Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1396
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Gupta Piyush - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of multimicronutrient supplementation for undernourished pregnant women on the birth size of their offspring, incidence of low-birth-weight infants (<2500 g), and early neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred pregnant women (of 13 465 approached) with a body ...
Smith Graeme N - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Despite advances in perinatal medicine, the incidence of preterm birth continues to increase. The primary goal of tocolytic therapy is to reduce neonatal morbidity and mortality. While studies have demonstrated a prolongation of pregnancy, no tocolytic has been shown to improve neonatal outcomes. The objective of this randomized placebo-controlled ...
Fukami Tatsuya - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To examine the obstetrical risk factors for death and brain injury among extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants (birth weight <1000 g). STUDY DESIGN: Study subjects were 121 ELBW infants born at a single tertiary perinatal center. Death among ELBW infants was considered to have occurred when subjects died within their corrected ...
Loetscher Katharina C Quack - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of ethnic-cultural background and maternal body size on pregnancy outcomes in infants born at term. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 1,432 pregnant women who delivered a live newborn at term between 1999 and 2003 provided the data for the following study. We performed multivariable ...
Maggio Luca - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Early provision of protein has been shown to limit catabolism and could improve growth. Our objective was to determine whether early aggressive protein intake improved growth outcomes of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ELBW infants were included in the study if they had no major ...
Lucia Bergmann Renate - - 2007
We compared growth of infants whose mothers either did or did not receive docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplements during pregnancy and lactation. At 21 weeks' gestation, 144 women were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind clinical trial receiving: (1) a basic supplement consisting of vitamins and minerals (BS), or (2) BS plus ...
Collin Simon M - - 2007
Reducing maternal mortality is a key goal of international development. Our objective was to determine the potential impact on maternal mortality across sub-Saharan Africa of a combination of dietary supplementation and presumptive treatment of infection during pregnancy. Our aim was to demonstrate the importance of antenatal interventions in the fight ...
Karamagi Charles A S - - 2007
Although recent studies suggest that there is an association between intimate partner violence and child mortality, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. It is against this background that as a secondary objective, we set out to explore whether an association exists between intimate partner violence and illness in infants. We ...
Crowther C A - - 2007
It is not clear whether there is benefit in repeating the dose of prenatal corticosteroids for women who remain at risk of preterm birth after an initial course. To assess the effectiveness and safety of a repeat dose(s) of prenatal corticosteroids. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials ...
Doyle L W - - 2007
Epidemiological and basic science evidence suggests that magnesium sulphate before birth may be neuroprotective for the fetus. To assess the effectiveness and safety of magnesium sulphate as a neuroprotective agent when given to women considered at risk of preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register ...
Shah S S - - 2007
Chronic lung disease (CLD) remains a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent ...
Clerihew L - - 2007
Invasive fungal infection is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in very low birth weight infants. Early diagnosis is difficult, and treatment is often delayed. The available data are insufficient to conclude that topical/oral prophylaxis (usually nystatin and/or miconazole) prevents invasive fungal infection or mortality in very low birth ...
Moore E R - - 2007
Mother-infant separation postbirth is common in Western culture. Early skin-to-skin contact (SSC) begins ideally at birth and involves placing the naked baby, covered across the back with a warm blanket, prone on the mother's bare chest. According to mammalian neuroscience, the intimate contact inherent in this place (habitat) evokes neurobehaviors ...
Shah V - - 2007
Chronic lung disease remains a common complication among preterm infants. There is increasing evidence that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of CLD. Due to their strong anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids are an attractive intervention strategy. However, there are growing concerns regarding short and long-term effects of systemic corticosteroids. ...
Jacobs S - - 2007
Newborn animal studies and pilot studies in humans suggest that mild hypothermia following peripartum hypoxia-ischaemia in newborn infants may reduce neurological sequelae without adverse effects. To determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic asphyxiated newborn infants on mortality, long-term neurodevelopmental disability and clinically important side effects. The standard search ...
Vemgal P - - 2007
Non-oliguric hyperkalaemia of the newborn is defined as a plasma potassium level > 6.5 mmol/L in the absence of acute renal failure. Hyperkalaemia is a common complication in the first 48 hours of life in very low birth weight (birth weight < 1500 g) and/or very preterm newborns (< 32 ...
Subhedar N V - - 2007
Systemic hypotension is a relatively common complication of preterm birth and is associated with periventricular haemmorhage, periventricular white matter injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Corticosteroid treatment has been used as an alternative, or an adjunct, to conventional treatment with volume expansion and vasopressor/inotropic therapy. To determine the effectiveness and safety ...
