term ...
Brettell Rachel - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To examine possible reasons why a male fetus constitutes a risk factor for preterm delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of deliveries from hospital database in a UK teaching hospital. The population comprised all deliveries >23 weeks over an 11-year period, excluding multiples, terminations and pregnancies with major abnormalities including ...
Auger Nathalie - - 2008
Evidence points to an association between a mother's place of residence and her newborn's health, independent of individual characteristics. Neighbourhood constructs such as immigrant density, deprivation and crime have all been separately associated with birth outcomes. Little research has considered the joint influence of variables representing a spectrum of neighbourhood ...
McManus Beth M - - 2008
Dolichocephaly, narrow width and long anterior-posterior cranial distance, is more commonly seen in preterm than in term infants. It seems to persist after NJCU discharge and may be a marker for adverse neurodevelopment. This article reports a case of cranial molding in one extremely low birth weight infant. He was ...
Sharma Vandana - - 2008
To investigate the relationship between adolescent pregnancy and neonatal mortality in a nutritionally deprived population in rural Nepal, and to determine mechanisms through which low maternal age may affect neonatal mortality. Nested cohort study using data from a population-based, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled trial of newborn skin and umbilical cord cleansing with ...
Johnson Kimberly J - - 2008
Neuroblastoma (NB), a tumor of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common infant malignancy. The etiology of NB is largely unknown. We explored the association between birth record variables and subsequent NB development in a population-based case-cohort study in Minnesota by linking the birth and cancer registries. NB cases ...
Wickens Kristin - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The role of probiotics in prevention of allergic disease is still not clearly established, although early reports suggested Lactobacillus GG halved the risk of eczema at 2 years. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether probiotic supplementation in early life could prevent development of eczema and atopy at 2 years. METHODS: Double-blind, ...
De Felice Claudio - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recurrent otitis media with effusion (OME) is a leading cause of acquired hearing loss in childhood. Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) is an important cause of preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Here, we tested the hypothesis of an association between recurrent OME during the first 3 years of life ...
Olusanya B O - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the role of non-hospital delivery and other risk factors for permanent congenital and early-onset hearing loss (PCEHL) in a developing country. DESIGN: Matched case-control study. SETTING: Four primary healthcare centres in inner-city Lagos, Nigeria. POPULATION: Fifty-six infants with PCEHL and 280 ...
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