Osborn D A - - 2007
Low systemic blood flow (SBF) is common in extremely premature infants in the first day after birth and has been associated with peri / intraventricular haemorrhage (PIVH), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), mortality and developmental impairment. To determine the effect of specific inotropes on morbidity and mortality in preterm infants with low ...
Grover Z - - 2007
Endogenous glutamine biosynthesis may be insufficient to meet the needs of infants with severe gastrointestinal disease. Studies using animal models of gastrointestinal disease and controlled trials in adult patients have suggested that glutamine supplementation improves clinical outcomes. To assess the evidence from randomised controlled trials that providing supplemental glutamine reduces ...
Osborn D A - - 2007
Observational studies have shown an association between transiently low thyroid hormone levels in preterm infants in the first weeks of life (transient hypothyroxinaemia) and abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. Thyroid hormone replacement might prevent this. To determine whether prophylactic thyroid hormones given to preterm infants without congenital hypothyroidism result in clinically important ...
Schulzke S M SM Women's and Children's Health Service, Neonatology, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Subiaco, Western Australia, Australia, 6008. - - 2007
Lack of physical stimulation may contribute to metabolic bone disease of preterm infants resulting in poor bone mineralization and growth. Physical activity programs in the presence of adequate nutrition might help to promote bone mineralization and growth. The primary objective of this review was to assess whether physical activity programs ...
Lahr Martin B - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Maternal-infant bedsharing is a common but controversial practice. Little has been published about who bedshares in the United States. This information would be useful to inform public policy, to guide clinical practice and to help focus research. The objective was to explore the prevalence and determinants of bedsharing in ...
Urayama Kevin Y - - 2007
The peak incidence of neuroblastoma during infancy suggests that certain prenatal or perinatal factors may be etiologically important. In this population-based study, California birth certificates were identified for 508 (86%) neuroblastoma cases diagnosed at less than 5 years of age between 1988 and 1997. For each case, two controls, matched ...
Karr Catherine C Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98104, WA, USA. - - 2007
Ambient air pollutant exposure has been linked to childhood respiratory disease, but infants have received little study. The authors tested the hypotheses that subchronic and chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (particulate matter < or = 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5)), nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone increases risk ...
Marret S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether magnesium sulphate (MgSO(4)) given to women at risk of very-preterm birth would be neuroprotective in preterm newborns and would prevent neonatal mortality and severe white-matter injury (WMI). DESIGN: A randomised study. SETTING: Eighteen French tertiary hospitals. Population Women with fetuses of gestational age < 33 weeks ...
Bányász Ilona - - 2006
Low birth weight (LBW) infants have increased susceptibility to perinatal complications. An immature and impaired vascular system may possibly participate in these complications. There is evidence that supports the notion that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is an essential regulator of embryonic angiogenesis, plays a central role in the ...
Forrester Mathias B - - 2006
The intent of this study was to report on the epidemiology of hemivertebrae. Cases were derived from a population-based birth defects registry in Hawaii and comprised all infants and fetuses with hemivertebrae delivered during 1986-2002. Hemivertebrae rates per 10 000 births were determined for selected factors and comparisons made by ...
Thorngren-Jerneck Kristina - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To identify perinatal factors associated with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: This was a case-control study based on the Swedish Medical Birth Registry and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Registry, including 2,303 infants born in Sweden 1984-1998 with a diagnosis of CP and 1.6 million infants without this diagnosis. Odds ratios ...
Szyld Edgardo G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between maternal antiretroviral regimens during pregnancy and adverse infant outcomes [low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth]. The a priori hypothesis was that protease inhibitor (PI)-containing regimens are associated with an increased risk of LBW and preterm birth. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-1-infected women ...
Hunderfund A L - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the hazard of death in persons with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). METHODS: From 1987 through 2003, persons with aMCI (n = 243) and an age- and gender-matched reference group of cognitively normal persons in Olmsted County, MN, were recruited through the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's ...
Salvatore Silvia - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) in the parents of preterm and/or small for gestational age (SGA) infants. METHODS: A sample of 1,714 parents (868 women, 846 men) of 905 preterm (<37 wk of gestational age) and/or SGA (<10th percentile ...
Koudsi Abir - - 2007
Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), a noninvasive measure of vascular stiffness, is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease both before and in overt vascular disease. Its characteristics in early life and its relationship to maternal factors have hardly been studied. To test the hypothesis that infant aPWV was positively related ...
Bizzarro Matthew J - - 2007
Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic gram-negative rod which typically infects compromised hosts. To identify risk factors, signs, and outcomes associated with non-epidemic S marcescens bacteremia in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The records of infants with S marcescens bacteremia while in the Yale-New Haven Hospital NICU from 1980-2004 were ...
Chauhan Suneet P - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To develop a scoring system for the detection of a macrosomic fetus (birth weight (BW) >or= 4000 g) and predict shoulder dystocia among large for gestational age fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively identified all singletons with accurate gestational age (GA) that were large for GA (abdominal circumference (AC) or ...
Yaju Yukari - - 2006
PURPOSE: To analyse the available data on the effectiveness and safety of ritodrine hydrochloride in delaying delivery and in decreasing the incidence of preterm birth. METHODS: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effectiveness and safety of ritodrine hydrochloride with a placebo or with no treatment. Main ...
Kuehn Carrie M - - 2007
Hazardous waste sites often contain substances harmful to fetal development. Using linked birth-hospital discharge and hazardous sites data for Washington State, we evaluated the association between malformation occurrence and maternal residential proximity to hazardous waste sites. Cases (N=63,006) were infants born 1987-2001 with malformations. Controls (N=315,030) were randomly selected infants ...
Kelly Yvonne - - 2006
This paper examines ethnic differences in the attainment of developmental milestones during infancy and possible explanations for observed differences are investigated. Data from the first survey of the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 15,994; 8212 males, 7782 females; mean age 9.2 mo [SD 0.5]) were examined. We found that Black ...
Horn Mary H - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: To examine small mandibular size and preference for a hand-to-chin posture as salient characteristics in infants with a history of an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE). STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective case-control study of term infants, from birth to 6 months of age, admitted post-ALTE and matched 1:2 with ...
Salihu Hamisu M - - 2006
We sought to estimate levels of risk for stillbirth subtypes associated with twin gestations among pediatric mothers (10-14 years). Analysis was on twin pregnancies covering the period 1989 to 2000 in the United States. We classified stillbirth as term, preterm, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or preterm-SGA. We then assessed the risks of ...
Okafor U H - - 2006
There is paucity of data on the risk factors associated with congenital malaria in Nigeria. This study assessed the risk factors for congenital malaria in a population of neonates delivered at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, South Eastern Nigeria. It was a prospective cross-sectional study of neonates who ...
Riccetto Adriana Gut Lopes - - 2006
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the main causes of acute lower respiratory tract infections worldwide. We examined the incidence and associated risks for RSV infection in infants hospitalized in two university hospitals in the state of São Paulo. We made a prospective cohort study involving 152 infants hospitalized ...
Maimburg R D - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal conditions during pregnancy and birth have been suggested as a cause of infantile autism. We have studied the association between obstetric factors and infantile autism. METHOD: A population-based, matched case-control study of infantile autism. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals ...
Jump Vonda K - - 2006
Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among infants and young children in the developing world. This project investigated whether therapeutic infant massage could reduce diarrheal episodes and decrease overall illness of infants. Infants living in 2 orphanages in Quito, Ecuador, were matched by age and randomly assigned to ...
Gillespie Julie - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Wheezing in infancy is common and is associated with small lungs, viral respiratory tract infection, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Recently, increased levels of endotoxin in the domestic environment have also been associated with infant wheezing, particularly among infants with a family history of atopic disease. OBJECTIVE: To explore ...
Latzin Philipp P Department of Pediatrics, University of Berne Inselspital, 3010 Bern, - - 2006
Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known marker of established airway inflammation in asthma. Its role in the disease process before the onset of respiratory symptoms remains unclear. To examine whether elevated NO in newborns with clinically naive airways is associated with subsequent respiratory symptoms in infancy. We measured exhaled ...
Clements Karen M - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The Individual with Disabilities Education Act mandates Early Intervention (EI) services for infants and toddlers with developmental delay. We assessed the percentage of infants at risk for developmental delay due to characteristics present at birth who were referred to Massachusetts EI within 1 year of birth, evaluated for eligibility, ...
Nicholson Wanda K - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relation between race and cesarean delivery, episiotomy, and low birth weight infants in pregnancies with type 2 and gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify factors that might explain racial differences. METHODS: Population-based, cross-sectional study of 1999-2004 Maryland hospital discharge data. Hospitalizations for delivery of pregnancies with ...
van Rheenen Patrick F - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Cheap and effective interventions are needed to reduce the risk of infant anaemia in developing countries. Delayed cord clamping (DCC) has been shown to be a simple, safe and cost-free delivery procedure that augments red cell mass in appropriate-for-gestational-age term and preterm infants. It is not known, however, whether ...
Heiber Michael - - 2006
To examine the effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) on visits to a community hospital emergency department (ED) during the early stage of the Toronto outbreak in 2003 and for the same period in 2004. We focused on visits for respiratory illness (SARS-like symptoms) and different age groups. This ...
Pau David A - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), an intermediary hormone in cortisol synthesis, has been shown to be elevated in premature infants. However, the relationship between levels of 17-OHP with chronic lung disease (CLD) have not been extensively explored. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between CLD ...
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